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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 



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Popular. Electricity 

IN PLAIN ENGLISH 



HLNRY WALTER YOUNG. Editor 




VoL III 



May, 1910 



No. 1 



CONTENTS 



Page 
CURRENT FROM— WHERE? CHAPTER I. By 

Edgar Franklin 1 

Testing with a Half a Million Volts 7 

ELEMENTARY ELECTRICITY. CHAPTER XXV. 

By Prof. Edwin J. Houston 8 

ELECTRICAL SECURITIES. By "Contango" 12 

Motor Power vs. Boy Power 14 

Seasoning Wood by Electricity 14 

WHERE ELECTRICITY STANDS IN THE PRAC- 
TICE OF MEDICI ME. CHAPTER VI. By 

Noble M. Eberhart 15 

CURRENT OVERLAND AT 110,000 VOLTS 19 

ELECTRIC PLATFORM TRUCKS 20 

Making a Record of Fever Temperatures 21 

TALKS WITH THE JUDGE 22 

Are Upward Signs Coming? .' 23 

Subscribers' Unique Telephone Sets 23 

UNDERGROUND RAILWAY OF PARIS 25 

Philadelphia Electrical Show 26 

Pipe Lines of Wood 27 

Setting up Gravity Cells 27 

Correct and l tcorrect Window Lighting 28 

Wire Measuring Devices 29 

America Made Photography Practical 29 

Tungsten Ore 29 

Pipe Lines of Spiral Steel 30 

Electric Furnaces as Auxiliaries 30 

Fire Protection of Electric Plants 30 

Trackless Trolley Lines 31 

Electric Bleaching is Spotless 31 

Color Changes in Early Stage Lighting 32 

A Surprise for Foundrymen 32 

Electric Tableaux Here and Abroad 32 

Public Telephone Station in Holland 33 

Insulation — Electric and Otherwise. . j 33 

Can Trolleys Climb Mountains ? 33 

Why Electric Autos Wear Longest 33 

Freak Electric Locomotive 34 

Electric Switch Mat 34 

Growth of the Telephone Business 34 

English as it is "Translated" 35 

Creeping of the Rails 35 

Please to Push the Button 35 

Purifying a City's Water Supply 36 

First Aerial Lighthouse 37 

Boiler-top Electric Light Engine . 37 

No Longer an Infant 37 

Gasolene-electric Car 33 

Electricity Solves a Dredging Problem 38 

Letters by Telegraph 3S 



Page 
Lamp Adjuster 39 

Arc Lengths Vary with the Gas 39 

Street Lighting Once Thought Sacrilegious 39 

A Pioneer Telegrapher 39 

Electric Lighting on Ship Board 40 

High Efficiency Lamps in Ireland 40 

Galileo and the Telegraph 40 

The Relief of Lucknow 40 

A "Stay Connected" Connector 41 

Telephone Booth Ventilation 41 

Lifting Magnets Save Space 41 

Heat Alarms in Grain Elevators 42 

Electric Hoists as Time Savers 43 

Combined Insulation Cutter and Pliers 43 

Electric Smelting Furnace 44 

New Rotary Snap Switch 44 

An Iron-clad Bell 44 

Electric Transfer Table 44 

Motor Driven Grinder and Buffer 45 

Mine Telephone 45 

Charging Coke Ovens 45 

ELECTRICAL MEN OF THE TIMES. Enos M.Barton 47 

ELECTRICITY IN THE HOUSEHOLD 48-53 

THE ELECTRIC FIRELESS COOKER 48 

Why Should You Feir Electricity? 50 

PLAN OF A PARISIAN MANSION. By 

Emile Ruegg 51 

Where does the Heat Come from? 52 

An Electric Fan the Year Round 53 

JUNIOR SECTION 54-59 

AN ELECTRICAL LABORATORY FOR 

$25.00. Part V. By David P. Morrison 54 

To Operate a Bell from a Light Circuit 59 

POPULAR ELECTRICITY WIRELESS CLUB.. 60-69 
WIRELESS IN THE.PUGET SOUND FISHERIES. 

By Frank C. Doig 60 

Popular Electricity Wireless Club of the Cen- 
tral West 61 

HEARING GRAND OPERA BY WIRELESS. By 

Paul N. Craig 62 

A HIGH POWER WIRELESS EQUIPMENT. 

Part I. By Alfred P. Morgan 62 

First Wireless Union 69 

Wireless Queries 69 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 70-72 

NOTES ON PATENT TITLES. By Obed C. Billman 73 

Book Reviews 74 

Shoe Shining Machine 74 

ON POLYPHASE SUBJECTS 75 

SHORT CIRCUITS 76 

COMMON ELECTRICAL TERMS DEFINED 78 



RENEWALS .?" you , r subscription expires, you Will find a renewal blank enclosed here. You should fill out and retur 
, "•«-"-' with remittance at once, to avoid missing a number. Positively no copies will be mailed on any subscript) 

same expires unless renewed, and We cannot agree to begin subscriptions with back numbers. The date on Wrapper of your magazim 
the issue with Which your subscription ends. 

CHANflF OF ADDRFSS N °*'fy us promptly of any change in your address, giving both the old and 
, , . t . TT . ■ r ^*-'*-' ixi -"~"-' Since each issue is printed a month before the date it bears, we should be no 

lour weeks in advance, in order to make the necessary change in our records 



ISSUED MONTHLY BY POPULAR ELECTRICITY PUBLISHING CO., Monadnock Block, Chicago, III. 
YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION. $1.00; CANADIAN, $1.35; FOREIGN, $1.50; SINGLE COPY, 10 CENTS 

No additional copies Will be sent after expiration of subscription except upon renewal 

Entered as Second Class Matter April 14, 1908, at the Pes*. Office at Chicago. Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright 1910 by Popular Electricity Publishing Co. 



T 







viii 



: -3R .Grac.^ JEvetseI 



BOWERS FAVORED THEM WITH AN EXPANSIVE, REDDISH-MOTTLED SMILE 



See page 3 



Popular Electricity 
Magazine 



Volume III 



Issues May, 1910 to April 19 




INDEX 



A 

Page 

Above the Clouds in an Electric Auto.. 904 

Across Eurcpe on Welded Rails 713 

Across the Atlantic by Airship 570 

Across the Atlantic with a Thimble Bat- 
tery 127 

Accident Prevention, Exhibit Hall for.. 122 

Adjustable Bench Light 741 

Adjustable Lamp Shade 727 

Adjuster for Lamp Cords 627 

Adjuster, Lamp 39 

Adjuster, Spring- Clip Cord 1110 

Advertising Novelty, Window 898 

Advertising- Shoe Polish 1001 

Aerial 262, 1039 

Aerial and Wireless Waves 1133 

Aerial Electric Sign 910 

Aerial, Leading- in from ...... 846 

Aerial, Lightning and the 448 

Aerial Lighthouse 37 

Aerial, Looped 454 

Aerial, Location of 1133 

Aerial Lighthouse of Spandau 304 

Aerial Search Lights.' 959 

Aerial Wire 262 

Aerial Wires for Two-Inch Coil 164 

Aero-Meter < 1072 

Aging and Curing Tobacco.. 170 

Agriculture, Electricity in 118 

Agriculture, Future of Electrical 279 

Aid to the Deaf 815 

Airship, Across the Atlantic by 570 

Airship Propellers, Testing 709 

Airships, Light Motors for 395 

Alarm, Automatic Fire Extinguisher 

and 1106 

Alarm Clcck, Repeating 528 

Alarm, Electric 238 

Alarm in Grain Elevators, Heat 42 

Alarm, Mail Box , 336 

Alarm System, Camden's Unique Fire 

and Burglar 796 

Alarm, Water Tank 1122 

Alarm, Wireless Burglar 350 

Alcohol Chafing Dish Changed to Elec- 
tric 1133 

Alexander Graham Bell 533 

All Metal Washing Machine 1017 

Alpine Railway, A New 855 

Alps, An Electric Train in the 971 

Alternating Current Motor, "Variable 

Speed 1102 

Alternating or Direct Current 899 

Alternator 1136 

Alternator Exciter 264 

Alternator, Frequency of 848 

Aluminum and Copper Conductors 333 



Pa ere 

Aluminum Lines, Sleet on 870 

Aluminum, Solder for 645, 1022 

Aluminum Wire 71 

Amateur Wireless at Electrical Show.. 1037 

Amateur's One-Kilowatt Station 749 

Ambulances, Nerve Saving 424 

America Made Photography Practical.. 29 

American Electric Girl 240 

American Engineering in Russia 600 

American Museum of Safety 122 

Ammeter, Use of 1133 

Ampere, A Monument for 523 

Ampere Turns 560, 1136 

Anchor Gap 454, 1133 

Anchor Gaps and Sending 651 

Anchors, Guy 497 

Ancient History, Side-Lights on. 594, 696, 786 

Ancient Tarsus Electric Lighted 414 

Ancients, Lightning and the 122 

Anesthesia, Electrical 138 

Angle Worms Sensitive Electrically.... 789 

Annunciator, Street 427 

Annunciator, Three Push Button 72 

Antlered Electric Fixtures 713 

Application and Proceedings for Reissue 1137 

Appreciation of Thomas Davenport 770 

Architectural Models, Lighting 307 

Arc Lamp, A New 486 

Arc Lamp Pole-top 329 

Arc Lamp, The First Carbonless 104 

Arc Lamps, Fireworks in 278 

Arc Lamps, Flaming 72 

Arc Lamps, (Luminous Magnetite) .... 908 

Arc, Cutting Metals by Electric 131 

Arc Lengths Vary with the Gas 39 

Arc Light Bath 116 

Arc Light, Resistance Ceil for 166 

Arc, Vertical Carbon Flaming 487 

Arcs, Brilliant Flaming 214 

Army Telephones, Use of 315 

Artistic Display Sign 1080 

Artistic Illumination , 809 

Artistic Piano Lamps 928 

Artistic Shadow Dancing 1085 

Assayers and Toolmakers, Furnaces for 101 

Association Central California Wireless 550 

Association, Springfield (Mass.) Wireless 350 

Association, Westchester Wireless 551 

Atlantic, Graveyard cf the 206 

Auristophone ^^\ 

Aurora Borealis 69 £ 

Auto Electric Lighting Plant 815 

Auto Electric Vehicle — '89 Model 1076 

Auto, Lamps Delivered by 308 

Auto Search Lights in France 609 

Automatic Batteries for Home Lighting 734 

Automatic Electrical Clock 334 

Automatic Elevators and Dumb Waiters 426 



. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Automatic Fire Extinguisher and Alarm 1106 

Automatic Flag-man 493 

Automatic Pump, Sanitary '.'.'." 482 

Automatic Street Announcer . . ! ! ! 497 

Automatic Telephone ' ' ] 66 

Automatic Transportation ' " ' ' §94 

Automobile, Above the Clcuds in an 

Electric 904 

Automobile Battery Exchange...!..'!!! 119 
Automobile Field, Woman's Influence in 

the 832 

Automobile, First Electric 406 

Automobile Jump Spark Coil 560 

Automobile Lights, Electric 822 

Automobile, Telephoning from an 886 

Automobile Time Recorder 141 

Automobile Trouble Lamp 487 

Automobile Trucks, Electric 400 

Automobile Wireless on Mountain Top.. 746 

Automobile Wireless Telegraphy 551 

Automobiles as Engines of War 408 

Automobiles, Electric Lighting for 495 

Autos as Show Windows 526 

Autos, Electric Wear Longest 33 

Autos, Prominent People and Their 

Electric 387 

Aviation Meet, Wireless at Los Angeles. 1035 

Axle with Motor, Hollow 1111 



B 



Bachelor Girl, Letters of a 241, 432 

Balloon, First Electrically Propelled.... 212 

Balloons, Does Lighting Endanger 884 

Balloons, Electric Power for 519 

Balloons, Housing Dirigible 891 

Baltimore, Wireless Club of 846 

Bananas Ripened Electrically 1072 

Banquet at Long Beach 309 

Bare Wires of Unseen Metal '. 119 

Barton, Enos M 47 

Baseball Electric Score Board 312 

Baseball Pitchers, Training 169 

Bath, Arc Light 116 

Bath of Electric Light 719 

Battery Car 1074 

Battery Cells, Setting Up 27 

Battery, Connecting Cells of 263 

Battery, Edison Tells of His New 567 

Battery Exchange, Automobile 119 

Battery for Ships 608 

Battery for Two-inch Coil 750 

Battery, For the Man w T ith a Storage. . 816 

Battery Lamp, Return to 220 

Battery, Lifting Power of a Dry 125 

Battery Motor, Changing to Induction. 922 

Battery, Overcharging 560 

Battery Paste, Dry 617 

Battery, Plunge 70 

Battery Porous Cups, Making 128 

Battery Recuperation 875 

Battery Solution 752 

Battery Tester, Inexpensive 530 

Battery, The Principle of the Storage.. 106 
Battery, The New Edison Storage Bat- 
tery 99 

Battery, Thimble 127 

Batteries for Home Lighting, Automatic 734 

Batteries Large and Small 217 

Batteries, Live 876, 947 

Batteries, Protecting Signal 117 

Batteries that Corrode Metal 801 

Batteries, Utilizing Old Dry 617 

Bavarian Roads, Electric Traction of the 215 

Bed Post Fan 424 

Bee a Live Battery, The Honey 108^ 

Beginnings of the Telephone 858 

BeB, Alexander Graham 533 

Bell Circuit, Door 228 

Bell Circuit, Return Call 560 

Bell, Ironclad 44 

Bell, Lightning Rings Telephone 1133 

Bell Operated from Light Current 59 

Bell-Ringing Generator 1018- 

Bells, Three Centuries of Electric 218 

Bellows, Pressure of Church Organ.... 1111 

Belt-tightening Idler '. . 623 

Bench Drill, Electric 485 



Bench Light, Adjustable 

Benzine-Electric Railway Cars 

Berlin Cars, Recorders on the 

Berlin, Police Tickers in 

Berlin-Zossen Electric Railway 

Berlin-Zossen Tests 

Best Lighted Office Building in the 

World 

Bichromate Solution 

Billions in the Electrical Industry 

Birds, Electric Bells Scare 

Blacksmith's Motor 

Blast Furnaces, Lightning and 

Bleaching, Electrical 

Bleaching Preserves Health, Electric... 

Blind at the Key 

Block Signaling, Electric 

691, 781, 880, 984, 

Blower, Kinetic Organ 

Blue Prints from the Original Drawing. 

Boats Controlled by Wireless 

Boats, Speed and Pleasure with Electric 

Boiler Room, A Modern 

Boiler-Top Electric Light Engine 

Boiling Water in a Glass 

Bonding, Electric Rail 

Bones, Making Heat Penetrate the 

Book Making, Electricity in 

Booth Ventilation, Telephone 

Bottle-Labeling Machine 

Boy Scout Signal Lamp 

Bracket Fixtures, Tungsten 

Bradley, Charles S 

Branding Iron, Electric 

Brazil, Scenic Railway in 

Breaking the Circuit in Oil 

Breweries, Electricity in German 

Bridge Gate to Stop Runaways........ 

Bridging a Tuning Coil 

Brief Guide to Vibratory Technique . . . . 

British Cable vs. German Wireless 

Brooklyn, Light and Power of 

Brushes on Dynamo 

Buffer, Motor Driven Grinder and 

Bulkhead Doors, Electrical Operation of 

Bullet Speeds, Timing 

Bureaucracy, In the Chain of 

Burglar Alarm, Wireless 

Burglar Trap 

Burglars Fear the Light 

Buzzer, Receivers in Series with 

Buzzer Test 

Bvllesby, H. M 



Cabinet, a Wonderful Kitchen 

Cable, A Quarter of a Million Miles of. 

Cable, How Many Wires in a 

Cable, Making and Testing Telephone.. 

Cable Ships, New Philippine 

Cable, Submarine Telegraph 

Cable, Testing a 

Cabled Message, What Becomes of a. . . - 

Cables in the Ohio River, Laying 

Cables, Locating Flaws in 

Cables, Protecting Lead 

Cabling Japanese Words 

Cake Machine. Egg Beater and 

Calculation of Illumination 

Call Box, Messenger 

Camden's Unique Fire and Burglar Alarm 
System 

Camera, Recording Checks with an Elec- 
trical 

Candelabra Switch 

Candlepower of Filament Lamps^^^j^-- 

Cane, Electric Light ■.....;..- 

Cannon, Electrically Operated 

Capstan, Electric 

Car and Controller, Miniature 

Car, Battery 

Car, Gas Engine Electric 

Car Lighting, Tantalum Lamps for. ■ • • 

Car-moving Capstan 

Car, Odd Street Railway 

Car of President Diaz. Private 

Car Tracks, Vacuum Cleaned 



Page 
741 

519 
213 
306 
201 
524 

804 
944 
307 
789 
3 2 7 
3 9 :j 
31 
393 
1052 

1068 

482 

1105 

856 

211 

316 

-°7 

1015 

999 

769 

817 

41 

1107 

934 

487 

923 

1099 

1065 

492 

1089 

414 

558 

457 

101 

89 

72 

45 

1061 

1093 

563 

350 

708 

1 73 

166 

1134 

143 



1025 
818 
308 
686 
313 
130 
136 

1000 
517 
330 
231 
526 
328 
116 



796 

705 

111 1 

10-10 

399 

511 
415 
645 

1074 
3S 

1005 
525 



311 
851 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Cars, Benzine-electric Railway 518 

Carbon Lamp Resistance 360 

Carbcnless Arc Lamp, The First 104 

Carborundum 680 

Carborundum, Experiment with 445 

Carborundum for Detector 1039 

Carnegie, The Non-magnetic Yacht 196 

Carquinex Straits, Span of Wire Across 80S 

Carr System of Transportation 894 

Caug-ht in the Act 1087 

Causes of Fires 431 

Cell, Direction of Current in a' . . . '. '. '.'. '. 167 

Cell, LeClanche 70 

Cells of Battery, Connecting 263 

Censors, Wireless Outwits the 938 

Central California Wireless Association. 550 

Central Station, The First 659 

Central Station, The First Edison 663 

Centrifugal Hair Drier 492 

Chafing Dish, Alcohol Changed to Elec- 
tric " 1113 

Chafing Dish Luncheon 145 

Chair, Vibrating 498 

Changing Dry Cells to Wet 623 

Changing Small Battery Motor to In- 
duction Type 922 

Charging Ccke Ovens 45 

Charging Leyden Jars -. . . 166 

Charles S. Bradley 923 

Chats on Electricity 658 

Checks Recorded by Camera 705 

Chicago Electrical Show 960 

Chicago Wireless Club 453 

Chickamauga, Wireless Messages at.... 651 

Chicken Food, Electric Heaters for 496 

Chimney, A House without a 926 

Chinee, The Progressive 183 

Chinese, Teaching Electric Railroading. 871 

Choosing a Pair of Receivers 349 

C. H. Thordarson 829 

Chucks, Magnetic Lathe 336 

Church Organ Bellows, Pressure of 1111 

Cigar Holder 784 

Cigar Lighter 1104 

Cigar Lighter, A Curious 820 

Cigar Lighters, Taxes and 329 

Circular Mils 752 

City in Miniature 403 

Civilization, Light as an Aid to 306 

Cleaning an Edison Primary Cell 828 

Cleaning Railway Coaches 484 

Cleveland Viaduct 900 

Clip, A Convenient Helix 943 

Clip, An Insulated Test 913 

Clipper, A Handy Horse 481 

Clock, An Automatic Electrical 334 

Clock, An Electric Pendulum 828 

Clock, A Remarkable 886 

Clock, Electric Utility 630 

Clock, Repeating Alarm 528 

Clock, Self-Winding 496 

Clock Selling Once and Now 417 

Clock with Pendulum Above 427 

Clock with Swimming Pointers 838 

Clocks, Municipal Electric 563 

Coaches, Cleaning Railway 484 

Coal Mines, Electricity in 324 

Coal Production, Speeding Up 995 

Coasting of Cars, Recording the. 897 

Coffee Roaster Resurrected 221 

Coherers, Relay with 164 

Coil Carrier, Telephone 125 

Coil Dimensions, Spark 163 

Coil Heads, Distance Between 1040 

Coils, Pupin and Tesla 559 

Coke Ovens, Charging 45 

Cc Id Sawing of Metal 479 

Collapsible Signs 119 

Collins Wireless Telephone 158 

Color Changes in Early Stage Lighting. 32 

Color Changing Fountains 236, 1116 

Combined Insulation Cutter and Pliers. 43 

Coming of the Multiplex Telephone.... 965 

Commutating Pole Motor 167 

Ci mmutator Troubles 1040 

Compass, A Recording 1003 

Compass, Magnetized Rail Upsets 1088 

Compass Needle, Polarity of 1040 



Compensation for Patent Infringement. 

Compensation for Patent Infringment, 
Profits Recoverable 

Compound-Wound Generators, Parallel- 
ing 

Conclave of the Knights Templar, Tri- 
ennial 

Concrete House, The Edison Cast 

Concrete, Measuring Temperature in... 

Concrete Mixed by Electric Power 

Concrete Timed Electrically 

Condenser 357, 359, 

Condenser, Fixed 

Condenser for x / 2 K. W. Transformer... 

Condenser for One-Kilowatt Transform- 
er 

Condenser, High Tension Variable 

Condenser, Sliding Plate 

Condenser, Spark Coil 

Condenser, Tubular 

Condenser, Variable 

Condensers for Sending and Receiving. 
* Condensers for Sending Set 

Condensers, Receiving 

Condensers, Sliding and Stationary 

Conductors, Aluminum and Copper 

Connecticut, Fessenden Equipment of the 

Connecting Cooking Devices 

Connector, "Stay Connected" 

Connectors, Midget Separable 

Conserving the Power of a German River 

Conservation of Natural Resources. . . . 

Conservation of Resources 

Construction of a Tesla High-Frequency 
Apparatus 

Construction of Induction Coils and 
Transformers 

Construction of Small Motors and Dy- 
namos 835, 930, 1029, 

Contest, Wireless Club 

Controller, Miniature Car and 

Controlling Boats by Wireless 

Convenient Helix Clip 

Convention, National Electric Light.... 

Convertible Electric Derrick 

Convertible Lamp 

Cook Stove, Fireless 

Cook Stove, Hughes Electric 

Cooking Devices, Connecting 

Copper-Clad Steel Wire, Testing 

Copper Conductors, Aluminum and 

Copper Wire 

Cord Adjuster from a Rubber Band 

Cord Adjuster, Spring Clip 

Correct and Incorrect Window Lighting 

Correction 

Cost of Electric Current 342, 

Cotton Mill, Motors in 

Counter Sign, Flashing 

Country Railway Station Lighting 

Court Held by Telephone 

Cozy Toaster 

Crane, Electric 

Crane for Handling Locomotives 

Crane in the Foundry, Electric 

Crane, The Work of the 

Crane to Carry Locomotives 

Cream Separator 

Creeping of Rails 

Crocket, David 

Crooke's Tube 

Crossing Signal 

Crossing Signal, Railway 

Cruiser 

Curfew Wink, An Electric 

Curing the Sleeping Sickness 

Curing Tobacco 

Curious Cigar Lighter 

Current Cheaper than Kerosene 

Current from Where 1, 92, 184, 

Current in a Cell, Direction of 

Current Overland at 110,000 Volts 

Current Polarity, To Test 

Cutting Lamp Filaments on a Planer... 
Cutting Metals by Electric Arc 



Page 
849 



359 

469 
367 
414 
701 
616 
847 
453 
35S 

751 

650 
751 
751 
846 
751 
750 
750 
751 

69 
333 
939 
147 

41 
632 
522 
714 
363 

728 

946 

1117 

1038 
645 
856 
943 
265 

1005 
820 
490 
436 
147 
217 
333 
71 
922 

1110 
28 

1072 
537 
136 
726 
983 
118 
735 
481 

1087 
235 
224 
132 
S21 
35 
792 
360 
.493 
71 
983 
329 
127 
170 
820 
537 
284 
167 
19 
101 
123 
131 



PC )PULA R ELECTRICITY 



D 



1 1 -» r , Pa ee 

Damascus, Modernizing the City of... 59<4 

Dancing-, Artistic Shadow 1085 

Davenport, An Appreciation of Thomas. 770 

David Crocket 799 

"Dead Man," The Passing- of the'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 497 

Deaf, Aid to the 815 

Death, What Voltage Causes '.'.'. 6 79 

Decorations, Electrical 46 

Decorative Lamps 120 

Decorative Lamps, Fancy 487 

Decorative Novelties, The Latest 534 

Defenses to Patent Infringement 753 

Definitions 559 

Demagnetizing Watches 129 

Dentist, The Modern 806 

Denver Gas and Electric Building 804 

Denver's Electrical Show, Illuminations 

at 790 

Denver's Prismatic Fountain 520 

Department Store Delivers by Electrics. 795 

Department Store to Install Wireless.... 1037 

Depolarizer 759 

Depots, Electric Stairs at 526 

Derrick, A Convertible Electric 1005 

Derrick, An Odd Looking 60S 

Design of a Small Lighting Plant 41S 

Desk Lamp Usea as a Portable 486 

Detector 558 

Detector, Carborundum for 1039 

Detector Crystals, Solder for 1129 

Detector, Perron 262 

Detector, Microphone 262 

Detector, Peroxide cf Lead 558 

Detector, Pyron 162 

Detector, Silicon 262 

Detectors, Construction and Connection 

of 358 

Detectors, Oddities in 554 

Detectors, Tantalum and Mercury 262 

Determination of Wave Length 253 

Diamonds, The Making cf Near 680 

Diaz, Private Car of President 311 

Dies, Engraving 428 

Dip, Magnetic 1063 

Direction of Current in a Cell 167 

Directory, Electrical Trades 946 

Directory of Wireless Stations 846 

Dirigible Balloons, Does Lightning En- 
danger 884 

Dirigible Balloons, Housing 891 

Disasters, Prevention of Mine 326 

LMsplaying Lamp Shades 125 

Distributing Morning- Papers by Street 

Car 607 

Diver's Apparatus 1084 

Divided Circuits, Resistance in 944 

Divided Orchestra 762 

Diver's Electric Lantern 811 

Divining Rods, Magnetic 606 

Doctor by Telephone 538 

Doctor Studies Heart bv Telephone 333 

Door Bell Circuit 228 

Double Deck Trolley Car 780 

Douche, Hot and Cold Air 425 

"Don'ts" for Electricians 1109 

Double Slide Tuning Coil 558 

Drawing, Making- Blue Prints from the 

Original 1105 

Drawn Tungsten Filaments Ill 

Dredge, Electric 38 

Dredges in Klondike, Electric 784 

Dredging on the Yukon 870 

Drier, Centrifugal Hair 492 

Drier, Electrical Hair 489 

Drill, Electric Bench 485 

Drill, Suspended Electric 610 

Drink Mixer, Electric , 1104 

Drop, Figuring Resistance and 847 

Drop in Voltage 656 

Dry Batterv Lifting Power 125 

Dry Battery Paste 617 

Dry Batteries versus Wet Batteries... 166 

Dry Batteries, Utilizing Old 617 

Plumb Waiters, Automatic 426 

Dyke's Automobile Encyclopedia 1042 

Dynamo, Brushes on 72 

Dynamo Building an Exact Science 393 



Dynamo Building for Amateurs. ... 457 

Dynamo Driven by Ropes 614 

Dynamos ' ' 195 

Dynamos and Motors, The Difference.!. 694 

Dynamos, Safe Temperatures fcr 33-j 
Dynamos, The Construction of Small 

Motors and 835, 930 1029 



E 



Earache Cured by Lamp 616 

Ear Drum Massage 495 

Ear Treatment, Tuning Fork for . 169 

Edison and His Work 77s 

Fdison, An Interview With '.'." 563 

Edison Article 79 

Edison Battery Car • • • - • _^_^ 

Edison Battery Car, Trial of the 903 

Edison Cast Concrete House 363 

Edison Central Scation, The First....!! 663 

Edison Medal, The Institute 851 

Edison Primary Cell, Cleaning an 82s 

Edison Storage Battery 99 

Edison Tells of His New Battery 567 

Edison Writes for Popular Electricity. . 74 

Edward Schildhauer . . 98o 

Eels, Electric 876 

Efficiency, Hints on Increasing 1130 

Fgg Beater and Cake Machine 328 

Egg Boiler, Electric . 341 

Eggs, Electrocuted 127 

Eiffel Tower Wireless Station 160 

Election Night, A Telephone System on.. 794 

Electric and Fireless Stove Combined... 1025 

Electric Alarm 238 

Electric Arc, Cutting Metals by 131 

Electric Auto, Above the Clouds in an.. 904 

Electric Auto Plorn 496 

Electric Autos Wear Longest 33 

Electric Automobile Lights 822 

Electric Bells Scare Birds 789 

Electric Bells, Three Centuries of 218 

Electric Bench Drill 485 

Electric Bleaching Preserves Health 393 

Electric Block Signaling.691, 781, 880. 984. 1068 

Electric Boats, Speed and Pleasure With 211 

Electric Branding Iron 1099 

Electric Car, Two Thousand Miles by. . . . 324 

Electric Clocks as Timekeepers 252 

Electric Clocks, Municipal 563 

Electric Cook Stove, Hughes 436 

Electric Crane 481 

Electric Crane Carrying Locomotive 108. 

Electric Crane in the Foundry 235 

Electric Crane to Carrv Locomotives. ... 132 

Electric Curfew Wink 329 

Electric Derrick, A Convertible 1005 

Electric Diving Sign 119 

Electric Dredges in the Klondike 784 

Electric Drill, Suspended 610 

Electric Drink Mixer 1104 

Electric Driving Increases Output 140 

Electric Eels . 876 

Electric Egg Boiler 341 

Electric Engines on Italian Railroads... 225 

Electric Engines vs. Steam 417 

Electric Eye Magnet 521 

Electric Fan, Flies and the 436 

Electric Fans, Uses for 148 

Electric Farm 319 

Electric Ferry, Suspended 607 

Electric Fireless Cooker 4 8 

Electric Fireless Cooking- 733 

Electric Fixtures, Antlered 713 

Electric Flasher 531 

Electric Flasher, Patents on the 706 

Electric Fortune Teller 540 

Electric Fountains, Plousehold 539 

Electric Furnaces as Auxiliaries 30 

Electric Gate Opener ." 139 

"Electric Girl" Shows 890 

Electric Girl, The American 240 

Electric Grain Handling in Rcumania... 390 

Electric Hair Drier 4 8 9. 914 

Electric Pleat 202 

Electric Heat in Hat Manufacturing. . . . 625 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Paee 

Electric Heat, Ripening- Bananas by 1072 

Electric Heat, Storing 133 

Electric Heat, Portable 615 

Electric Heaters for Chicken Pood 496 

Electric Hoists as Time Savers 43 

Electric House Pump 236 

Electric Incubator 1016 

Electric Iron 435 

Electric Lamps, Odd 120 

Electric Laundry Outfit 144 

Electric Light Bills Vary, Why 1079 

Electric Light Cane 399 

Electric Lighting for Automobiles 495 

Electric Lighting on Shipboard 40 

Electric Lights, How a Parmer Secured. 731 

Electric Lights, Welsbach 8S9 

Electric Locomotive the Largest 108$ 

Electric Locomotive, Freak 34 

Electric Locomotive, Model 343 

Electric Locomotives, Power of 224 

Electric Milk Jug 1099 

Electric Peacock 604 

Electric Pendulum Clock 828 

Electric Plant, Portable 898 

Electric Platform Trucks 20 

Electric Power Cleans Streets 708 

Electric Power for Balloons 519 

Electric Power in Paper Making 140 

Electric Power, The Romance of 722 

Electric Pressing Iron 633 

Electric Pyrometer, Record of 137 

Electric Rail Bonding 999 

Electric Railroading, Teaching Chinese. 871 

Electric Range, A New 833 

Electric Sandwich Man 1072 

Electric Score Board, Baseball 312 

Electric Scrubbing Machine 328 

Electric Sealing Wax Heater 491 

Electric Semaphore 217 

Electric Saw Filing 995 

Electric Sign, An Aerial 910 

Electric Sign, Facial Expression 613 

Electric Smelting Furnace 44 

Electric Soldering Iron 227 

Electric Stairs at Depots 526 

Electric Steels as Money Savers 130 

Electric Stevedore 1097 

Electric Stove and Toaster 228 

Electric Stove Cooks for Eighteen.... 638 

Electric Switch Mat 34 

Electric Tableaux Here and Abroad 32 

Electric Traction of the Bavarian Roads 215 

Electric Train in the Alps 971 

Electric Transfer Table 44 

Electric Travelers' Iron 145 

Electric Traveling Hoist 629 

Electric Tree Felling 810 

Electric Trucks 400 

Electric Trucks on the Farm 468 

Electric Utility Clock 630 

Electric Valve, Largest in the World. . . . 996 

Electric Vehicle — '89 Model, Odd 1076 

Electric Vibration 498 

Electric Washer and Wringer 435 

Electric Water Purification 36 

Electric Wedding Decoration, Impressive 1023 

Electric Welding 138, 1018 

Electric Wiring Diagrams and Switch 

Boards 457 

Electrics, Strong on 599 

Electrical Agriculture, The Future of . . . . 279 

Electrical Anesthesia 138 

Electric Bleaching Is Spotless 31 

Electrical Clock, An Automatic 334 

Electrical Decorations 46 

Electrical Engineer, How to Become a. . 458 

Klectrical Engineers' Pocket Book 74 

Electrical Engineers Well Paid 802 

Klectrical Fan the Year Around 53 

Electrical Fertilizers in Japan 519 

Electrical Fires 882 

Electrical Fishtale 740 

Electrical Heat Energy 52 

Electrical Industry, Billions in the 307 

Electrical Inspection 264 

Electrical Invention, Episodes in 206 

Electrical Laboratory for $25.00 

54. 149, 247, 314, 442, 542. 642. 736 



Electrical Inventions, Five Epoch-Making 

Electrical Laboratory on Wheels 

Electrical Operation of Bulkhead Doors. 

Electrical Progress, Thirty Years of 

Electrical Protection of Vaults 

Electrical Railway Exposition, Russian. 

Electrical Securities 

Electrical Show, Amateur Wireless at the 

Electrical Show, Illuminaticn at Denver's 

Electrical Show, The Chicago 

Electrical Stunts 

Electrical Threshing 

Electrical Trades Directory 

Electrical Training That Brings Success. 

Electrical "What Is It" 

Electrical Wind Measuring- 

Electrically Hardened Stairs 

Electrically Heated Hot Water Radiator 

Electrically Propelled Balloon 

Electricity 693, 

Electricity Aboard the "George Washing- 
ton" 

Electricity and Gravity Do the Work... 

Electricity and Invention, The Tomor- 
rows of 

Electricity as a Builder of the Gatun 
Locks 

Electricity at a Modern Rifle Range 

Electricity by the Wagon Load 

Electricity, Experimentally and Practic- 
ally Applied 754, 

Electricity from the Sun's Rays 

Electricity in Book-Making 

Electricity in Coal Mines 

Electricity in Factories and Work Shops 

Electricity in Fire Fighting 

Electricity in German Breweries 

Electricity in Mine Rescue Work 

Electricity in Modern Theatre 

Electricity in Newspaper Office 

Electricity in the Service of Woman.... 

Electricity in the Submarines 

Electricity in the World's Granaries 

Electricity Is Turned to Heat 

Electricity, Leg Power 

Electricity on the Farm 

Electricity on the Violin, Frictional 

Electricity, Popularizing 

Electricity Produces Mountain Air 

Electricity Saves Fruit 

Electricity — The Farm Hand 

Electricity, Why Don't You Use? 

Electricity Wrongly Accused 

Electricians, Practical "Don'ts" fcr 

Electrified Stage Costume 

Electricians, Ghost 

Electrocuted Eggs 

Electrocutions, Two Interesting 

Electrolytic Iron 

Electrolytic Solvents 

Electrolytic Treatment of Wood 

Electro-Magnet 

Electro-Magnet for Handling Pig Iron. . 

Electro-magnetic Effect 

Electro-magnetic Ironing Board 

Electroplating Machine 

Electroplating, Vat for 

Elementary Electricity . 8, 84, 191, 292, 380, 

Elephant Ambulance, Impromptu 

Elevator Lights 

Elevator Passenger, For the Abstracted. 

Elevator, Portable Grain 

Elevator, Portable Power 

Elevator Signal System 

Elevators and Dumb "Waiters, Automatic 

Elevators, Temperature in Grain 

Elfland, Line Construction in 

Elmer A. Sperry 

Embroidered Electric Fans 

Emergency Battery for Ships 

Empire Cloth 

Enamel Insulated Magnet Wire 

Enameled Wire on Tuning Coils 

Energy for Two-Inch Coil 

Engine, Boiler-Top Electric Light 

Engine That Spins, Tale of the 

Engines on Italian Railroads, Electric. . 
Engineer, How to Become an Electrical. 
Engineers "Well Paid, Electrical 



Page 

1047 

740 

1061 

128 

704 

14 

1037 

790 

960 

839 

785 

946 

1043 

415 

901 

819 

629 

212 

1088 

526 
1006 

79 

951 
476 
851 

1042 

305 

817 

324 

850 

521 

1089 

990 

959 

. 115 

735 

376 

888 

634 

901 

373 

703 

808 

134 

1095 

1056 

171 

1091 

1109 

414 

102 

127 

885 

1051 

828 

335 

394 

1103 

752- 

169 

492 

727 

499 

379 

291 

291 

719 

133 

165 

426 

129 

225 

1112 

510 

608 

559 

422 

1134 

943 

37 

271 

225 

458 

802 



6 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Page 

English As It Is "Translated" 35 

English Hand Lamp 821 

Engraving Dies by Machinery 428 

Enos M. Barton 47 

Episodes in Electrical Invention 206 

Epoch-Making Electrical Inventions.... 1047 

Eskimo and the Telephone 123 

Europe's Greatest Inland Harbor 711 

Evolution of the Vacuum Cleaner 536 

Eyeball, Locating a Shot in the 905 

Eye Magnet, Electric .'. 527 

Exhibit Hall for Accident Prevention. . . . 122 

Exit the Hod Carrier 1024 

Exciter, Alternator 264 

Explosion in Power Plant 987 

Explosive, A Safe 306 

Exposition, Rochester Industrial 710 

Exposition, Russian Electrical Railway.. 309 

Exterior House Illumination 518 

"Extra," Getting Out an 115 



Facial Expression Electric Sign 613 

False Alarm 1095 

Fan and Ice to Cool a Room 639 

Fan, Bed-Post 424 

Fan Motor to Reduce Fuel Bills' 928 

Fan, The Uses of 53 

Fans and Home Comfort 148 

Fans, Embroidered Electric 510 

Fancy Decorative Lamps 486 

Far East, The Telegraph in the 1062 

Far Sighted Scientist 603 

Farm, Electric 319 

Farm, Electric Lights on 731 

Farm, Electricity on the 279, 785, 1052 

Farmers Light and Power 373 

Farmers' Telephones 720 

Fastening Up Insulators 331 

Fastest Mile 524 

Fear of Electricity 50 

Feeding a Trip-Hammer 325 

Feeding the Furnaces 600 

Ferron Detector 262 

Ferry, Suspended Electric 607 

Fessenden Equipment of the U. S. S. 

Connecticut 939 

Fever Temperatures, Record of 21 

Fifteenth Century Trade Marks 605 

Fifty Kilowatts of Water Power 618 

Fight Returns, Shown Electrically 386 

Filaments, Drawn Tungsten Ill 

Files, Sharpening 129 

Films, Preparing Moving Picture 899 

Fire Alarm Box, Where Located 1004 

Fire and Burglar Alarm System, Cam- 
den's Unique 796 

Fire Department, Electric 1077 

Fire Engine, A Horseless 805 

Fire Extinguisher and Alarm, Automatic 1106 

Fire Fighting, Electricity in 521 

Fire Protection in Electric Plant 30 

Fires, Electrical 882, 1091 

Fires, Causes of 431 

Fireless and Electric Cook Stove Com- 
bined 1025 

Fireless Cooker, Electric 48 

Fireless Cook Stove 490 

Fireless Cooking, Electric 733 

Fireproofing Wood Electrically 335 

Fireworks in Arc Lamps 278 

Firing a 60-Ton Gun, Training and 511 

First Carbonless Arc Lamp 104 

First Central Station 659 

First Edison Central Station 663 

First Electric Automobile in United 

States 406 

First Trackless Trolley in America 700 

First Wireless from Mars 463 

Fisheries, Wireless in the Puget Sound. 60 

Fishtale, An Electrical 740 

Fixed Condenser 453 

Fixtures, Antlered Electric 713 

Fixtures, Tungsten Bracket 487 

Flagrran, The Automatic 493 



Page 

Flaming Arc, Vertical Carbon 4s7 

Flaming Arc Lamps 72 

Flaming Arcs 214 

Flash Lamp 124 

Flasher, Combined Lamp and 1103 

Flasher, Electric 531 

Flasher, Patents on the Electric 706 

Flashing Counter Sign. . . .• 726 

Flash Lights for Hunters 773 

Flat Iron, Electric 435 

Flat Iron 1015 

Flat Irons as Sterilizers 640 

Flaws in Cables, Locating 330 

Flexilyte, Some Uses of the 720 

Flickering Lights 506 

Flies and the Electric Fan 436 

Flying Machines: Construction and Op- 
eration 754, 1042 

Flying Scarab and the Seventh Heaven. 

865, 979 

Fly Trap, Vacuum 1115 

Fly-Wheel, An Enormous 507 

Fogs, Getting a Ship's Location During. 1073 

Foreign Countries, Use of Telephone in. 518 

Forest Products, Learning to Use Our. . 714 

Forests, Telephone Helps Save 741 

Fortune Teller, Electric 540 

Foundry, The Electric Crane in the 235 

Foundiyman, A Surprise for 32 

Fountain, Denver's Prismatic 520 

Fountain, Small Color Changing 1115 

Fountains, Color Changing 236 

Fountains, Household Electric 539 

France and Norway, Some Railways of. . 203 

France, Auto Searchlights in 609 

Frank J. Sprague 338 

Freak Electric Locomotive 34 

Freezer and Ice Crusher Combines 479 

Frequency and Slip 560 

Frequency of an Alternator 848 

Fresh Air Trolley Cars 780 

Frictional Electricity on the Violin 703 

From Coal to the Car 1082 

Fruit, Electricity Saves 1095 

Frying Griddle Cakes on a Motor 323 

Furnace, Electric Smelting 44 

Furnaces as Auxiliaries, Electric 30 

Furnaces for Assayers and Tool-Makers 1011 

Furnaces, Feeding the 600 

Fusing of Wires 421 

Fuse Wire 455 

Fuses 264 

Future of Electrical Agriculture 279 



Galileo and the Telegraph 40 

Galvanometer, Simple 1030 

Game, A New 245 

Garbage Made Into Electricity 900 

Gas Engine Electric Car 38 

Gas Leakage, Instrument to Detect 221 

Gas Lighting Coil 752 

Gate Opener, Electric 139 

Gate to Stop Runaways, Bridge 414 

Gateway, A Startling 1037 

Gatun Locks, Electricity as a Builder of 951 

Gauge, Vest Pocket Wire 229 

Generator for Bell-Ringing 1018 

Generator for Niagara Falls 8S5 

Generators, Grounding Transformers and 263 

Generators, Connecting 263 

"George Washington," Electricity 

Aboard the 526 

Georgia Section of the N. E. L. A 755 

German River, Conserving the Power of a 522 

German Taxes, Dodging 712 

German Wireless vs. British Cable 101 

Getting a Ship's Location During Fogs. 1073 

Getting Out an "Extra" 115 

Ghost Electricians 102 

Giant Induction Coil SOS 

Giant, Obedience to the Law of the 437 

Giant Tubes Under River.... 903 

Glass, Making a Hole in 330 

Glass Not Always Insulating 610 

Glass Oven 1014 

Glass, Pillars of 1116 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Glass Signs, Illuminated Prismatic 1020 

Glass to Cut 1023 

Glass, Tree Insulator 1022 

Gold Prince, To and From the 405 

Gold vs. Silver for Mirrors 789 

Gocd Investment 851 

Governmental Test of Office Devices 178 

Grain Bags, Sewing- Up 1105 

Grain Bins, Temperature in 12'J 

Grain Elevator, Portable 719 

Grain Elevators, Heat Alarm in 42 

Grain Handling- in Roumania, Electric. 390 

Granaries, Electricity in the World's. . 888 

Grand Opera, Hearing by Wireless 62 

Grand Opera, Producing a 1007 

Grave Yard of the Atlantic 206 

Gravity Carrier 1006 

Gravity Cells, Hints on Caring- for 921 

Gravity Cells, Setting Up of 27 

Grinder and Buffer, Motor Driven 45 

Ground 1039 

Ground Block, Handy 726 

Ground Circuit 72 

Ground Wire 751 

Ground, Wireless Without 1128 

Grounding, New Method of 821 

Grounding of Lightning Arrester 455 

Grounding Transformers and Generators 263 

Growth of the Telephone Business 34 

Guard, An Effective Trolley 721 

Guy Anchors 497 

Gymnasium, Lighting a Big 707 

Gyroscope for Window Cleaners 415 



H 



Hair Drier, Centrifugal 492 

Hair Drier, Electric 489, 914 

Hair Singer, Mer-Maid 429 

Hand Lamp, An English 821 

Handling and Cutting Ice Sheets 1092 

Handling Mail With Electrics 702 

Handling Radium 278 

Handy Ground Block 726 

Handy Portable Lamp 424 

Harbor, Europe's Greatest Inland 711 

Hat Manufacturing, Electric Heat in. . . . 624 

Haverhill Wireless Association 845 

Heart Beats Electrically Recorded 699 

Hearing Grand Opera by Wireless- 62 

Heat Alarm in Grain Elevators 42 

Heat, Electric 202 

Heat Energy, Electrical 52 

Heat, How Electricity is Turned to.... 634 

Heat, Storing Electric 133 

Heater, A Portable Stand 1019 

Heater, Electric Sealing Wax. . . 491 

Heater, Portable Electric 615 

Heater, Water 1015 

Heaters for Chicken Pood, Electric 496 

Heaters, Magnet Coils as 117 

Heating in the Future 244 

Heating Pad as an Incubator 130 

Heating Up a River 1043 

Helix 357 

Helix Clip, A Convenient 943 

Helix for One-Kilowatt Transformer.... 751 

High Efficiency Lamps in Ireland 40 

High-Frequency Apparatus, Tesla 728 

High Frequency Currents, Stranded Wire 

for 944 

High Power Wireless Equipment 63, 

155, .255, 351, 449, 547, 646, 742, 842, 935, 1124 
High Resistance Receiver, Tuning Coil 

for 262 

High Speeds and Signals 201 

High Tension Coil 70 

High Tension Insulators, Testing 412 

High Tension Magneto 560 

High Tension Transmission 7, 19, 915 

High Tension Variable Condenser 650 

High Voltage 407 

T f i ci.li Voltage Cigar Holder 780 

High Voltage Line, Testing a 706 

High Voltage Insulation 263 

High Voltage Transmission 71 

Hint on Making a Small Rheostat 727 



Page 

Hints on Caring for Gravity Cells 921 

Historical Measuring Instruments, Some 1021 

Hod Carrier, Exit the 1024 

Hoists, Electric 43 

Hoists, Electric Traveling 629 

Holland, Public Telephone Station in... 33 

Hollow Axle with Motor 1111 

Home Illumination, Planning 244 

Home Lighting, Automatic Batteries for 734 

Home-Made Lamp Reach 421 

Honey Bee a Live Battery 1087 

Honey Combs, Stiffening 796 

Honolulu Heard By Wireless 745 

Hook and Ladder Electric 1077 

Hoosac Tunnel to be Electrified 713 

Horn, Electric Auto 496 

Horse Clipper, A Handy 481 

Horseless Fire Engine 805 

Horsepower 263 

Hotel, Lighting the Lobby of a Famous. 893 

Hotels, Electricity in 574 

Hot and Cold Air Douche 425 

Hot-Room, A Miniature 309 

Hot Water Radiator, Electrically Heated 629 

House Pump, Electric 236 

House Without a Chimney 926 

Household Electric Fountains 539 

Housing Dirigible Balloons 891 

How a Thief Was Caught 708 

How the Telephone Talks 22 

How to Read Telephone Circuit Dia- 
grams 946 

Hughes Electric Cook Stove 436 

Human Heritage 369 

Human Side of a Great Phj^sicist 508 

Humming of an Induction Motor 46 

Hunters, Flashlights for 773 

H. M. Byllesby 143 

Hydrogen, Some Uses of 884 

Hydroground 821 

Hypnotic Eye 789 

I 

Ice Crusher, Combined Freezer and 479 

Ice Handling by Electricity 118 

Ice Sheets, Handling and Cutting 1092 

Ice Skating All the Year Around 892 

Idler, Belt-Tightening 623 

Ignition Trouble Finder 237 

Illuminating Engineering, Lectures on.. 755 

Illuminating Our Warships 474 

Illuminating the Exterior of a House... 518 

Illumination, Artistic 809 

Illumination for the Steel Pier, Indirect. 396 

Illumination, How to Calculate 116 

Illumination, Intensity of 1135 

Illumination, Measuring the Intensity of 970 

Illumination, Planning Home 244 

Illuminations at Denver's Electrical 

Show 790 

Imbedded Lightning Rod 606 

Imperfect Wiring 230 

Impromptu Elephant Ambulance 379 

Improved Toaster 832 

Increasing Efficiency, Hints on 1130 

Increasing Life of Tungsten 713 

Incubator, Heating Pad as 130 

Independent Interrupter 654 

Index to Volume 3 H39 

Indicator, A Potato Polarity 731 

Indicator for Propeller Speeds 237 

Indicator, Polarity 493 

Indicator, Wind Vane 617 

Indirect Illumination for the Steel Pier. 396 

Indoor Lighting from Outdoor Lamps.. 128 

Induction Coil, A Giant 803 

Induction Coil Connections 456 

Induction Coil, Largest 679 

Induction Coil, Polarity of 455 

Induction Coil, Telephone 360 

Induction Coil 70 

Induction Coil, Winding Secondary of... 848 

Induction Coils in Vaudeville 410 

Induction Motor Runs Under Water. . . . 800 

Induction Motor, Humming of a 46 

Inductive Signals 1133 

In Quest of a Voice 674, 763 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY" 



Innovations in Wiring- Devices 1023 

Insect Shuts Down Power System.. 415 

Inspection, Electrical 264 

Institute Edison Medal 851 

Instructor, Wireless Telegraph. . . . 1019 

Insulated Magnet Wire, Enamel 422 

Insulated Test Clip ''913 

Insulating, Glass Not Always \\\\ 610 

Insulating Materials. . . .219, 337, 423, 529 622 

Insulation, Before Porcelain .' 139 

Insulation Cutter and Pliers, Combined. 43 

Insulation, Electric and Otherwise 33 

Insulation from Milk, Making .." 804 

Insulation, High Voltage 263 

Insulators, Fastening Up 331 

Insulators, High Tension... 7 

Insulators, 110,000 Volts ' 19 

Insulators, Testing High Tension '.'.'. 412 

Intensifler, A Wireless Signal 1038 

Intensity of Illumination 1135 

Intensity of Illumination, Measuring!.!! 970 

Interrupter, An Independent 654 

Interrupter, Behavior of Wehnelt 1134 

Interurban Brings Countrv to City. . . . 887 

Interview With Edison " 563 

Invention by Effort and Study 1066 

Invention, Episodes in Electrical 206 

Investors' Pocket Library 362 

Invention, The Tomorrows of Electricity 

and 79 

Ireland, High Efficiency Lamps' in !!!!! ! 40 

Iron, Electric 435 

Iron of High Purity, Making. .!!!!!!!!'' 1051 

Ironclad Bell 44 

Ironing Board and Cord Support!!!!!!! 1013 

Ircning Board, Electro-Magnetic 169 

Ironing Outfit, Washing and 483 

Italian Railroads, Electric Engines on.. 225 



Japan, Electrical Fertilizers in 519 

Japanese Investment . ... ! ' 215 

Japanese Words, Cabling !.!!!! 526 

Jar Tests of Tungsten Lamps 622 

Jewel-Shaped Lamp 610 

Jordan, Electricity from the River....! 221 

Josephine and Her Fan 416 

Josher, Trapping a Telephone ! ! ! . 154 

Journalism of the Sea 972 

Journalism, Wireless in Modern !!! 652 

Jumbo of Filament Lamps 804 

Jump Spark Coil, Automobile 560 

Jungfrau Railway 759 



K 



Kelvin 5Q g 

Kelvin, Interesting Glimpses of. .!!!!!!! 175 

Kentucky and the Alamo 69 

Kinetic Organ Blower 482 1012 

Kitchen Cabinet, A Wonderful .' 1025 

Kitchen Stove 349 

Kites, Man-Lifting !!!!!!!! 599 

Klondike, Electric Dredges in ! 784 

Knights Templar, Triennial Conclave of 

the 469 



Labeling Machine. Bottle 1107 

Laboratory for $25.00, An Electrical... 

54, 149, 247, 344, 442, 542, 642, 736 

Laboratory on Wheels, Electrical 740 

Lady, The Vanishing 1121 

Laimes' Pocket Telephone 815 

Lake Ice, Navigating the 128 

Lamp Adjuster 39 

Lamp, A Dainty Table 488 

Lamp, A New Arc 486 

Lamp and Flasher Combined 1103 

Lamp, Artistic Piano 929 

Lamp, Automobile Trouble 487 

Lamp Cords, Adjuster for 627 

Lamp, Earache Cured by 616 



Pafre 

Lamp Filaments, Cutting 123 

Lamp Flasher 124 

Lamp, Handy Portable 424 

Lamp, Jewel-Shaped 610 

Lamp Pole-Top, Ingenious Arc 329 

Lamp Reach, Home-Made 42-1 

Lamp, Return to Battery 220 

Lamp Shade, Adjustable 727 

Lamp Shades, Displaying. : 125 

Lamp Used as a Portable, Desk 486 

Lamp Vacuum, Testing 727 

Lamp With Magnet Base 429 

Lamp With Three Degrees of Light 821 

Lamps at the Opera, Pccket 1077 

Lamps Delivered by Auto 308 

Lamps, Fancy Decorative 486 

Lamps, Fireworks in Arc 278 

Lamps, Flaming Arc 72 

Lamps for Military Use, Portable 997 

Lamps, Hiding the 221 

Lamps in Ireland, High Efficiency 40 

Lamps, Jar Tests of Tungsten 623 

Lamps, Mercury Vapor 559 

Lamps, Oil or Gas Converted to Electric 820 

Lamps, Odd Electric 120 

Lamps, Platinum in 710 

Lamps, Renewing Worn Out 412 

Lamps, Room Illuminated by Miniature. 46 

Lamps, The Jumbo of Filament 804 

Lamps, Trimming 171 

Lamps, Tungsten Street Suspension 421 

Lamps, Watts Per Candlepcwer of Fila- 
ment 1040 

Lantern, A Diver's Electric 811 

Largest Induction Coil 679 

Largest Sign in the World 402 

Largest Steam-Electric Locomobile 703 

Latest Taxicab 141 

Lathe Chucks, Magnetic 336 

Laundry Outfit, Electric 144 

Law of the Giant, Obedience to the 437 

Lead Cables, Protecting 231 

Leading in from Aerial 846 

Learning to Use Qur Forest Products... 714 

Leclanche Cell 70 

Lectures on Illuminating Engineering. . 755 

Legislation, Wireless 446 

Leg Power Electricity 901 

Letters by Telegraph 38 

Letters of a Bachelor Girl 241, 432 

Leyden Jar from Test Tube 847 

Leyden Jars, Charging 166 

Life Saving Telegraph Pole 911 

Lifting Magnet 135. 479 

Lifting Magnet Recovers Cargoes 126 

Lifting Magnet Saves Space 41 

Lifting Wreck from "Davy Jones' 

Locker" 1084 

Light. Adjustable Bench 741 

Light and Power of Brooklyn 89 

Light as an Aid to Civilization 306 

Light Bath 719 

Light Bath, Arc 116 

Light Bills Vary. Why Electric 1079 

Light, Burglars Fear the 773 

Light Companies Conserve Natural Re- 
sources 363 

Light Motors for Air Ships 395 

Light Rays Penetrate the Body 494 

Light, The Making of 883 

Lights, Electric Automobile 822 

Lights for a Penny 605 

Lights, How a Farmer Secured Electric .31 

Lights, Portable Wardrobe 4ss 

Lighting a Big Gymnasium 707 

Lighting a Home 342 

Lighting Architectural Models, 30 . 

Lighting, Color Changes in Early Stage. 32 

Lighting, Correct and Incorrect Window 28 

Lighting. Country Railway Station 9»3 

Lighting for Automobiles, Electric >. 495 

Lighting, Moore Tube 10 2 4 

Lighting on Shipboard, Electric 40 

Lighting Plant, An Auto Electric si 5 

Lighting Plant, Design of a Small 418 

Lighting Powder Magazines 12s 

Lighting the way in 921 

Lighting the Lobby of a Famous Hotel. 891 



POPVLAR ELECTRICITY 



9 



_ Page 

Lighthouse, Aerial ST 

Lighthouse of Spandau, Aerial 304 

Lightning' and Balloons 884 

Lightning- and Blast Furnaces 393 

Lightning and the Aerial 448 

Lightning and the AnGients 122 

Lightning Arrester, Grounding of 455 

Lightning, a Safety Valve for 718 

Lightning, Protecting Chimneys from... 802 

Lightning, Protection Against 752 

Lightning Rings Telephone Bell 1133 

Lightning Rod 321 

Lightning Rod, An Imbedded 606 

Lightning Red Inspectors in Prussia.... 909 

Lightning Rod, The Straight-Away 494 

Lightning Strikes, Where 701 

Limericks 641 

Line Construction in Elfland 22-5 

Linemen, Protecting 332 

Live Battery, The Honey Bee a 1087 

Live Batteries 876, 947 

Locating a Shot in the Eyeball 905 

Locating Flaws in Cables 330 

Locating Pearls with X-Rays 1043 

Locating Springs Telephonically 706 

Locomobile, The Largest Steam-Electric 703 

Lock, Magnetic Doer 532 

Locks, Electricity as a Builder of the 

Gatun 951 

"Locomobile" 37 

Locomotive, Freak Electric 34 

Locomotive, Model Electric 343 

Locomotive, Playing with a 93-Ton 1087 

Locomotive, The Largest Electric 1088 

Locomotives, Power of Electric 224 

London to Paris, Telephoning from 305 

Long Beach, Banquet at 309 

Long Distance Equipment 453 

Long Distance Telephone 774 

Long Distance Transmission 788 

Looking Through Metals 685 

Looped Aerial 454 

Loose Coupled Tuner, Sensitiveness of.. 1134 

Lord Kelvin 508 

Los Angeles Aviation Meet, Wireless at. 1035 

Loud Speaking Telephone 1014 

Low Voltage Transformer 238 

Low Wireless Rates 904 

Lucknow, The Relief of 40 

Lumber, Monorail for Handling 1106 

Luminous Quoits 934 

Luminous (Magnetite) Arc Lamps 908 

Luminous Radiator 491 

Luminous WatGh ... v>v:< 

Lunch Counter, Electric 633 

Lunchecn, Chafing Dish 146 

Lure of the Tatoo 590 

M 

Magic Mirror 201 

Magnet and Pole Strengths 656 

Magnet Base, Lamp With 429 

Magnet Coils as Heaters 117 

Magnet, Electric Eye 527 

Magnet, Lifting 135, 479 

Magnet Recovers Cargoes, Lifting 126 

Magnet Talk, Making a 684 

Magnet Wire, Enamel Insulated 422 

Magnets and Magnetism Simply Ex- 
plained 850 

Magnets Instead of Tongs 629 

Magnets in the Making, Telephone 232 

Manners, Lifting 41 

Magnetic Dip 1063 

Magnetic Divining Rods 606 

Magnetic Door Lock 532 

Magnetic Lathe Chucks 336 

Magnetic. Pencil Holder 525 

Magnetic Pull and Temperature 101 

Magnetic Puzzle 740, 934 

Magnetic Thimble 735 

Magnetic Traction Fake 807 

Magnetism. Myths of 318 

Mag lie! ism. Residual 848 

Magnetism, Terrestrial 196 

Magnetism, Who Discovered 706 

Magnetite Arc Lamps, Luminous 908 

Magneto, High Tension „ . 560 



Magnetos, Telephone 

Mail Box Alarm 

Mail Handled With Electrics 

Mailometer 

Making a Hole in Glass 

Making a Magnet Talk 

Making and Testing Telephone Cable. . . . 

Making Heat Penetrate Bones 

Making Near Diamonds 

Management of Dynamos 

Manchuria, Telegraph in 

Marble Cutter, Stcne and 

Mariners, Time Signals Aid 

Mansion, Plan of a Parisian 

Mars, First Wireless from 

Martin, Thomas Comerford 

Massage, Ear-Drum 

Mat, Electric Switch 

Meadowcroft, W. H 

Measuring Instruments, Some Historical 
Measuring Intensity of Illumination.... 

Measuring Sending Current 

Measuring Temperature in Concrete 

Mechanical Boys 

Medal, The Institute Edison 

Medical Electricity 

Medicine, Electricity in 

15, 107, 207, 300, 397, 503, 

Meditations of a Science Man 

Menlo Park, The First Edison Central 

Station at 

Mercury Arc Rectifier 

Mercury Detectors, Tantalum and 

Mercury Vapor Lamps 

Mer-Maid Hair Singer 

Messenger Call Box 

Metal, Little Batteries That Corrode.... 

Metals, Looking Through 

Mica, The Story of 

Microphone Detector 

Midget Separable Connectors 

Milk, Making Insulation from 

Milli-Arnpere 

Mine Disasters, Prevention of 

Mine Rescue Work, Electricity in 

Mine Telephone 45, 

Mines, Electricity in j 

Mines, Electricity in Ccal 

Military Lamps 

Milk Jug, Electric i 

Miniature Car and Controller 

Miniature City 

Miniature Hot-Room 

Miniature Lamps, Room Illuminated by. 

Miniature Trolley Train 

Mining With Magnets 

Mirror, Magic 

Mirrors, Gold vs. Silver for 

Missouri Chief Josephine 

Mixing Concrete by Electric Power 

Model Balloons and Flying Machines. . . . 

Model Electric Locomotive 

Models, Lighting Architectural 

Modern Boiler Room : 

Modern Dentist 

Modern Journalism, Wireless in 

Modern Village Smithy 

Modernizing the City of Damascus 

Money Car, Uncle Sam's New 

Money Transported by Motor 

Monorail for Handling Lumber 

Montana, Wireless Association of 

Montefiore Prize 

Monument for Ampere 

Moore Light for Matching Colors 

Moore Tubes 

Motion Picture, Its Making and Its 

Theory 

Motorman's Window Cleaner 

Motor Boat Searchlight 

Motor. Changing Battery to Induction 

Type 

Motor, Commutating Pole 

Motor Driven Grinder and Buffer 

Motor Driven Paper Cutter 

Motor for the Home 

Motor, Frying Griddle Cakes on a 

Motor, Humming of an Induction 

Motor Power vs. Boy Power 

Motor Runs Under Water, Induction... 



Page 
166 
336 
702 

1013 
330 
684 
686 
764 
680 

113S 

1062 
142 
600 
51 
463 
239 
495 
34 
4 30 

1021 
9 70 

1039 
414 
541 
851 



596 
91 

663 
1135 
262 
559 
429 
72 
°.01 
685 
766 
262 
632 
804 
263 
326 
990 
800 
995 
324 
99-7 
1099 
645 
403 
309 
46 
857 
1095 
201 
789 
416 
701 
946 
343 
307 
316 
806 
652 



599 
798 
698 

1106 
845 
215 
523 

1024 
107 

170 

910 

1032 

9 2 2 
167 

45 
125 
63 9 
323 

46 
111 
800 



10 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Motor, Smallest in the World 

Motor Starter 

Motor to Reduce Fuel Bills, Fan 

Motor Troubles 754. 

Motor, Variable Speed Alternating- Cur- 
rent 

Motors and Dynamos, The Difference... 

Motors and Dynamos, Construction of 
Small 835, 930. 1029, 

Motors for Airships, Light 

Motors in Cotton Mills 

Motors, Speed Regulators for Small.... 

Mountain Climbing Trolleys 

Mountain Top, Automobile Wireless on. 

Mountains, Effect of High 

Moving Cars Without a Locomotive. . . . 

Moving Picture Films, Preparing 

Moving Pictures, The Inside of 

Moving Pictures on Broadway 

Moving Pictures, X-Ray. . . . : 

Moving Targets Electrically 

Muffler, Spark 

Multi-Indicator Switch 

Multiplex Telephone, The Coming of the 

Municipal Electric Clocks 

Museum of Safety, American 

Myths of Magnetism 



Page 

777 

530 

928 

1042 

1102 
694 

1117 
395 
136 

1099 

33 

746 

1133 
525 
899 
582 
792 
601 

1002 

1133 
238 
965 
563 
122 
318 



N 



National Electric Light Convention 

Natural Resources, Conservation of 

Natural Resources, Light Companies Con- 
serve 

Navigating Lake Ice 

N. E. L. A., Georgia Section cf 

N. E. L. A. Proceedings 

Nerve Saving Ambulances 

New York and Paris Subways 

Newspaper Cause 

Newspaper Establishes Wireless Station 

Newspaper Office, Electricity in 

Niagara Falls, A Mig-hty Generator for. 

Night Telephone Shopping Service 

No Longer an Infant 

Noise in Receiver 

Noise in Telephone Receiver 

Non-Electrical Conception of the North- 
ern Lights 

Non-Explosive Welders 

Non-Magnetic Yacht Carnegie 

Northern Lights, Non-Electrical Concep- 
tion of : 

Notes on the Construction of Patents... 

Notes en the Law of Patent Titles. . . .72, 

Novelties, The Latest Decorative 

N-Rays 



264 

714 

363 
128 
755 
850 
424 
223 
121 
260 
115 
885 
507 
37 
262 
751 

695 
335 
196 

695 
361 
168 
534 
360 



o 



Obedience to the Law of the Giant 437 

Ocean Cable 819 

Ocean Cables 1 000 

Ocean Waves, Power from 791 

Odd Electric Lamps 120 

Oddities in Detectors 554 

Office Building. The Best Lighted 804 

Office Devices, Governmental Test of. . . . 179 

Ohio River, Laying Cables in 517 

Oil from Water, Removing". 1110 

Old Time Electric Machines 602 

One Hundred Years of Tin Cans 659 

One-Kilowatt Station, Amateur's 749 

One-Kilowatt Transformer ..• 751 

One Mile Equipment 655 

Open Core Wireless Transformer 747 

Opera, Pocket Lamps at the 1077 

Opera, Producing a Grand 1007 

Operation of Spark Coils on 110 Volts.. 1127 

Operator, A Plea for the 989 

Operator as I Know Her, The Telephone 671 

Optimist 416 

Orchestra, A Divided 762 

Ore Transportation 405 

Organ Bellows 1111 



Page 

Organ Blower, Kinetic , 482, 101Z 

Ornamental Pendant Pushes 220 

Ornamental Posts for Tungsten Lamps. 489 

Oven, A Glass 1014 

Oven and Warming Plate, Combination. 834 

Ovens, Charging Coke 45 

Overcharging Battery 560 

Ozone 235, 598 

Ozone Generator 134 

Ozone Machine, Portable 814 

Ozone on the Increase 481 

Ozone, Purifying Water With 1013 

Ozone, Sterilizing "Water by 987 

Ozonizer, with Fan Electrodes 498 



Pad, Warming 

Palaces of the "Well-to-Do" 

Panama Canal, Electricity on the 

Paper Cutter, Motor Driven 

Paper Making With Electric Power 

Paralleling Compound Wound Generators 

Para Rubber 

Paris, Telephoning from London to 

Paris, Underground Railways cf 

Paris, Under-R.unning Trolleys in 

Paris Subways, The New York and 

Parisian Mansion. Plan of a 

Party Line Telephone Troubles, A Rem- 
edy for 

Paste, Dry Battery 

Patent Infringement, Compensation for. 

Patent Infringement, Defenses to 

Patent Infringeemnt, Profits Recoverable, 

Compensation for 

Patent Infringement, Remedies for.. 561, 

Patents on the Electric Flasher 

Patent, Surrender and Re-Issue of Let- 
ters 

Patent Titles, Notes on the Law of. .73, 

Peacock, An Electric 

Pearls, Located with X-Rays 

Peeler, Potato 

Pencil, Electric Lamp 

Pencil Holder, Magnetic 

Pendant Pushes, Ornamental 

Pendulum Clock, An Electric 

Penny, Lights for a ■ 

Permanent Vacuum Cleaning System. . . . 

Peroxide of Lead Detector 

Petrifiactions, X-Rays for Examining. . 

Philippine Cable Ships 

Photographing Actors and Actresses.... 
Photographing Through the Body With 

X-Rays 

Photographs by Wireless, Transmission 

of 

Photography by Electricity, Self 

Physicist, The Human Side of a Great.. 

Piano Lamp, Artistic 

Pig Yard, The World's Greatest 

Pillars of Glass 

Pioneer Telegrapher - 

Pipe Lines of Wood 

Pipe Lines, Spiral Steel 

Plain English or Symbols 

Plan of a Parisian Mansion 

Planning Home Illumination 

Plant Growth and Electricity 

Platinum, A Ton of . . . 

Platinum in Lamps 

Plaving with a 93-Ton Locomotive 

Plea for the Operator 

Pliers, Combined Insulation Cutter and. 

Plug, Multiple 

Plunge Battery 

Pocket Lamps at the Opera 

Pocket Testing Lamp 

Polaritv Indicator 

Polarity Indicator, A Potato 

Polaritv of Compass Needle 

Polarity of Induction Coil 

Polarity, Reversing the 

Polarity Test 

Polarization ■ 

Polarization, Battery 

Pole Strengths, Magnet and 



490 
574 
951 
425 
140 
359 
121 
305 

25 
216 
223 

51 

912 
617 
849 
753 

945 

657 
706 

1041 
168 
604 

1043 
485 
741 
525 
220 
828 
605 
732 
558 
721 
313 

1079 

926 

254 

1031 

508 

929 

1103 

1116 

39 

27 

30 

330 

51 

244 

118 

413 

710 

1087 

989 

43 

481 

70 

1077 

828 

49 3 

731 

1040 

4 55 

34 7 

101 

167 

S75 

656 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



11 



t^ Page 

Pole-top, Ingenious Arc Lamp 329 

Poles, Preserving' Telegraph 970 

Police Tickers in -Berlin 306 

Popular Electricity Wireless Club of the 

Central West 61 

Popularizing Electricity 808 

Porcelain Insulation, Before 139 

Porcelain, Silver Plated 1051 

Porous Cups, Making Battery 128 

Portable Desk Lamp 486 

Portable Electric Heater 615 

Portable Electric Plant 898 

Portable Five-Mile Outfit 69 

Portable Grain Elevator 719 

Portable Lamp 821 

Portable Lamp, Handy 424 

Portable Lamps for Military Use 997 

Portable Ozone Machine 814 

Portable Power Elevator 133 

Portable Stand Heater 1019 

Portable Sub-station 702 

Portable Vacuum Cleaner 481, 929 

Portable Wardrobe Lights 4SS 

Portland Safety League 437 

Positive Plates 752 

Posts for Tungsten Lamps, Ornamental. 489 

Potato Peeler 485 

Potato Polarity Indicator 731 

Potentiometer 164, 558 

Potentionmeters 454 

Power Development, A Great 914 

Power from Ocean Waves 791 

Powder Magazine, Lighting of 128 

Power of Electric Locomotives 224 

Power Plant, Demolished 9S7 

Power, The Romance of 823, 915 

Practical Electroplating 850 

Practical Handbook of Medical Electric- 
ity 170 

Practical Hand Book for Millwrights... 754 

Practical X-Ray Therapy 3 62 

Preparing Moving- Picture Films 899 

Precision Coherers, Relay with.' 164 

Prescription by Wireless 1131 

Preserving Telegraph Poles 970 

Pressing Iron of New Design 633 

Pressure of Church Organ Bellows 1111 

Prevention of Mine Disasters 326 

Printing Press Control 812 

Prismatic Fountain, Denver's 520 

Prismatic Glass Signs 1020 

Private Car of President Diaz 311 

Prize, The Montefiore 215 

Producing a Stage Illusion 1104 

Progressive Wireless Club 846 

Prominent People and Their Electric Au- 
tos 387 

Propeller Speeds, To Indicate 237 

Propellers, Testing Airship 709 

Protecting Chimneys from Lightning. . . 802 

Protecting Lead Cables 231 

Protecting Signal Batteries . . 117 

Protecting the Lineman 332 

Protection Against Lightning 752 

Protection of Vaults — Electrical 704 

Protective Device for Wireless Appara- 
tus 159 

Prussia, Lightning Rod Inspectors in.. 909 

Public Telephone Station in Holland.... 33 

Puget Fisheries, Wireless in the 60 

Pump, Electric House 2.36 

Pump for Inflating Tires 909 

Pump, Sanitary Automatic 482 

Pupin Coils 559 

Pun* Air in Sch'ools 4 83 

Purifying A City's Water Supply 36 

Purifying Water With Ozone 1013 

Push Button 35 

Tush Button Annunciator 72 

Push Buttons, Ornamental Pendant 220 

Puzzle, Magnetic 740 

Puzzle, The Magnetic 934 

Pyrometer 32 

l 'yrometer, Electric 136 

1'yron Detector 162 







Page 

Quadruplex Telegraphy 167 

Quartz Lamp 105, 1100 

Quartz Vessels, Making 809 

Questions and Answers 1139 

Quoits, Luminous 934 



R 



Receiving 
Receiving 
Receiving 
Receiving 
Receiving 
Receivini 
Receiving 



Races, Getting the Time in 

Radiator, Luminous 

Radii, Sending and Receiving 

Radiometer 

Radium, Handling 

Radius, Receiving 

Radius, Sending 

Rail Bonding, Electric 

Rail-cutting Saw 

Rail Upsets Compass, Magnetized 

Rails, Creeping of 

Railway Coaches, Cleaning 

Railway Crossing- Signal 

Railway Exposition, Russian Electrical. 

Railway in Brazil, Scenic 

Railway, Suspended 

Railways of France and Norway 

Range, A New Electric 

Rates, Low Wireless 

Rating of Standard Socket 

Receiver, Noise in 

Receiver, Noise in Telephone 

Receiver, Rewinding 

Receiver, Tuning Coil for High Resist- 
ance 

Receivers, Choosing a Pair of 

Receivers in Series with Buzzer 

Receiving Condensers 

Connections 

Connections for Sensitive.... 
Connections for Transmitting 
Instruments, Connection's cf . . 

Radii, Sending and 

Radius 164, 

Set 

Record in Track Laying 

Record of Fever Temperatures 

Recorder, Smoke 

Recorders on the Berlin Cars 

Recording- Checks with an Electric Cam- 
era 

Recording Compass 

Recording Heart Beats Electrically 

Recording the "Coasting" of Cars 

Rectifier for Obtaining Direct Current.. 

Rectifier, Mercury Arc 

Rectifier Solution 

Recuperate, How Does a Cell 

Reflectors, Using Windows as 

Regulators for Small Motors, Speed.... 

Relay with Precision Coherers 

Remedy for Party Line Telephone Trou- 
bles 

Remedies for Patent Infringement .. 561 , 

Removing Oil from Water 

Renewing Worn Out Lamps 

Reno Figh't Returns, Shown Electrically 

Repeater, A Telephone 

Repeating Alarm Clock 

Rescue Work, Electricity in Mine 

Residual Magnetism 

Resistance 

Resistance and Drop, Figuring 

Resistance, Carbon Lamp 

Resistance Coil for Arc Light 

Resistance in Divided Circuits 

Resistance, Temperature and 

Return Call Bell Circuit 

Reverser, Toy Railway Car 

Reversing the Polarity 

Rewinding Receiver 

Rheostat 

Rheostat, Hint on Making a Small 

Rifle Range, Electricity at a Modern.... 

Rio De Janeiro. Electric Railway of.... 

Ripening Bananas by Electric Heat.... 

Riveting without Rivets 

Rochester Industrial Exposition 



141 
491 
261 
944 

278 

1039 

357 

999 

237 

1088 

35 

484 

71 

309 

1065 

518 

203 

833 

904 

560 

262 

751 

453 

262 
349 
166 
751 
357 
261 
552 
454 
261 

1039 

558 

305 

21 

1019 
213 

705 

1003 

699 

897 

632 

1135 

944 

875 

891 

1099 

164 



913 
657 
1110 
412 
386 
1071 
528 
990 
848 
119 
847 
360 
166 
944 
656 
560 
546 
347 
4 53 
530 
727 
476 
1065 
107 2 
1018 
710 



12 



TOPULA R ELECTRICITY' 



Pa?p 

Rockland County Wireless Association. 260 

Roentgen Rays 360 

Romance of Electric Power .... 722, 823, 915 

Rocm Illuminated by Miniature Lamps. 46 

Rope Drive 614 

Rotary Snap Switch 44 

Rotating- Condenser 358 

Roumania, Electric Grain Handling in.. 390 

Rubber Covered Wires. Seams on 532 

Rubber, Para 121 

Russia, American Engineering in 600 

Russian Electrical Railway Exposition. 309 



Sacramento CCal.) Wireless Club 943 

Safe Explosive • 306 

Safeguarding Airships by Wireless 260 

Safe Temperatures for Dynamos 333 

Safety League, Portland 437 

Safety Valve for Lighting 718 

Sal Ammoniac Cells 359 

Sandwich Man, An Electric . 1072 

Sanitary Automatic Pump 482 

Sawdust, Using Electrically 124 

Saw Filing, Electric 995 

Saw for Metal 479 

Saw, Rail-cutting 237 

Scenic Railway in Brazil 1065 

Schildhauer, Edward 988 

School Room, The Telephone in the 121 

Schools, Pure Air in 483 

Scientist, A Far Sighted 603 

^Score Board, Baseball Electric 312 

Scrubbing Machine, Electric 328 

Sea, Journalism of the 972 

Sealing Wax Heater. Electric 491 

Seams on Rubber Covered Wire 532 

Searchlights, Aerial 959 

Searchlights in France 609 

Searchlight, Motor Beat 1032 

Seasoning Wood by Electricity 14 

Secondary of Induction Coil. Direction to 

Wind 848 

Securities, Electrical 14 

Seeing Is Believing- 593 

Self Photography by Electricity 1031 

Self Winding Clock 496 

Semaphore, The Electric 217 

Sending and Receiving Radii 261 

Sending Connections 357 

Sending Current, Measuring - 1039 

Sending Radius 357 

Sensitiveness of Loose Coupled Tuner... 1134 

Servant Call 238 

Setting Up Gravity Cells 27 

Sewing Up Grain Bags 1105 

Shade, Adjustable Lamp 727 

Shadow Dancing - , Artistic 1085 

Sharpening Files 129 

Ship Lighting- 40 

Ship's Location During- Fogs, Getting a. 1073 

Ships, New Philippine Cable 313 

Shoe Shining- Machine 74 

Shooting Without Ammunition 315 

Shopping Service, Night Telephone 507 

Shot in the Eyeball, Locating a 105 

Shows, "Electric Girl" 890 

Show Windows, Autos as 526 

Show Windows, Torches for 822 

Sickness, Curing the Sleeping- 127 

Side-Lights on Ancient History. 594, 696, 786 

Sidewalk Sign 9S9 

Sign, A Flashing Counter 726 

Sign. An Aerial Electric 910 

Sign, Artistic Display 1080 

Sign, Electric Diving 119 

Sign, Facial Expression Electric 613 

Sign, Sidewalk 989 

Sign. "Whirling Window 488 

Signs, Collapsible 119 

Signs f r r Airships 23 

Signs, Illuminated Prismatic 1020 

Signboard to Facilitate Ticket Selling.. 1108 

Signal Batteries. Protecting 117 

Signal, "Enough Water". 921 

Signal Intensifier r.... 1038 

Signal Lamp, A Boy Scout 934 



Signal, Railway Crossing 

Signal System. Elevator 

Signaling, Electric Block 

691, 781, 880, 984, 

Signals Aid Mariners, Time 

Signals, High Speeds and 

Signals, Inductive 

S'i'con Detector ■ 

Silver Plated Porcelain 

Simple Galvanometer 

Simplicity the Keynote 

Skating All the Year Around, Ice 

Skull, The Story of a 

Sleeping Sickness, Curing the 

Sleet on Aluminum Lines 

Sliding- Condenser 

Sliding Plate Condenser 

Slip, Frequency and . 

Slug Holder, Telephone 

Smallest Motor in the World 

Smelting Furnace, Electric 

Smithy, In the Modern Village 

Smoke Recorder 

Snap Switch, Rotary 

Snap Switches, Testing 

Snow-Melting- Trolley Cars 

Snow Plows and Trucks, Trackless 

Snowstorms, Suspended Railways Con- 
quer 

Socket, Rating of Standard.. 

Solder for Aluminum 

Solder for Detector Crystals 

Soldering Iron, Electric 

Solenoid, Therapeutic 

Solution, Battery . : 

Solution, Rectifier 

Solvents, Making New 

Some Accounts of the First Edison Cen- 
tral Station at Menlo Park, N. J. .... . 

Some Historical Measuring Instruments. 

South Pole Quest, Telephone in the. . . . 

Span of Wire Across Carquinez Straits. 

Spandau, Aerial Lighthouse of 

Spark Coil Condenser 

Spark Coil, Construction and Operation 
of a Ten Inch. . . 

Spark Coil Dimensions 

Spark Coil, Energy for Two Inch 

Spark Coil on 110 Volts 

Spark Coil Windings 

Spark Coils on 110 Volts. Operation of. . 

Spark Gap, Voltage and 

Spark Muffler . . ■ 

Sparking Brushes 

Sparkless System 

Sparks Under Water 

Speed and Pleasure with Electric Boats. 

Speed Regulators for Small Motors.... 

Speeding Up Coal Production 

Sperry, Elmer A 

Spiral Steel Pipe Lines 

Sprague, Frank J 

Spring - Clip Cord Adjuster 

Springfield (Mass.) Wireless Association 

Springs. Locating Telephonically 

Square Mils 

Stage Costume, Electrified 

Stage Illusion, Producing a 

Stage Lighting, Color Changes in Early 

Startling- Gateway 

Stair Lighting, Three-minute 

Stairs, Electrically Hardened 

Static Electric Machines 

Station Lighting, Country Railway.... 

Stations, Directory of "Wireless 

Stationary Condenser 

Stationary Vacuum Cleaning System.... 

Statistics, Electrical 128. 

Statuary Authenticity Determined by X- 
rays 

Steam-electric Locomobile. Largest 

Steam Turbine 

Steam vs. Electric Engines 

Steel City Wire Tower 

Steel Electrically Made 

Steel Pier, Indirect Illumination for the 

Step Down Transformer 

Sterilizers, Flatirons as 

Sterilizing Liquids by Ultra-Violet Rays 



Pag-e 
71 

165 

1068 
600 
201 

1133 
262 

1051 

1030 
136 
892 

1081 
127 
870 
69 
751 
560 

1015 

777 

44 

327 

1019 

44 

317 

947 

1075 

700 

560 
645 
1129 
227 
456 
752 
944 
828 

663 
1021 
1075 
808 
304 
751 

943 
163 
943 
453 
847 

1127 
751 

1133 
359 
358 
220 
211 

1099 
995 

1112 

30 

338 

1110 
350 
706 
752 
413 

1104 
32 

1097 
399 
819 
602 
983 
S4 6 
69 

1020 
307 



703 

271 
417 
4 05 
130 
396 
644 
64 
11 flil 



POPU LAP ELECTRICITY 



13 






Page 

Sterilizing' Surgical Instruments 489 

Sterilizing' Water by Ozone 987 

Stevedore, The Electric 1097 

Stiffening- Honey Combs. 796 

Stomach, X-ray Pictures of the 1096 

Stone and Marble Cutter 142 

Storage Battery, Edison 567 

Storage Battery, For the Man with a... 816 

Storage Battery, Principle c f 106 

Storage Battery. The New Edison 99 

Storage Batteries 1138 

Store Delivers by Electrics, Department 795 

Store to Install Wireless, Department... 1037 

Storing' Electric Heat 133 

Story of a Skull 1081 

Story of a Telephone Pole 515 

Story of Great Inventic ns 1042 

Story of Mica 766 

Story of Sunbury Station 391 

Stove and Toaster 1014 

Stove and Toaster Combined 1020 

Stove and Toaster, Electric 228 

Stove, Combined Electric and Fireless.. 1025 

Stove Cooks for 18. One Electric 638 

Stranded Wire for Hig-h Frequency Cur- 
rents 944 

Street Announcer, Automatic 427 

Street Lamps 421 

Street Lighting' Once Thought Sacrile- 
gious 39 

Streets, Electric Power Cleans 708 

Submarine Telegraph Cable 130 

Submarines. Electricity and the 376 

Subscriber's Unique Telephone Sets 23 

Sub-station, Pcrtable 702 

Subway in Paris 25 

Subways, The New York and Paris 223 

Sunbury Station, The Story of 391 

Sunday Telephone Letters 1076 

Sunlight on Transmission, Effect of 260 

Sun's Rays, Electricity from 305 

Superheated Steam Units 823 

Sure Remedy 911 

Surgical Instruments, Sterilizing- 489 

Surrender and Re-Issue of Letters Pat- 
ent 1041 

Suspended Electric Drill 610 

Suspended Electric Ferry ■ 607 

Suspended Figure 604 

Suspended Railway 518, 894 

Suspended Railways Conquer Snow- 
storms 700 

Sweden to Denmark, Tunnel from 213 

Sweeping-, Beating- and Dusting- in One 

Operation 734 

Sweets for the Sweet 339 

Switch, Candelabra 142 

Switch Mat, Electric .34 

Switch, Multi-indicator 238 

Switch, Rotary Snap _ 44 

"Switchboards" ' 562 

Switchboard that Thinks 812 

Switches, Testing- Snap 317 

Symbols, Plain English or 330 



Table, Electric Transfer 44 

Table Lamp, A Dainty 488 

Tableaux, Electric 32 

T.-iI'l Banquet, Tubes of Light at the... 407 

Tale of Engine that Spins 271 

Talking Between Chicago and New York 774 

Tantalum and Mercury Detectors 2G2 

Tantalum Lamps for Car Lighting 1005 

Targets Electrically Operated 476 

Targets Moved Electrically 1 002 

Tarsus, Electric Lights in 414 

Tatoo, The Lure of the 590 

Taxes and Cigar Lighters 329 

Taxes, Dodging German 712 

Taxicab, Latest 141 

Taxicabs, Telephone Stations Eor 803 

Teaching Chinese Electric Railroading.. 871 

Telegraph • 1047 

Telegraph, Galileo and the 40 

Telegraph in the Far East 1062 



Pase 

Telegraph, Letters by 38 

Telegraph Pole, A Life Saving- 911 

Telegraph Typewriter 1016 

Telegrapher, Pioneer 39 

Telegraphy, Quadruplex 167 

Telephone and Time Service 493 

Telephone, A Loud Speaking 1014 

Telephone as a Current Setector 130 

Telephone Attachment for Ncisy Places. 632 

Telephone, Automatic 166 

Telephone Booth Ventilation 41 

Telephone Cable, Making- and Testing. . . 686 

Telephone Calls, How Handled 1012 

Telephone Coil Carrier 125 

Telephone Construction, Installath n, 

Wiring, Operation and Maintenance.. 850 

Telephone, Correct Time by 801 

Telephone, Doctor Studies Heart by 333 

Telephone, First Wireless 226 

Telephone Helps Save Forests 741 

Telephone, Holding- Court by 118 

Telephone Jcsher, Trapping a 154 

Telephone Induction Coil 360 

Telephone in an Emergency 904 

Telephone in Foreign Countries 518 

Telephone in South Pole Quest 1075 

Telephone in the School Room 121 

Telephone Letters, Sunday 1 076 

Telephone, Long Distance 774 

Telephone Magnetos 166 

Telephone Magnets in the Making 232 

Telephone, Mine 45 

Telephone Operator as I Know Her 671 

Telephone Pole, Story of a 515 

Telephone Receiver Handle 822 

Telephone Receiver, Noise in 751 

Telephone Repeater 1 071 

Telephone Sets, Subscriber's Unique.... 23 

Telephone Shopping Service, Night 507 

Telephone Slug Holder 1015 

Telephone Station in Holland, Public... 33 

Telephone Stations for Taxicabs S03 

Telephone Statistics 34 

Telephone System on Election Night.... 794 

Telephone Talks, How the 22 

Telephone, The Beginnings of the 858 

Telephone, The Coming of the Multiplex 965 

Telephone, The Eskimo and the 123 

Telephone Twelve Thousand Feet from 

Daylight 800 

Telephone, Wireless 164 

Telephone Wires, Building a Hou-e Over 416 

Telephoning frcm ah Automobile. ...:.. 886 

Telephoning from London to Paris 305 

Telephones, Farmers' 720 

Telephones, Use of Army 315 

Telephonology : 362 

Temperature and Resistance 656 

Temperature for Dynamos, Safe 333 

Temperature in Bins of Grain 129 

Temperature in Concrete, Measuring.... 414 

Testing with Half Million Volts 7 

Terrestrial Magnetism 196 

Test Clip, An Insulated . : 913 

Test for Current Polarity 101 

Tester, Inexpensive Battery 530 

Testing a Csble 136 

Testing a High Voltage Line 706 

Testing Airship Propellers 709 

Testing Copper-Clad Steel Wire 217 

Testing Electrical Apparatus a Quarter 

of a Century Ago 611 

Testing High Tension Insulators 412 

Testing Snap Switches 317 

Tesla Coils 559 

Tesla High Frequency Apparatus 728 

Tesla High Frequency Coil 946 

Tesla High Frequency Coil, Its Con- 
struction and Uses 1042 

Testing Lamp, Pocket 828 

Testing Lamp Vacuum 727 

Testing Telephone Cable. Making and.. 686 

Texas. The Early Hays in 215 

Therapeutic Light Treatment 494 

Therapeutic Solenoids 456 

Theatre, Electrici'ty in the Modern 959 

Theatres, Signboard for HON 

Thief Catcher 70S 



14 



POP [ FLA R ELECTRICITY 



Thimble Battery, Across the Atlantic 
with 

Thimble. Magnetic 

Third Wire 

Thirty Years of Electrical Progress 

Thomas A. Edison 567 663 

Thomas Comerford Martin 

Thomas Davenport 

Thompson. Sir William < Lc rd Kelvin i ' ' 

Iho-mpson, Sir William 

Thc-rardson, C. H 

Three Illustrious Wrights '.'. 

Three in One 

Three In One Plug 

Three-minute Stair Lighting i :.'..". 

Three Push Button Annunciator.-. . 

Three Slide Tuning Co.l. . . . 

Threshing, Electrical \ . 

Thunder Storm Announcer. Wirele-s 

Tickers in Berlin, Police 

Ticket Selling, Signboard to Facilitate. 

Time by Telephone, Cc rrect 

Time Recorded for Automobiles 

Time Service, Telephone and 

Time Signals Aid Mariners 

Timing Bullet Speeds 

Timing Concrete Electrically 

Tin Cans, One Hundred Years of 

Tires, Pump for Inflating 

Toasters, A New Wrinkle in 

Toaster and S'tove 

Toaster and Stove Combined 

Toaster, Electric Stove and 

Toaster, Improved 

Toaster, The Cozy 

Tobacco, Aging and Curing of 

Tomorrows of Electricity and Invention 

Ton of Platinum 

Toncan Metal 

Tongs, Magnets Instead of 

Torches for Show Windows 

Torque 

Tower, Transmission 

Toy Railway Car Re verser 

Track Laying, Record in 

Trackless Snow Plows and Trucks 

Trackless Trolley in America, The First 

Trackless Trolley Lines 

Traction Fake, The Magnetic 

Trade Marks, Fifteenth Century 

Training and Firing a 60-Ton Gun 

Transfer Table, Electric 

Transformer 

Transformer, A Low-Voltage 

Transformer, A Step Down 

Transformer, Condenser for % K. W. . . 

Transformer Losses 

Transformer, % K. W. . . 

Transformer, One-Kilowatt 

Transformer, Open Core Wireless 

Transformer Ratio 

Transformer, Tuning 847. 

Transformer Windings 

Transformers and Generators, Grounding 

Transmission, Effect of Sunlight on.... 

Transmission, High Voltage 

Transmission, Long Distance 

Transmission cf Photographs by Wire- 
less 

Transmission Tower 

Transmitting and Receiving 

Transportation, Automatic 

Transporting Money by Motor 

Transporting Ore 

Trapping a Telephone Josher 

Traveler's Iron, Electric 

Traveling' Crane 

Tree Felling, Electric 

Tree Insulator, Glass 

Trial cf the Edison Battery Car 

Triennial Conclave of the Knights Tem- 
plar 

Trimming Lamps 

Trip-hammer, Feeding a 

Trolley Cars 

Trolley Guard. An Effective 

Trolley Lines, Trackless 

Trolley Train, Miniature 

Trolley Wheel ■ 



Page 

127 
735 
530 
128 
778 
239 
770 
175 
508 
829 
103 

1015 

481 

399 

72 

1132 
'785 
93S 
306 

1108 
801 
141 
493 
600 

1093 
616 
659 
909 
834 

1014 

1020 
228 
832 
735 
170 
79 
413 
801 
629 
822 
456 

546 

305 

1075 

700 

31 

807 

605 

511 

44 

310 

238 

644 

358 

752 

454 

751 

747 

656 

1039 

1136 

263 

260 

71 

788 

254 
88 
552 
894 
698 
405 
154 
145 
224 
810 
1022 
903 

469 
171 
325 
780 
721 
31 
857 
621 



Trolleys Climb Mountains 

Trolleys in Paris, Under-running 

Trouble Finder, Ignition 

Trouble Lamp, Automobile 

'.L rucks, Electric 

Trucks, Electric Platfc rm 

Trucks on the Farm, Electric 

Trucks, Trackless Snow Plows and 

Tube Lighting, Moore Vacuum 

Tubes of Light at the Taft Banquet. . . . 

Tubes Under River, Through Giant 

Tubular Condenser 

Tuner, Sensitiveness of Loose Coupled. . 

Tungsten Bracket Fixtures 

Tungsten Filaments Are Squirted, How. 

Tungsten Filaments. Drawn.... 

Tungsten, Increasing Life of 

Tungsten Lamps, Jar Tests of 

Tungsten Lamps, Ornamental Posts for 

Tungsten Lights Up First 

Tungsten, Not a New Metal 

Tungsten Ore 

Tunsten Production in 1910 

Tungsten Street Suspension Lamps 

Tuning Coil 

Tuning Coil, Bridging a 

Tuning - Coil Dimensions 

Tuning Coil, Double Slide 

Tuning Coil for High Resistance Re- 
ceiver 

Tuning Coil, Three Slide 

Tuning Coil Wave Length 

TTaning Coils, Enameled Wire on 

Tuning Fork for Ear Treatment 

Tuning Transformer 847, 

Tunnel from Sweden to Denmark 

Tunnel to be Electrified, Hoosac 

Turbine, Steam 

Turbo-Generator 

Twentieth Century Han<_f Book for 
Steam Engineers and Electricians.... 

Two Thousand Miles by Electric Car. . . 

Typewriter, A Telegraph 

u 



Ultra- Violet Rays, Sterilizing Liquids 
Underground Railways of Paris.... 
Under-running Trolleys in Paris... 

Underwriters" Laboratories 

Underwriters' Rules 

Uncle Sam's New- Money Car 

Upward Signs 

Uses of the Flexilyte 

Uses of Hydrogen 

Utility Motor 

Utilizing Old Dry Batteries 



by 



Page 

33 
216 
237 

487 
400 

20 
468 

1075 

1024 
407 
903 
846 

1134 
487 
623 
111 
713 
622 
489 
219 
225 
29 

11177 
421 
164 
558 
558 



262 

1132 

454 

1134 

169 

1039 

213 

713 

271 

271 

457 

324 

1016 



1100 

25 

216 

317 

1136 
798 
23 
720 
884 
639 
617 



Vacuum Cleaned Car Tracks 851 

Vacuum Cleaner ...734, 1020 

Vacuum Cleaner, A New Portable 929 

Vacuum Cleaner, Evolution rf the 536 

Vacuum Cleaner in a Glass House 1017 

Vacuum Cleaner, Portable 484 

Vacuum Cleaning 1115 

Vacuum Cleaning System 1017, 1020 

Vacuum Cleaning System, Permanent... 732 

Vacuum Fly Trap 1115 

Vacuum, Testing Lamp 727 

Vacuum Tube Lighting' 1024 

Valve, Largest in the World 996 

Vanishing Lady 1121 

Variable Condenser 751 

Variable Condenser, High Tension 650 

Variable Speed Alternating Current Mo- 
tor 1102 

Vat for Electroplating 727 

Vaudeville, Induction Coils :n 410 

Vaults, Electrical Protection of ,04 

Ventilation Easily Controlled 820 

Ventilation, Telephone Booth 41 

Vertical Carbon Flaming Arc 487 

Vest Pocket Wire Gauge 229 

Vestibule LigM 921 

Viaduct. A Half-million Dollar 900 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



15 



Page 

VVbrating Chair 498 

Vibration,' Electric 498 

Village Smithy, In the Modern 327 

Violin, Prictional Electricity en the.... 703 

Vise, Making- a 921 

Voltage and Spark Gap 751 

Voltage Causes Death, What 679 

Voltage, Drop in 656 

Voltage for One Inch Spark Coil 943 

Volts Lost 752 



w 



of. 



War, Automobiles as Engines 

Wardrobe Lights, Portable 

Warming Pad 

Warming Pan 

"Warming Plate, Combination Oven 

"Washer and Wringer, Belt Driven 

Washer and Ringer, Electric 435, 

Washing and Ironing Outfit 

Washing Machine, All Metal 

Warships, Illuminating Our 

Watch, Luminous 

Watches. Demagnetizing 

Water Heater 

Water Power, Fifty Kilowatts of 

Water Supply, Purifying of City's 

Water Tank Alarm 

Wave Length 69, 

Wave Length, Determination of 

Wave Length, Tuning Coil 

Wave Motor 

Wave Motors Feasible 

Wedding Decoration, Impressive Elec- 
trical 

Wehnelt Interrupter 

Welded Rails, Across Europe on 

Welders, Non-explosive 

Welding, Electric 138, 

Wellman Expedition 

Wellman's Achievement 

Welsbach Electric Lights 

Westchester "Wireless Association 

We Wonder Why 

What Becomes of a Cabled Message.... 

What Voltage Causes Death 

Where Art and Science Meet 

830. 924, 1027. 

Where Electricitv Stands in the Practice 
of Medicine. .15, 107, 207, 300, 397, 503, 

Where Lightning Strikes 

Whirling Window Sign 

W. H. Meadowcroft 

Why Don't You Use Electricity 

William Thompson 

Wind Measuring. Electrical 

Wind Mills and Wind Motors. How to 
Build and Run Them 

Wind Vane Indicator 

Winding Secondary of Induction Coil... 

Winding 12-slot Armature 

Windings, Spark Coil 

Windings, Transformer 

Window Advertising Novelty 

Window Attraction, An Effective 

Window Cleaner, Motorman's 

Window Cleaners. Gyroscope for 

Window Lighting, Correct and Incorrect 

Window Sign. Whirling 

Windows as Reflectors 

Wire Chiefs Meet 

Copper and Aluminum 

Enamel Insulated Magnet 

Measuring Device 

Gauge, Vest Pocket > . . . 

Testing Copper-Clad Steel 

Tower, A Steel City 

Wiring a House. 

Wires, Building ; 

Wires in a Cable 

Wires if Unseen Metal, Bare 

Wires Hue Hundred Amperes Will Fuse 

Wires, Seams on Rubber Covered 

Wiring a Three Tush Button Annunci 
ator 

Wiring Devices, Innovations in 

Wiring, Results of Imperfect 

Wiring Through Joists 



Wire, 
Wire. 
Wire 
Wire 
Wire, 
Wire 



House Over Telephone 



408 

488 

490 

229 

834 

485 

482 

482 ■ 
1017 

474 

909 

129 
1015 

618 

36 

1122 

164 

253 

454 

791 

607 

1023 

1134 

713 

lbi's 

570 
755 
889 
551 
947 
1000 
679 

1114 

596 

701 

488 

430- 

171 

508 

901 

1138 
617 
S4S 
848 
847 

1136 
898 
519 
910 
415 
28 
488 
891 
413 
71 
422 
29 
229 
217 
405 
850 
416 
308 
119 
421 
532 



1023 

230 

29 



Page 
Wireless Apparatus, Protective Device 

for , 159 

Wireless Association, Central California 550 

Wireless Association, Haverhill 845 

Wireless Association of Montana 845 

Wireless Association, Rockland County. 260 

Wireless Association, Westchester 551 

Wireless at a Los Angeles Aviation 

Meet 1035 

Wireless at Electrical Show 1037 

Wireless Burglar Alarm 350 

Wireless Club Contest 1038 

Wireless Club of Baltimore 846 

Wireless Club, Progressive 846 

Wireless Club, Sacramento (Cal.) 943 

Wireless, Controlling Boats by 856 

AVireless Club, The Chicago 453 

Wireless Efficiency 1130 

Wireless Equipment, A High Power. . . . 
63, 155, 255, 351, 449, 547, 646, 742, 842, 

935, 1124 

Wireless from Coast to Coast 260 

AVireless, Hearing Grand Opera by. . .-. . . 62 

Wireless, Honolulu Heard by 745 

Wireless in Every Home 348 

Wireless in Modern Journalism 652 

AVireless in the Puget Sound Fisheries. 60 

Wireless Legislation 446 

Wireless Messages at Chickamauga. . . . 651 

Wireless Newspapers 972 

Wireless on Mountain Top, Automobile. 746 

Wireless Operator, The First Woman... 938 

Wireless Outwits the Censors 938 

Wireless, Prescription by 1131 

Wireless Problems 943 

Wireless Rates, Low 904 

Wireless, Safeguarding Airships by 260 

Wireless Station, Eiffel Tower 160 

Wireless Station, Newspaper Establishes 

a 260 

Wireless Telegraph Construction for 

Amateurs 754 

Wireless Telegraph Instructor 1019 

Wireless Telegraphy, Automobile 551 

Wireless Telephone 164, 226, 658 

Wireless Telephones 946 

Wireless Telephones and How They 

Work 850 

Wireless Telephone, Collins 158 

Wireless Thunderstorm Announcer 938 

Wireless Transformer, Open Core 747 

Wireless, Transmission of Photographs 

by '- . . 254 

Wireless Waves, Aerial and 1133 

Wireless without a Ground 1128 

Woman, Electricity in the Service of... 735 

Woman, First to Send C. Q. D 938 

Woman's Influence in the Automobile 

Field 832 

Women Vote for Electricity 147 

Wood, Seasoning by Electricity 14 

Work Shop Wrinkles and Recipes 850 

World's Greatest Pig Yard 1103 

Wrecking a Bridge 1065 

Wrecks from Davie Jones' Locker, Lift- 
ing 1084 

Wrights, Three Illustrious 103 

Wringer, Belt Driven Washer and 485 

Wringer, Electric Washer and 4 35 

Writes by Its Own Light 741 

X 

X-Ray Moving Pictures ... 001 

X-Ray Pictures of the Stomach 1096 

X-Ray Tubes 455 

X-Rays 360 

X-Rays for Examining Eyes 905 

X-Rays for Examining Petrifactions.... 721 

X-Rays, Locating Pearls with 1043 

X-Rays, Photographing Through the 

Body With !>•'' 

X-Rays, Statuary Authenticity Deter- 

. • , -. 9 9 

mined by --- 

Y 

Yacht, The Carnegie Non-magnetic 196 

young Experimenter 343 

Yukon, Dredging en the 870 



,vn 



^ 



&ms. 



Electricity 

IN PLAIN ENGLISH 




VOL. Ill 



MAY 1910 



No. 1 



Current From — Where? 



BY EDGAR FRANKLIN 



CHAPTER I. 

AN OBSTACLE OR TWO 



The powerful little second-hand runabout 
grazed the curb and stopped; and Race, 
having delivered a last torrent of under- 
breath profanity at the world in general, 
turned toward the one-story brick office. 

And his evil humor departed suddenly, as 
his eye caught the chaste brass tablet be- 
side the door — Race actually grinned! 

It was a pleasant thing to look upon, that 
tablet. "Bronton Electric Light & Power 
Company" stood forth in the unostentatious 
dignity of small, square black letters. It 
was a conservative, impressive sign— and 
very, very new and shiny. 

"Bronton Electric Light & Power Com- 
pany!" Bustling little Bronton had at- 
tained her place as a city; her first mayor 
was in his second year of office; and now 
she was to put away the gasoline and oil 
lamps of her earlier days, and shimmer with 
electric light! 

Somehow the notion struck Race more 
forcefully than usual this morning. He 
stopped on the upper step and looked around, 
and he thought of the Bronton of eleven 
years back, when Dunbar's people had first 
located there and he had come to visit 
studious Bill Dunbar. 

Where Main Street had been little better 
than a dirt road then, she boasted asphalt 
now; across the way, where the big granite 
bank stood now, had been a little ramshackle 
home, with two huge maples; on the other 
corner, Jenkins' store, with its wonderful 
maze of shovels and forks and wheel-barrows 



strung outside, had been replaced by Berg's 
three stories of department store and — 
incidentally, there was Berg, staring over 
at the Bronton Electric office, as if to ask 
just when the arc lights would be put on 
his fixtures and the current turned on! 

Race came out of the dreamy past with 
something of a bump and turned abruptly 
to the office door. The smile had vanished 
in a flash, and his face was angry as he 
entered. 

At one of the desks sat Dunbar, big, 
keen-eyed, sharp-faced — a man, like Race, 
in the early thirties — with a mass of blue- 
prints spread before him. At the other, 
Mr. Carey, Dunbar's wealthy uncle, was 
dozing comfortably over his paper. 

Together, they looked up as Mr. Race 
landed in his own chair with a thud. 

He glanced at his mail and left it un- 
touched; he whirled his chair around and 
shot at them: 

"Gentlemen!" 

"Er what?" Dunbar had almost lost 

himself in the plans again. 

"As president, business manager and 
private detective of this company," rasped 
Race, "I have to report a fire at our eternally 
uncompleted central station!" 

"What?" Dunbar came out of the land 
of blue-prints with a rush. "Another 
one?" 

"Maybe it's the same one!" the president 
snapped. "It's only two days since the 
last!" 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



"But, my dear Robert," protested Carey, 
"how on earth " 

"I don't know how — I don't pretend to 
know how!" said Race, rather violently. 
"I know just this: if we're ever going to 
build that generating plant, we'll have to 
abandon that wooden shack, build a solid 
concrete power-house — and then hire a fire- 
engine to go around and around it at a slow 
trot, day and night!" 

Race snorted. Carey folded his paper and 
frowned a little. 

" What was the trouble this time, Robert?" 

"Bunch of shavings — incidentally, soaked 
with kerosene — caught fire outside the north 
wall. Ryan found it just as the clap- 
boards were getting a good start, early this 
morning. If we hadn't had him there for 
night-watchman the whole place would 
have been gone! And that's the third fire 
in a month!" 

"But who " Dunbar began. 

"Some relic of the War of 1812, who 
doesn't approve of modern methods, I 
guess!" Race grunted. 

He sat back, gnawing his lip. Mr. 
Carey cleared his throat. 

"I don't know, boys," he said thought- 
fully. "Somehow, it seems to me that this 
whole concern has been mismanaged from 
the start! The " 

" Why? In not building the plant first?" 
Race asked, rapidly. "I don't see it! 
Look here! When Bill, here, suggested that 
there would be a lot of money in an electric 
plant in this place, I threw up the job in 
Chicago, drew the savings of ten fat years 
out of the bank, cashed in my lonely five- 
thousand-dollar mortgage, and came here 
with the roll. Therefore I didn't come 
purely for love. See ? I came for business 
— came here to do the business end of it 
myself, for Bill hasn't enough business head 
to buy cigars without being trimmed!" 

Dunbar smiled a little at his life-long 
chum; that last statement was near to the 
truth. 

"I may not be able to connect up a tele- 
phone without calling out the police and the 
fire department to help," pursued Mr. 
Race, whose capable tongue was well under 
way, " but I was able to walk in and get the 
charter for this company with two men 
already on the ground — and it didn't cost 
me two hundred dollars, all told, either!" 
he chuckled. "Why that blamed charter's 
so broad that literally all we're bound to 



do is to leave the town where it stands and 
be ready to sell it electricity before mid- 
night, June thirtieth!" 

"And just that June thir " Mr. Carey 

interposed. 

" We're getting well along into May now — 
I know it," the president admitted. "But 
that brings us to the point! Have I done 
good or bad business in letting the actual 
plant-building slide for the sake of bustling 
the distribution end of the thing? We've 
got our poles up and our lines and trans- 
formers and everything else on them be- 
fore anyone could raise a rumpus! Not 
that anyone wants to — the whole town's 
too crazy for its light — but there are sore- 
heads lingering around from the crowd that 
didn't get the franchise. If they'd managed 
to stir up a few property owners and get 
injunctions about planting poles, and so on 
— well, you know what an injunction is, 
Mr. Carey." 

" You and William have done wonderfully 
quick work with the few good men you were 
able to get," conceded Mr. Carey. 

"And now — good Lord!" laughed Race. 
"The interior wiring — fixtures — everything's 
ready, in the houses and stores and streets. 
Gentlemen, we have stirred this Western 
town into something about ten points livelier 
than New York! Now, with the building 
owned by you, Mr. Carey, and on your own 
land — we'll simply build our plant and " 

Dunbar had been silent. Now he looked 
up rather moodily. 

"When we have something to build it 
with!" he said. 

"You've got your boilers, Bill!" said 
Race cheerily. 

"We're not calculating on furnishing 
Bronton with steam heat," said the engineer. 
"How much damage did the fire do?" 

"Not much — not as much as the one day 
before yesterday — not nearly so much as the 
first one, a month ago. It's all easily fixed. 
We'll be ready on time!" 

"And Ryan had no idea how it started?" 

"Not the least. He said there was no 
one around." 

" One fire inside, when there was no watch- 
man about. Two fires outside, since we've 
kept Ryan there at night!" Mr. Carey mused. 

"And no fires henceforth!" Race directed 
his optimistic smile at the elder man. " Be- 
cause I told Murton to stop waiting around 
the station for the arrival of the fragmentary 
engine-room equipment he's going to put 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



together some day, do his sleeping in the 
day-time and patrol the outside of the sta- 
tion at night!" 

Silence came, the sort of heavy silence 
that had taken to invading the office re- 
cently. Race turned to his mail and opened 
an envelope. 

"Coal people," he observed. "Guess it's 
our contract at " 

"Did you stop at the freight office?" 
Dunbar asked, irrelevantly. 

"Yes." The president turned from his 
mail. 

"Any signs of our generators coming?" 

"Yes! They're actually on the way and 
almost here!" Race cried, enthusiastically. 

"They've been that for some time!" 
Carey observed dryly. 

"Well, this time " Race began — and 

stopped short. "Lord! Here comes Bowers 
for a social call!" he said, softly. 

The trio turned toward the glass door. 
A figure was visible outside; indeed the 
figure would almost have been visible 
through a wooden door, for it was clad in a 
wide-striped suit and its burly owner wore 
one of the few silk hats in B ronton, cocked 
at a jaunty angle over one ear. 

Such was the exterior of Mr. Bowers, the 
newest important arrival in Bronton. Where 
he came from, what he had been, nobody 
seemed anxious to determine. He was 
merely a rather crude citizen who had made 
some money somewhere in lumber and, 
settling in Bronton, had interested ,hims If 
in local politics — to what end the future 
alone could reveal. 

"Everybody's friend is going to honor us 
again!" said Dunbar, rather wearily, as he 
shoved back the plans with a sigh. 

Mr. Bowers closed the door and favored 
them with an expansive, reddish-mottled 
smile. 

"Howdy!" said Mr. Bowers, as he waved 
one hand at them in a general sweep of 
greeting and plumped comfortably into the 
big chair in the shaded corner. "Have a 
cigar, anybody?" 

They declined. Bowers smiled as he 
crossed his legs and puffed for a minute or 
so; then his lips opened with a characteristic 
smack and: 

" Y'know, I never saw this town in spring 
before! Them trees on Ridge Street are like 
a picture, aint they?" 

"They're fine trees," Race agreed, without 
enthusiasm. 



"Say, when the leaves are out full, they're 
goin' to hide them wires of yours fine!" 

"That's good," agreed Dunbar, apathet- 
ically. 

Mr. Bowers smoked on contentedly for a 
little. 

" Well, how's the juice factory comin' on?" 
he inquired. "Pretty near ready to light 
us up?" 

"We're doing nicely!" replied Race. 

"All ready, hey?" 

" Oh, — there are always a lot of finishing 
touches to be put on at the last moment, 
you know," smiled Dunbar. 

"Great town, this here!" mused the visi- 
tor. "Biggest kind of future for us fellers 
that come in about now. This place is 
going to grow so fast when the new road 
runs through, over at the other side o' 
town that — say! they ain't ten miles away 
with their track-laying now ! Why the dick- 
ens didn't you people build over there, in- 
stead o' down across the old tracks? That 
old Kane Junction-Bronton branch'll be 
so dead when the new road comes that the 
pyramids'll look like a moving picture show 
beside it!" 

"Well, the land belonged to us, you see," 
Dunbar explained. "Then, there was a 
building on the spot which " 

Race, with a rather caustic glance at his 
partner, broke in abruptly on that gentle- 
man's charming frankness. 

"I say, Bowers!" he said, with a grin. 
" That mysterious factory you've been build- 
ing over in the new part— pretty nearly done, 
isn't it?" 

" Eh ?" Bowers turned suddenly dubious. 

" We haven't seen any crates carted through 
here for a month," Race pursued. "Got 
your machinery set up ready for business?" 

"That's what I came over to see you 
about," said Mr. Bowers, gravely. "Sure! 
I'm ready for business, all right, when " 

"What are you going to make over there, 
anyway?" Race urged, jovially, for he had 
little desire to dwell on anything connected 
with their own particular affairs. "Come 
on! Let's have the secret now, Bowers!" 

The other looked at him grimly. 

"It'll be no secret, by the time I'm turn- 
ing out goods," he said, angrily. "Process 
patent I bought — compound for combs, poker 
chips, and that sort o' thing. Keep it quiet, 
if you will, boys." 

Mr. Bowers sat up and looked at them, 
earnestly and very sourly. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



"And that's the main thing I came t' 
find out!" he announced. "How'm I going 
to run a factory — how are you — now?" 

" Now?" echoed Dunbar. 

Bowers stared at him. 

" Aint you trying to contract for coal with 
the Stelton people?" he asked. 

"Of course. We can't buy from anyone 
else out here." 

"Well, aint you heard from 'em, this 
morning's mail?" 

Race regarded him for a moment; then 
he turned swiftly and SDatcbed the letter 
from the envelope he had opened. Possibly 
twenty seconds were consumed in running 
over the two or three lines; then: 

" Holy Moses!" gasped the president of 
the company. 

"They won't sign no contract now, and if 
you want coal, you gotter pay seven dollars 
a ton for it — huh ? Did they hand you 
that, too?" 

Race licked his lips. He stared again 
at the typewritten note; then he faced 
Bowers. 

"Yes!" he said, rather weakly. "They 
handed us that, too!" 

CHAPTER II. 

NAILED DOWN! 

Half a minute, the trio sat almost agape, 
their gaze on Bowers. The visitor returned 
the stare, smiling ironically. 

"What d'you know about that?" he in- 
quired at last. 

"Why, it's — it's idiocy!" Race gasped. 

"It's worse'n that!" 

"But — seven dollars! You can buy hard 
coal here cheaper than that from the little 
dealers!" Dunbar cried. 

"Guess so — if you wanted it and could 
get enough," acquiesced the visitor. 

"But — good Lord Almighty!" Race burst 
out. "This is nothing but a plain, old- 
fashioned hold-up! Here they'll sign no 
contract of any kind before the middle of 
August — they hint at some unholy figure 
then — and we can have what steam coal we 
want now for seven — bah!" 

"Have you any idea of the cause?" Mr. 
Carey inquired mildly. 

"I aint slept twenty -four hours every day," 
grunted Bowers. "I smelled this coming, 
and I've done what little investigating I 
could." 

"And " 



"Well, it looks to me as if they thought 
this was a mushroom village, with a gold 
mine in the middle and a bunch of imbeciles 
around it! They've got us good; there's 
nobody else but Stelton to buy from; we're 
here to be milked good and proper — that's 
all." 

"But they give reasons," Carey suggested. 

"They'll give them in dozen lots! Have 
you tried to figger out what they mean, 
Race?" 

" Well, they're not very definite, certainly." 

"Why, they talk about — high-priced la- 
bor — increased difficulty in mining — coal 
moving slower and harder on the rails — 
impending strike almost certain — conditions 

are such that and all that damned rot!" 

snorted Bowers. "I aint struck one yet that 
could be translated into English t' mean 
something!" 

"Neither have I," admitted the president 
of the electric company. "I've had a hard 
job getting any kind of price from them, 
but— this!" 

"Well, there are people enough in this 
town using soft coal and not paying seven 
dollars for it!" Carey announced flatly. N 

"Of course there are! They've got their 
contracts — anywhere from a year to five 
years!" said Bowers. "They're in soft, I 
suppose. That's all it amounts to. There's 
only four real factories here, and the whole 
four don't use half what you people and my 
plant can burn!" 

For the moment, Race's chronic optimism 
seemed almost to have deserted him. His 
brow was wrinkled in a frown as he looked 
at Bowers again. 

"It doesn't make so much difference to 
you," he began. 

"It doesn't, hey?" The visitor snorted. 
"That little factory isn't all the money I've 
planted in this town! I've bought more 
acres of rough land, over by the new road, 
than you folks know anything about! That's 
going to be the factory center of Bronton, 
that is — and I expected to have a lot o' 
smoke whirling around there and be doing 
a regular land office business in factory sites 
by the end o' the year!" 

"But you haven't anything you've got to 
deliver on the first minute of the first day 
of July!" 

Painfully, as Race had been realizing 
more forcefully every day lately, the time 
limit on their charter was no secret. The 
infernal Bronton Herald, with its slogan of 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



"Light For The Fourth!" had, under Race's 
careful tutoring, absorbed more than his 
own enthusiasm over the impending reign 
of electricity; the date was anchored now 
in every brain in Bronton; postals and let- 
ters were coming in every mail from pros- 
pective consumers, begging that their actual 
lamps be put in place at once, to catch the 
first flare of the novelty. 

A slow, rather compassionate smile came 
over Bowers' face, as he sat back and thrust 
his hands in his pockets. 

"There's a whole lot in that, Race," he 
murmured. " All I have to do is to pay taxes 
and wait for sane coal. This dollar-a- 
pound rate aint going to last, no matter 
what anybody says. But I guess it'll last 
till August, anyway, and — you people have 
t' make good on the first o' July or quit 
altogether, hey?" 

"Essentially!" said Race, between his 
teeth. 

"Say! I'm sorry for you!" said Bowers. 
"A couple o' young fellers, with all their 
money sunk in a game like this. It don't 
matter to me. I got money. I aint tied 
down to any date! I " 

"Mr. Bowers!" said the president, and 
the words came with the effect of a machine 
gun. "This company is not insolvent. 
Neither will it fail to furnish the full five 
hundred kilowatt service it has planned; 
nor yet will that service be delayed ten sec- 
onds after midnight on the thirtieth of June!" 

An instant, Mr. Bowers stared; then he 
burst into a boisterous laugh and slapped 
the silk hat back at its usual angle. 

"Say, I wasn't rubbin' it in!" he cried. 
"I'm sorry for you — dead sorry! That's 
all. And— hey! Thunder! Is that clock 
right? Good bye!" 

The door closed behind him, and a sup- 
pressed sigh of relief went up. 

Carey, rather uncertainly, found his paper 
again. Dunbar stared at his desk and whis- 
tled softly. Race brought his chair round 
with a jerk and picked up an envelope; 
there was nothing in it that interested him 
particularly. He tried the next and the 
next and the next; nothing of importance 
was revealed. 

Indeed, nothing under the sun could push 
aside that coal question! He stared savagely 
at his cherished bunch of clippings from the 
Herald — the little "Bronton Electric Com- 
pany Incorporated" — the big, full-page ar- 
ticle on "The Lighters of our City!" with 



its photographs of Dunbar and himself and 
a wood-cut of a glowing incandescent be- 
tween them! His hands all but twitched 
to the point of tearing the whole bundle in 
two and hurling it into the waste-basket. 
And he was interrupted by: 

"Were'n't you a bit hasty, Bob, in guar- 
anteeing things in that wholesale fashion?" 

Race grunted. 

"Self-confidence is a mighty good thing," 
pursued Dunbar, "but " 

"Well, I couldn't make matters any 
■worse, could I?" Race demanded wrath- 
fully. "We might as well make a bluff at 
the thing and brass it out to the end, now!" 

"But as a matter of fact, what are we 
going to do?" 

Mr. Race bounded from his chair and took 
to walking the floor. 

"We're going to have that plant running 
on time!" he cried. "I'm frank to say I 
don't know how, but — it'll be running." 

Dunbar looked up from the figures he had 
been scratching on the back of an envelope. 

"Bob," he said, very quietly, "we are 
practically bound to suppose that, for some 
unfathomable reason, we can't buy coal 
under seven dollars. When our plant is 
fully paid for, we haven't a surplus of more 
than four thousand dollars. Uncle Dick, 
here, is going to buy in enough stock to 
finance our first year's operating expenses, 
if necessary. We were reckoning approxi- 
mately on thirty-five hundred tons of coal, 
bought under three dollars. This crazy 
increase in price adds just about fourteen 
thousand dollars to our expenses!" 

"And I don't know that I'm quite pre- 
pared to finance that," murmured Mr. 
Carey. 

The president stopped short before his 
chair. 

"You're — you're a genius at figures, 
Bill!" he observed, wildly. 

"They show the facts. Is there any use 
in your going down to see the Stelton people 
personally?" 

"I've been twice and got nothing definite. 
Now they've declared themselves and — 
we're stuck!" 

"You might see Keller, our attorney?" 
Dunbar hazarded. 

"And drag the Stelton bunch into court 
to find out why they're trying to murder us ?" 
Race laughed bitterly. " Did you ever hear 
of anyone starting one of those 'restraint of 
trade' actions without dying of old age before 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



anything happened. We've got just about 
six weeks!" 

"I suppose there is more truth than poetry 
in that," Dunbar sighed. 

Mr. Carey cleared his throat. 

"See here!" he said. "You both know 
well enough that I am no man to carry 
around a supply of wet blankets; but, fac- 
ing it frankly and squarely, isn't the whole 
thing hopeless?" 

"No-" said Race, flatly. "We're hard 
up against it, but " 

"You've no power plant, Robert. You 
haven't more than a photograph of a gen- 
erator or an engine!" 

"The generators will be here all right 
enough!" 

"And the boiler-room's all in shape, you 
know," added Dunbar. "It won't take 
long to mount the engine-room part of it; 
we've got the men on hand." 

"Very well." There was a faint smile be- 
hind the gray beard. "Assume that the 
engine room is ready. Is your boiler room 
really valuable without coal?" 

"If we were ready otherwise, we could 
buy in coal enough to start on time " 

Carey leaned back and lighted a cigar. 

"William," he said, "you're many years 
from being children, but you both seem 
young enough still to neglect the future." 

"Eh?" 

"Your charter is good for nearly all eter- 
nity, isn't it?" asked the elder man, "pro- 
vided that the service is satisfactory?" 

"Yes." 

"Have you any idea that, having signi- 
fied your willingness to pay seven dollars 
for coal, you're going to buy it any cheaper 
in future — at least, until Stelton loses con- 
trol of this part of the west?" 

"Well, I — suppose not." 

"So that the plant you build for profit is 
practically certain to run at a pretty heavy 
loss?" 

"Well " 

"Then why have any plant at all?" ex- 
claimed Mr. Carey. 

Race looked at him in some bewilderment 
for a minute or so. He moistened his lips 
as he said thickly: 

"Cold, conclusive business logic like that 
is a great thing! But if I had stopped to 
reason out everything that way, sir, in ten 
years on the road, I'd never have brought 
the thousands here that I did!" 

Mr. Carey studied him earnestly. 



"It may be young wits clashing with old 
ones," he said. "I'm hanged if I know!" 

"Well, you'll admit that, up to twelve 
o'clock on the last night in June, we still 
have a show?" Race asked. 

"Certainly." 

"Good!" said Mr. Race, as he turned to 
his desk again. "Those generators'll be 
whirling around if I have to get a herd of 
wild horses and send 'em up a treadmill!" 

Carey was forced to chuckle quietly. He 
liked Bob Race ; he had liked him since little 
Robby had been paddling about in kilts. 
And if, more than once, that supreme self- 
confidence had rather staggered Carey, he 
could not recall one instance when — whether 
by energy, keen methods or sheer luck — 
Race had not made good! 

"Bob! How about those engines?" Dun- 
bar asked suddenly. 

Mr. Race jumped an inch, as he whirled 
around. 

"Say, what in blazes is this — an office or 
a place to tear the last nerve out of a man's 
body?" he yelled. "We've had shocks 
enough for one morning! You know as 
much about those engines as I do, don't you? 
You went east to Chicago with me and 
looked 'em over and said they were a bar- 
gain and would fit our plant better than 
anything else we could get without having 
'em made to specifications! Didn't you?" 

" Of course. But " 

"And you saw 'em begin to dismount the 
things before we left, didn't you? Is it 
my fault that they're somewhere on the rail- 
road and not here? Am I running the 
freight business of three or four rail- 
roads?" 

"I only meant," said Dunbar mildly, "is 
there any news of them in the morning's 
mail?" 

"No!" said Race, as he turned and 
shuffled over the unopened envelopes. "Yes 
there is, too!" 

He ripped open one of the envelopes and 
jerked forth the sheet. He stared hard at 
the thing — his eyes bulged crazily — and, 
with a wild whoop, Mr. Race's legs straight- 
ened out before him and his arms hung limp 
over the arms of the chair! 

"Somebody bent on burning us out!" 
he chanted. "No coal — no generators — 
nothing but a boiler-room! None of 'em 
worth two cents without the engines!" 

"Well, what about them?" Dunbar asked 
sharply. 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



"Nothing much, only they've caught it 
too!" shouted the president of the company! 
"They're sick of the job and they're taking 
a vacation! They've tracked 'em down at 
last and " 



Mr. Race calmed himself with a mighty 
effort. ^j 

"And now they're rusticating out in Los 
Angeles, California!" croaked the president! 
(To be continued.) 



Testing With Half a Million Volts 



As electrical transmission lines are built 
for higher and higher voltages, having now 
reached 125,000 volts, the problem of build- 
ing insulators becomes more complex. 
There must be absolutely no defects in 
these insulators, otherwise the transmission 
line would in all probability be put out of 
service. 

It would never do, therefore, to put up 
the insulators without knowing that they 
will stand the strain, so they are tested 
out in the factory under very much higher 




electrical pressure or voltage than they 
will be called upon to stand on the line. 
To make the test, it is necessary to use 
a special transformer which develops a 
voltage across its terminals of hundreds 
of thousands of volts. 

One terminal of this transformer is then 
connected to the part of the insulator which 
is to carry the wire when it is in service, 
and the other terminal is connected to that 
part of the insulator which is to be connected 
to the transmission tower. 

Then the "juice" is turn- 
ed onto the testing trans- 
former, water is sprayed on 
the insulator to imitate a 
rain-storm, and all sorts of 
things are done to allow the 
electrical pressure on the 
two sides of the insulator to 
puncture the porcelain or to 
flash over its surface. If the 
insulator "stands up" 
under the test it is con- 
sidered sound and ready 
for shipment. 

The illustration shows 
a testing transformer built 
by the Allegemeine Elek- 
tricitats Gesellschaft of 
Berlin, Germany. It de- 
velops the enormous pres- 
sure of 500,000 volts across 
its terminals. 

In the picture two small 
wires are connected to the 
terminals and their ends 
pointed toward each other, 
whereupon an electric dis- 
charge leaps from one to 
the other with a brilliant 
flash three and a half 
feet long, and with a 
sound that is almost deaf- 



TRANSFORMER DISCHARGING AT HALF A MILLION VOLTS 



ening. 



Elementary Electricity 

By PROF. EDWIN J. HOUSTON, PH. D. (Princeton) 



CHAPTER XXV. — SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICALLY GENERATED HEAT. 



An important application of electrically 
generated heat is found in various forms 
of flat iron heaters, not only suitable for 
use in the house, but also, on a much larger 
scale, in laundries, tailoring or dressmaking 
establishments, etc. The advantages of 
the electrically-heated flat iron are many. 
Among these may be noted: 

(i) They are smooth, free from smoke, 
soot or dirt, and always ready for use. 

(2) The temperature of the room in which 
the ironing is done is free from the excessive 
heat and disagreeable odor so common where 
a number of gas burners or coal-burning 
raDges are employed. 

(3) The temperature of the flat iron is 
easily regu- 

1 a t e d, so 
that it can 
be made 
just hot 
enough for 
the work to 
be done. 

(4) Much 
time is saved 
i n passing 
between the 
ironing 
table and 
stoves or 
other source 
of ordinary 
heat. 

Since the 
electric cur- 
rent can be 
supplied by 
wires that 

come down from the ceilin_ 
room, a free motion of the iron is 
possible. This is plainly illustrated in Fig. 
160 which shows the ironing room in a 
commercial laundry. 

Electrically heated flat irons do not differ 
in general appearance from ordinary flat 
irons. They are made in various sizes and 
weights. Fig. 161 represents a six-pound 
flat iron. These irons are generally made 
with the heating coil or unit arranged so as to 




fig. 160. 



be readily removed from or inserted in the 
iron. 

A heavy twelve-pound iron, provided with 
a stand so arranged that the placing of the 
iron on the stand automatically cuts off 
nearly all the heating current, only per- 
mitting enough to pass to maintain the iron 
at the temperature required for use, is 
represented in Fig. 162. The device is so 
arranged that the act of removing the iron 
from the stand again automatically turns 
on the stronger current. 

The following data will- be interesting. 
A six-pound flat iron requires for its proper 
operation an expenditure of 500 watts of 
electric energy. Twelve-, fifteen-, eighteen- 

and twenty- 
four -pound 
irons re- 
quire from 
700 to 800 
watts. 

It might 
be supposed 
that the 
amount of 
electric cur- 
r e n t re- 
quired for 
the opera- 
tion of flat 
irons from a 
central sta- 
tion would 
never be 
consider- 
able. In 
point of 
fact, how- 
ever, the station load required for this 
purpose is rapidly increasing. A single large 
company, the General Electric Company, 
furnishes the map, Fig. 163, showing the 
distributing centres for the operation of 
electric flat irons in the United States. As 
will be seen, there is scarcely a state or terri- 
tory that does not contain one or more such 
stations. 

Load curves of typical lighting stations 
are shown in Figs. 164 and 165. The 



USING ELECTRIC IRONS IN A COM 
MERCIAL LAUNDRY 



of the 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



9 



shaded portions show the increase in the 
output required for the maintenance of 
electric flat irons. Fig. 164 is from the 
records of a lighting company in a city hav- 
ing a population of 25,000. Here, 100 flat 
irons are in use all day 
in factories, and 500 
are distributed through- 
out the residential sec- 
tion. Fig. 165 shows 
a load curve in a city 
of about 30,000 with 
the effect of 500 flat F i G . 161. six-pound 
irons on the lines. domestic iron 

The rapidity with 
which heat can be generated electri- 
cally and the ease with which any de- 
sired temperature can be maintained by 
regulating the quantity of electricity 
passing, have enabled heat of electric 
origin to compete favorably in many useful 
processes with heat obtained by the burning 





FIG. 102. 



TWELVE-POUND IRON WITH CUR- 
RENT CUT-OFF STAND 



of coal, oil, or other combustibles. Indeed, 
this is so true that certain processes can be 
carried on by electric heat that would be 
practically impossible by heat obtained in 
any other manner. This is the case with 
electric welding, electric forging, electric 
annealing, electric casting of metals, etc. 

When a sufficient pressure is brought to 
bear against the ends of two pieces of metal 
that have been brought into contact, pro- 
vided they have previously been raised to 
a temperature at which they begin to soften, 
they will cohere so firmly that if an effort 
is made to tear them apart the break or 
rupture will occur as frequently at some 
other place as at the welded joint. 



In order to obtain a good weld it is neces- 
sary that the contact surfaces be kept clean 
and free from oxide. Since an incandescent 
temperature is required for the welding of 
most metals, the oxygen of the air tends to 
unite with the heated masses, so that it 
would be difficult to keep the surfaces clean 
were it not for the fact that by the use of 
a suitable flux the oxide is dissolved by the 
fluxing material and thus removed as soon 
as it is formed. 

Probably one of the most important re- 
quirements for a good welded joint is that 
the proper temperature be obtained. The 
best welding temperature varies with dif- 
ferent metals, and it is because the skilled 
workman has learned by long experience 




FIG. 163. SHOWING DISTRIBUTING CENTERS 
FOR ELECTRIC IRONS 

to ensure the temperature that the success 
of his work is due. But the means he 
adopts in order to determine at what point 
to stop the heating and press the heated 
surfaces together is by the very unsatis- 
factory indications of the colors and other 
appearances assumed by the heated metals. 

In the case of electric welding, however, 
having determined the temperature that has 
produced the best results and noted the 
current strength required, and arranged 
the rheostat so that this current only shall 
pass, it is possible when pieces of the same 
character of metal, and the same dimensions 
are to be welded the passage of the same 
current' will produce the same temperature. 

Electric welding was invented by Professor 
Elihu Thomson, who has so perfected bis 
system as to render it possible to employ it 
extensively in actual practice. Before, how- 
ever, describing the Thomson system, it 
may be well briefly to describe a system 
invented by Bernardos, known as the arc- 
welding system. 



10 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The Bemardos system is not properly- 
speaking a true welding system. In order 
to cause two plates of metal to be firmly 
united the following steps are taken. The 
edges of the plates to be joined are placed 
together and an electric blowpipe flame, 
consisting of a carbon voltaic arc deflected 
by the action of magnetic flux, is so directed 
at the edges as to fuse them. As soon as this 
is done the blowpipe flame is removed, and 
when the fused metal cools, the two plates 



Generally the entire operation requires but 
a fraction of a minute, or a few minutes at 
the most. 

The fact that in electric welding the weld- 
ing temperature is produced only at the 
surfaces to be welded gives to this process an 
immense advantage over ordinary welding. 
Indeed, so readily can the temperature 
necessary for a good weld be obtained and 
maintained that it has been found possible 
to electrically weld together metals that 

































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FIGS. 164 AND 165. LOAD CURVES OF LIGHTING STATIONS, SHADED PORTIONS 
SHOWING LOAD DUE TO ELECTRIC IRONS 



form a practically uniform mass. It is 
evident that such a process cannot properly 
be called electric welding; it is rather elec- 
tric soldering. 

In the Thomson system of electric welding 
the surfaces to be welded are electrically 
heated by the passage of an electric current 
between them. Suppose, for example, that 
two pieces of wire are to be soldered end to 
end. These ends are brought into contact 
and an electric current passed between them 
across the contact surfaces. Now, as is 
well known, the temperature produced by 
the passage of a given electric current through 
any part of a circuit will depend on the 
electric resistance of this part. In the case 
of a circuit consisting of fairly heavy con- 
ductors, in which only a portion has a high 
resistance, the temperature of all the cir- 
cuit except that having an especially high 
resistance, may be so low as scarcely to be 
perceptible to the touch, while the parts of 
high resistance may be raised to incandes- 
cence. 

The above is the case in a circuit consist- 
ing of two fairly stout pieces of wire pressed 
together end to end. The contact surfaces 
are the points of highest resistance. The 
passage of the current at once raises these 
surfaces to incandescence, when, by pressing 
them firmly together, the welding is effected. 



either cannot be welded at all by the ordi- 
nary processes or can only be welded with 
considerable difficulty. Some idea may be 
had of the advantages ensured by electric 
welding from the following quotation from 
a lecture delivered in 1877, at the Franklin 
Institute, by Professor Thomson. He says: 

"The results obtained in the application 
of electric welding to the various metals, 
promise to be of great practical importance. 
While ordinarily it has been the exception 
that metals weld readily, with the electric 
method no metal or alloy yet tried has failed 
to unite with pieces of the same metal, and 
the trials have included most of the metals 
commonly known — such as wrought-iron, 
mild steel, tool steel, special steels, such as 
Mushet steel , and even cast-iron joints have 
been made between these different varieties 
of iron. Copper and its alloys, brass, 
bronze, German silver, etc.; silver, pure 
and unalloyed, gold, likewise platinum, 
zinc, tin, lead, aluminium. 

The list is being extended as time and 
facilities permit." 

There are two kinds of apparatus employed 
in Thomson's system of electric welding; 
i. e., direct welders and indirect welders. 

In the direct welding apparatus an al- 
ternating current dynamo or alternator is 
employed for producing the electric currents 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



11 



and these currents are passed directly be- 
tween the articles to be welded. Direct 
welders are employed for small work only, 
such as for the welding together of iron 
hoops, wire, etc. In this case the strength 
of the current passing through the welding 
joints or surfaces is regulated by means of 
a suitable rheostat. 

In indirect welding the current produced 
by the alternators is not passed directly to 
the joints to be welded but through a suitable 
form of step-down transformer; that is, a 
transformer in which a comparatively small 
current of high pressure or E. M. F. is con- 
verted into a large current of comparatively 
small E. M. F., and this current only is 
used. Indirect welding is suitable for large 
work. 

In order to ensure the exact amount of 
pressure that is required to produce the best 
results, ingenious devices have been pro- 
vided by means of which, as soon as the 
desired temperature has been reached at the 
joints to be welded, the current is auto- 
matically thrown off and the pressure ap- 
plied. Apparatus of this kind is called 
automatic welding apparatus in order to 
distinguish it from that in which the pressure 
is applied by hand. 

Some of the advantages possessed by 
electric welding over ordinary welding have 
been thus described by Lemp: 

"The heat is sharply localized to the 
joint and metal near it. 

"The temperature obtained and required 
can be exactly regulated. 

"The rapidity of heating and its distri- 
bution can be controlled by simple means. 
Irregular forms can be welded in the de- 
sired relation of its various parts. 

"By this process all metals, as well as 
the alloys of all metals, are weldable. 

"The welding operation is carried on 
under the direct inspection of the operator. 

"The operation can be and often is made 
automatic, and the result is absolute uni- 
formity; oxidized surfaces are excluded 
from the joint, and only clean metal unions 
made. 

"Pieces can be welded to exact size, and 
finished pieces may retain their finish during 
welding, 

"The process may be applied to pieces 
in place, as in track -welding. Water-power 
may be employed for the work, or the cheap- 
est fuels of lowest grade. 

"The greatest convenience and cleanliness 



likewise attend the practice of the process. 

"The cost of fuel is not greater and gen- 
erally less than in forge-welding, while the 
labor is reduced one half." 

Another application of electrically gen- 
erated heat is to be found in what is known 
as electric forging. In electric forging, the 
piece of metal to be forged is heated by the 
passage of an electric current through it, 
and when the required temperature has been 
obtained the metal is subjected to the forge 
or hammer in the usual manner. 

In a modified form of electric forg- 
ing known as electric swageing, the pieces 
of metal are first brought to the desired 
temperature when they are brought into 
the desired shapes by placing them on swages 
or anvils having the shapes it is desired the 
plates shall acquire. The electric current 
employed for heating the metal is obtained 
from a suitable, step-down transformer. 

Still another application of electrically- 
generated heat is seen in the process of elec- 
tric annealing. In what is known as Har- 
veyized armor plate the percentage of carbon 
present in the steel plate is so great that 
when the plate is highly heated and then 
suddenly chilled it becomes so hard that it 
is able to resist the impact of heavy balls 
from large calibre guns. But this hardness 
renders it practically impossible to bore 
holes in places where they are required for 
the attachment of ladders, etc. 

To anneal or soften any hardened steel 
plate it is only necessary to heat it to in- 
candescence and then permit it slowly to 
cool. In electrically annealing Harveyized 
steel plates the portions of the plate that 
are to be softened or annealed are electrically 
heated by placing on them heavy blocks of 
copper so as to cover those parts only. A 
powerful electric current is then sent through 
the copper sufficient to raise it to incandes- 
cence, and this temperature maintained 
long enough to thoroughly heat the steel 
underneath it. As soon as this is ef ected 
the current strength passing through the 
copper block is gradually decreased until 
its temperature is the same as that of the 
rest of the steel, when the annealing is 
complete. Of course after the holes have 
been bored or other work done it is necessary 
to see that the annealed portions of the plate 
are again hardened by electrically heating 
them with the blocks of copper as before and 
then suddenly chilling. 

(To be Continued.) 



Electrical Securities 



By "CONTANGO' 



FINANCIAL TERMS — WAYS OF FINANCING A PLANT — SAFE AND UNSAFE INVESTMENTS 



Having drawn direct attention last month 
to the great opportunity, at this time pres- 
ent, in almost every kind of electrical enter- 
prise, a more intimate discussion of the 
actual financial terms and financial ques- 
tions usually involved in such undertakings 
is now in order. 

One hears a good deal of stock or shares, 
common stock, preferred stock, bonds of 
various denominations paying certain rates 
of interest, income notes and other like terms. 

What do they constitute? 

For the most part common stock or shares 
(with the rate of dividend not fixed) and 
bonds bearing a fixed rate of interest are the 
form in which most electrical investments are 
offered to the public. It may be explained 
that "dividends" are defined as the division 
of profits made on shares of stock, represent- 
ing the interest on them after certain fixed 
and other charges have been made. Divi- 
dends are therefore not fixed but are elastic. 
Payment on bonds is called "interest" and 
is at a fixed rate. 

Stock is the manner in which the capital 
of a company is divided; the stock is made up 
of shares of specified denominations. Thus 
a company may have a capital stock of 
twenty-five thousand dollars, composed of 
2,500 ten dollar shares, or twelve hundred 
and fifty 20 dollar shares, or two hundred 
and fifty one hundred dollar shares — the 
terms stocks and shares are the same. But 
though stock in a company is a form of in- 
vestment offered to the public, it is mainly 
so in the case of large companies where there 
are a great many shares. In a small con- 
cern the capital stock or shares are usually 
owned by a few individuals and held by them, 
representing of course the ownership of the 
company, and the title to its property. The 
individuals who start the enterprise and 
form the company then take the common 
shares at its first inception, later for the ob- 
ject of improvements, additions and so on, 
they may vote to increase the capital stock 
and offer shares to the general public for 
investment, or they may decide on a bond 
issue. 



Sometimes, too, in forming a company, 
those promoting it issue the common shares 
indicating ownership entirely to themselves, 
and offer to the public a limited partnership 
in the form of preferred stock or shares bear- 
ing a specified rate of dividend, but not con- 
veying any voting rights or direct ownership 
rights, unless expressly stated. Stock of 
this kind draws dividends at a specified rate 
which must be paid before any dividend 
is paid on the common stock, and if this 
dividend on the preferred stock is described 
as cumulative, it means that all arrears of 
dividend must be paid up on it before the 
common stock gets anything. So if a com- 
pany is earning a clear twelve per cent on 
its issue of five per cent preferred stock, that 
five per cent is paid on the preferred stock 
first, and the remaining seven per cent goes 
to the common. If only five per cent has 
been earned, it all goes to the preferred 
shares. If not enough has been made to 
pay the full amount of dividend due on the 
preferred stock and it is cumulative, then 
the deficit must be made up the next year 
and so on until the amount specified is fully 
paid before the common shares receive any- 
thing. 

Assuming, however, that the company has 
been formed without any preferred stock 
and that a group of men have joined together 
taking so many shares apiece, then in all 
likelihood the usual course by which the 
public will be asked to participate in the 
undertaking as an investment is by the offer- 
ing or issuance of what are termed bonds, 
bearing a fixed rate of interest. 

Bonds in such companies are indeed the 
normal form of investment offered to the 
general public. They represent a first 
charge or lien on all the property and earn- 
ings of the company. A bond issue is in 
point of fact a blanket mortgage. It may 
not merely represent a mortgage on the 
company's plant, but on all its assets. 
The interest on bonds must be paid before 
anything else. If default is made bond- 
holders can, after a certain period, take 
action to enter into possession of the com- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



13 



pany and its properties. But as long as the 
interest is paid, the bondholders, as those 
who own these securities are called, have 
no right to interfere in the management or 
affairs of the company. They have no more 
to do with it than a man with a mortgage 
on your property has, so long as his interest 
is paid to him. They must, though, be 
paid, and paid regularly. 

It is therefore on the correct method of 
financing a plant that its success depends 
as shall be presently explained. 

Securities of this type — bonds — at the 
present time must in the main, bear five 
per cent interest. It is true, there are some 
bearing as low a rate as four or four and a 
half per cent, but in most cases the market 
now demands a five per cent security. On 
the other hand when the interest offered is 
too high it is the danger flag. 

SAFE AND UNSAFE INVESTMENTS 

Will it pay, that is the question at 
issue ? 

Now it is probable that there is no safer 
or more attractive security at this time be- 
fore the public than the bonds of an electric 
light plant where conditions are more or 
less settled, and where there is right along 
a normal and steady growth and where 
the company is run on a cash basis, and has 
been properly financed. The cash basis 
represents two things— actual investment of 
cash at the outset by the men who form the 
company and subsequent ability to meet 
obligations promptly out of earnings. The 
earnings of such a company, as before sug- 
gested, must be at least twice its interest 
charges, and even that figure of net earnings 
must be reached after a fair charge has been 
made for maintenance, and after an ade- 
quate reserve has been set aside for renewals 
and a depreciation fund. This depreciation 
fund should take the form of cash or some 
equivalent of cash. While the equipment 
of electrical plants is year by year becoming 
more settled, yet improvements are con- 
stantly coming to the front, and it is most 
important that the item of depreciation 
should be adequately recognized, in order 
that money may be available to add new 
and improved types of machinery where 
such additions will reduce operating costs. 

Managers of plants are often under a 
great temptation to charge to renewals, ex- 
penditures that should go under operating 
expenses, and the careful bond buyer will 



therefore look carefully into the statements 
furnished by brokers and bond holders to 
see that this habit has been avoided, or at 
any rate get their assurance on this point. 

To take up the manner of financing a 
plant: There are, it must be remembered, 
legal restrictions that prevail in different 
states. A lighting plant, or a trolley com- 
pany is what is known as a public service or 
public utility corporation. It serves the 
public, is dependent on the public, and is 
therefore subject to special safeguards on be- 
half of the public, which, however, are not 
necessarily restrictions. New York state 
has a commission governing these corpora- 
tions in certain directions; the state of Wis- 
consin has a state board governing them in 
other directions, and so on. 

But assuming all regulations have been 
complied with, then it is usually a question 
of whether or not the original owners and 
promoters have put up part or most of the 
cash necessary for the enterprise, or whether 
the public shall furnish it as bond holders, 
subscribing the amount asked for in an issu- 
ance of bonds — the money realized from the 
sale of which will be used in building the 
plant and furnishing the equipment. 

The group of men who get together to 
build and install a plant issue say 5,000 
ten-dollar shares of stock among themselves, 
having acquired franchises and land; they 
then issue bonds with which to build and 
equip the plant and system. These bonds 
bearing interest say at five per cent payable 
in gold are offered in denominations of 
$100 each at the actual figure of $100. 
That is to say they are issued at what is 
called par. Or again improvements and 
additions are needed and bonds for that 
purpose are issued. Sometimes such bonds 
specify the purpose for which they are issued, 
but in all cases practically they are a first 
lien on the entire plant and system. If the 
company is well established and has no 
excessive bonded indebtedness, then the 
public may be asked to pay rather more 
than $100 for each one hundred dollar bond. 
This means that the bonds are thought so 
highly of as to be at a premium. Naturally 
if more than par has to be paid it reduces 
the return on the money invested. For 
instance, if $110 is paid for a $100 bond 
bearing 5 per cent interest, the interest on 
the investment will be a little over Ah per 
cent. But it means also that the security 
is more than a gilt edged one. 



14 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



It may be mentioned here that in some 
communities a limit is set to the amount of 
interest payable on the capital stock and 
there is also a limit to the amount of bonded 
indebtedness which is allowed to be created. 
In the United States, however, this matter 
is guided by the rule of the state in which 
the incorporation of the company is made and 
the regulations of the state or states where 
it operates. 

The main points for consideration having 
now been considered, the practical charac- 
ter of the men identified with the under- 
taking as well as the character of the equip- 
ment installed must never be lost sight of. 

Taking into account the future scope of 
almost all electrical enterprises it may be 
reiterated that there is no greater investment 
opportunity before the general public than 
the securities of electric light plants which 
are on a cash basis, are conservatively capi- 
talized and competently managed. 

There are naturally strong economic rea- 
sons on the side of combining the small 
companies into large ones and that is the 
tendency of the times. The economies of 
management, the economies of production 
on a large scale, the better results that come 
from comparison of operations in numerous 
plants — these are the obvious advantages 
of, and reasons for, the constant linking up 
of small electrical undertakings. 

The placing of securities so wonderfully 
carried out by companies in the large and 
conspicuous cities in the past is now being 
extended to the smaller cities and the aggre- 
gation of small villages and hamlets, and 
the consolidation of these small enterprises 
into larger and more effective concerns will 
unceasingly attract investors in every market 
in the world. Nevertheless, it is the taking 
hold of the securities of the small centers 
at the start that gives the ground floor oppor- 
tunity for the small investor, and he will, 
under the conditions outlined, find his great- 
est chance in the small plant. He can ob- 
tain the bond issues usually at a cheaper 
rate and therefore obtains a security in- 
creasing in value year by year and on which 
he can always realize at an advantage. 

Electrical enterprises are doubling their 
profits on an average of every five years, 
and in the case of some of the larger cities 
the business has for years past doubled 
every three years. They are good at the 
start and if taken into a consolidation are 
guaranteed further by the larger company. 



Motor Power vs. Boy Power 



The recent educational advances made by 
China have so far been very slight along the 
technical lines, for the reason that teachers 
who speak the Chinese fluently are not yet 
available and it will take some years to 
train them. At present the technical in- 
struction is all given in English and is there- 
fore only accessible to those who have learnt 
English or who can command the services 
of an interpreter. Even at that these 
schools are overcrowded, so that at the 
technical institute in Shanghai (which offers 
a five-year preparatory and four-year tech- 
nical course to boys entering when about 
14 years old) there are about seventy pupils 
to each instructor. 

No wonder that the majority of Chinese 
boys, however ambitious they may be, can- 
not be accommodated as yet, though an- 
other five or ten years will undoubtedly see 
a decided change. Meanwhile this absence 
of available instruction makes boy-power 
so cheap that even in Shanghai, where 
electric motors are easily to be had, most 
of the machine shops use lathes driven by 
boys. Each lathe is belted to a countershaft 
and this to a flywheel (about six feet in 
diameter) having a crank which the boy 
turns. With such competition the low 
current rate offered by the local electric 
light company is not very enticing in itself. 
But the much greater steadiness and higher 
daily output which the electric motor offers, 
is gradually being appreciated and promises 
to relieve one after another of these boys 
from their present monotonous task. 



Seasoning Wood By Electricity 

Have you ever lived in a frame house 
built of unseasoned timber? If so, you will 
be interested in knowing that in France by 
what is called the Nodon-Brottonneau 
process seasoning can be accomplished in 
a few hours. The timber is placed on a 
lead plate in a tank of water containing ten 
per cent of borax and five per cent of resin 
with a little soda added. The lead plate 
is connected to the positive side of a dynamo. 
Another lead plate is placed on the upper 
side of the timber which is not quite covered 
by the water. When current is turned on 
the sap in the wood seems to pass out and 
borax and resin take its place. Drying 
completes the process. 



Where Electricity Stands in the Practice 

of Medicine 

By NOBLE M. EBERHART, A. M., M. S., M. D. 



CHAPTER VI. — ARTERIOSCLEROSIS 



"A man is as old as his arteries." 

This saying is itself old enough to have 
arterio-sclerosis, 1 ! but, if possible, it is more 
pertinent now, than when it originated. 

This is because our present mode of life 
with its strenuous effort to gratify lofty am- 
bitions; its excesses or indiscertions in eat- 
ing, drinking, etc., has produced many men, 
young in years, whose arteries are those of 
the octogenarian, and forecast the prob- 
ability of a sudden termination of their use- 
fulness. 

In other words it is the old story of "burn- 
ing the candle at both ends." 

Arterio-sclerosis means hardening of the 
arteries and it is a natural concomitant of old 
age. It may be looked upon as essentially 
a thickening of the muscular portion of the 
arteries, with an increase in the cells lining 
them and consequently diminished caliber 
in the blood-vessels. The muscular elements 
tend to be displaced by a hard form of tissue 
designated as fibrous, therefore one author 
defines it as a "fibrous infiltration of the 
muscular coat with degeneration of contrac- 
tile tissue," and it is ordinarily accompanied 
by an increase over the normal blood-pres- 
sure. 

The arteries are vessels carrying the blood 
from the heart; those returning it being 
known as veins. 

The arteries divide and re-divide, much as 
the branches of a tree. The small arteries 
are called arterioles, and finally the smallest 
sub-division are known as capillaries or 
"hair-like" vessels. These capillaries seem 
to be merely extensions of the lining of the 
arterioles. They connect the arterioles with 
the smallest veins (venules) and mark the 
point where the return flow to the heart is 
inaugurated. 

In order to understand the development of 
arterio-sclerosis and the phenomena of blood- 
pressure it is necessary to remember that 
the arteries are made up of three layers, an 
internal lining layer, a middle muscular wall, 
and an external cellular coat. 



The internal coat is thin and elastic. 
The middle layer contains muscular fibres 
which by contracting or relaxing control 
the size of the artery. This layer except in 
the arterioles, also contains elastic fibres. 
The outer layer is composed of connective 
tissue, (a term that is self-explanatory) , some 
elastic fibers and the tiny blood vessels 
which nourish the walls of the arteries. 

The heart may be looked upon as the 
central station, the dynamo or pump and 
the pressure in the heart is therefore neces- 
sarily greater than in the arteries. This 
pressure, in fact, decreases as the size of 
the arteries decreases. The large arteries 
have a greater pressure than their smaller 
branches, and these in turn have more than 
the "hair-like" capillaries. 

To continue this a little farther, the capil- 
laries have a greater pressure than the tiny 
veins, and the smaller veins more than the 
larger, decreasing the nearer the veins are 
to the heart. 

In this way we have the complete round 
of the circulation, and the blood follows 
the rule of water and of electricity and flows 
from a higher to a lower pressure, and thus 
circulates from the heart through the ar- 
teries, capillaries and veins, back to the 
starting point. 

The pressure of the blood is an important 
factor in arterio-sclerosis, and it is measured 
by its power to lift a column of mercury and 
it is found to have normally a pressure 
capable of sustaining a perpendicular column 
of from no to 130 millimeters of mercury, 
the average being 120. In arterio-sclerosis 
it sometimes increases to over 300. The 
method of ascertaining it will be considered 
later, but before doing this let us leok into 
the causes which produce arterio-sclerosis. 

We might divide the disease into the func- 
tional and the organic stage. The func- 
tional stage would be that previous to actual 
hardening of the arteries and the organic 
would be that in which actual structural 
changes had taken place. 



16 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



In the first stage there comes to be present 
a contracted condition of the artery, pro- 
ducing increased tension and raising blood- 
pressure, but this is essentially the result 
of irritation and spasm on the part of the 
muscular fibres and an actual degeneration 
and permanent change in their structure 
has not yet appeared. 

Thus this disease develops gradually and 
usually without any particularly noticeable 
or alarming early symptoms. 

The theory is that poisons (toxins) in 
the blood first cause irritation, and then 
contraction or spasm of the arteries, which 
may be intermittent, but later becomes a 
more or less steady contraction, thus estab- 
lishing increased pressure by narrowing 
the caliber of the vessels. Later the 
permanent changes of the second stage 
occur. 

It is but fair to say that although the 
great majority of physicians believe that high 
blood-pressure produces arterio-sclerosis, 
there are some who hold the reverse to be 
the case. 

Be that as it may, increased blood-pressure 
is the most common and constant symptom 
of the disease. 

The causes of the primary irritation are 
gout, uric acid, lead poisoning, excesses or 
abuses in eating, drinking, tobacco, etc. 
There is faulty conversion of food products 
into living cells; with failure to properly 
eliminate poisons from the system; and the 
absorption of the products of imperfect in- 
testinal digestion. Other causes of arterio- 
sclerosis are worry, prolonged mental or 
muscular strain and the after-effects of 
infectious diseases. 

The disease most frequently occurs after 
forty years of age; but no age is exempt, 
cases occurring in individuals of eight, fifteen 
and twenty-eight years, respectively, being 
on record. In men and women of middle 
age, say forty to fifty-five, it is found that 
three men are affected to one woman. The 
reason is apparent when the causes are 
considered. 

We have given the impression, probably, 
that arterio-sclerosis is always a disease in- 
volving all of the arteries and therefore 
readily detected by feeling of those which 
are accessible to the touch. This is not 
true. The arteries supplying any organ, as 
the kidney, or the stomach, may be involved 
in this process and there may not be present 
any evidence in other blood-vessels, hence 



the value and necessity of testing the blood 
pressure. 

"An ounce of prevention is worth a pound 
of cure," and today we are paying just as 
much attention to preventing -disease as 
we are to curing it when present, and there- 
fore I should consider myself subject to 
criticism if I failed to speak of methods of 
warding off or indefinitely delaying the de- 
velopment of arterio-sclerosis. 

From the nature of the causes, it at once 
appears that habits must be regular, all ex- 
cesses avoided, and worry and strain elimi- 
nated, if possible. 

The diet should be simple, all alcoholic 
beverages tabooed and frequently even tea 
and coffee, although in suitable cases they 
may be allowed in moderation. Tobacco 
should be prohibited or used sparingly. 
Milk and buttermilk are allowed; especially 
the buttermilk made by adding lactic acid 
bacilli cultures to sweet milk. Red meats 
are to be eaten sparingly; but plenty of vege- 
tables are advised. 

There is a growing opinion on the part 
of many physicians favoring the partial 
or complete elimination of salt from the 
diet. 

The individual should take his time and 
avoid all worry, haste and excitement. In 
addition strict attention should be paid to 
personal hygiene, and regular but moderate 
exercise, baths, etc. 

It has been shown experimentally that 
in a normal subject the blood pressure may 
be raised five to ten millimeters by taking 
beef broth, hence the necessity for curtailing 
the amount of red meat. 

Among the symptoms of arterio-sclerosis 
are drowsiness; morning fatigue; dizziness 
or vertigo; irritability; insomnia; tingling 
or numbness in arms or legs,; nose-bleed; 
slow healing of any injury; coldness of ex- 
tremities; neuralgia; headaches; and loss 
of memory. Later there may be symptoms 
of apoplexy, etc. Above all the high blood 
pressure is to be looked for. 

As I read over the foregoing symptoms, I 
am reminded somewhat of the old "patent 
medicine" almanacs and I do not wish to 
give the impression that having one or two 
of these symptoms implies necessarily that 
the individual has, or is tending toward 
arterio-sclerosis; but if several of them are 
present I would certainly advise consulting 
a competent physician for the purpose of 
ascertaining the blood pressure and thereby 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



17 



confirming or refuting the 
possibilities suggested by 
the symptoms enumerated. 

Since the most import- 
ant symptom of this dis- 
ease is high blood pres- 
sure, it is desirable to 
know how this is esti- 
mated. The instrument 
used is called a sphyg- 
momanometer and one 
form is shown in the 
illustration. Its action de- 
pends on opposing the 
pressure of a column of 
mercury with the pressure 
of the blood in an artery. 
For this purpose the 
brachial artery (a large 
vessel in the arm above 
the elbow), is selected. 

A cuff or band contain- 
ing a rubber sack is fas- 
tened around the arm 
above the elbow, with that 
part from which the rub- 
ber tube emerges, lying 
in front, over the artery. 
Ordinarily the sleeve is 
rolled up before the band 
is applied, but if the 
clothing is thin this is un- 
necessary. A rubber tube 
runs from the cuff to the 
machine, which has a U-shaped glass tube 
containing mercury, with a gauge be- 
tween. The zero mark on the scale is 
placed on a level with top of the mercury. 

A rubber bulb is attached by a small 
tube to the machine, and the physician holds 
this bulb in one hand, while with the other 
he keeps a finger on the pulse in the patient's 
wrist. The bulb is now compressed and 
immediately air fills the cuff and the column 
of mercury begins to rise. The operator 
continues to slowly inflate the cuff until the 
pressure about the arm overcomes the pres- 
sure of the brachial artery and the pulse 
can no longer be felt at the wrist. 

When this occurs the pressure of the col- 
umn of mercury has balanced the pressure 
of the blood in the artery, and the reading 
on the scale opposite the top of the column 
is the patient's blood pressure. 

One observer reports a study of the 
blood pressure in seventy men. At forty 
years of age the average pressure was 




MEASURING THE PRESSURE OF THE BLOOD 



115; at sixty, it was 135; and at eighty it 
was 150. 

Another physician found the average in 
100 men to be a little over 118. 

An increased determination of blood to 
the surface of the body, lowers the pressure, 
and, conversely, driving the blood from the 
surface, raises the blood pressure. 

It is important that the sphygmomanom- 
eter be used, as in one series of 1000 tests 
it was observed that abnormal pressure 
existed in many cases that a competent and 
experienced observer failed to detect with- 
out. 

In treating the disease all of the suggestions 
given under the paragraphs on prevention 
apply equally well. Methods of increasing 
the peripheral (surface) circulation are in- 
dicated, such as judicious massage; warm 
baths; electric light baths, etc. The bowels 
should be carefully attended to, and elimi- 
nation through the skin and through the 
kidneys. 



18 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



I have reserved for the last the method 
which, in my opinion, is the best we have 
for arterio-sclerosis. This is auto-conden- 
sation. 

Many of my readers will recall reading 
in the daily press of that distinguished 
writer Bjornsen going to Paris that he might 
be treated by Prof. D'Arsonval for arterio- 
sclerosis. This is the form of treatment the 
latter employs. 




THE AUTO-CONDENSATION COUCH 

Auto-condensation is a method originated 
by D'Arsonval for the application of high 
frequency currents. 

As the term implies the individual, "auto" 
or self forms part of a condenser, and is 
charged and discharged with the high fre- 
quency current. 

In order to get the D'Arsonval current it 
is necessary to attach to the generating ap- 
paratus (induction coil, static machine, 
Tesla transformer), an apparatus in which 
two sets of condensers are connected so that 
the circuit on one side is made through a 
spark-gap and on the other passes through 
a solenoid or coil of coarse wire. The pa- 
tient is connected to the solenoid side of the 
condenser circuit, and is placed on a couch, 
pad, or table devised for the purpose, and 
having a layer of condenser covered by 
some form of di-electric, as glass, mica, or 
rubber cushions stuffed with silk waste. 



The sketch illustrates the general appearance 
of the device. 

The condenser layer is connected to one 
pole and the patient to the other, thus a 
charge of positive electricity is held in the 
patient while the plate below is negatively 
charged. These charges alternate very 
rapidly from positive to negative and the 
result is a high frequency wave, passing 
back and forth through the patient's body, 
thus influencing the individual cells com- 
posing the tissues. It is essentially a "cel- 
lular massage." 

The primary effect of auto-condensation 
is to increase nutrition, and nutritive pro- 
cesses. It also increases the elimination 
of waste products; and raises bodily heat. 

Furthermore it does what is especially 
important in arterio-sclerosis; it lowers 
blood-pressure when above normal. There 
are scarcely any exceptions to this rule if 
proper apparatus is employed. 

The proof is at the command of the phy- 
sician and "seeing is believing." It will be 
found by testing with the sphygmomanom- 
eter before and after a ten-minute treatment 
that even a single seance will reduce it five 
to ten millimeters. This will not be a per- 
manent reduction but continued treatment 
will so result, and it may then be maintained 
by occasional applications. 

The dosage of auto-condensation is from 
150 to 900 milliamperes as measured by a 
hot-wire meter in the patient's circuit. 

The average dose is 350 to 500 milliam- 
peres. Daily treatments of ten minutes 
each are advised at first, gradually de- 
creasing as the patient improves. 

Auto-condensation is not only good for 
the treatment of existing arterio-sclerosis 
but it is strongly urged as a means of pre- 
venting its development. 

One gentleman aptly put it as "anticipa- 
ting old age." He observed that we put 
aside money in the bank for old age, and how 
equally important it was to save the vitality 
of our arteries for the same occasion. It 
might be called Life's Savings Bank. 
(To be continued.) 



Current Overland at 110,000 Volts 



It is no simple matter to insulate an elec- 
trical transmission line carrying current 
under the enormous tension of 110,000 volts, 
and the current is ever on the alert to es- 
cape to earth by any hook or crook. The 
transmission line of the Grand Rapids 
Muskegon Power Co., between Croton 



lowing what is known as the three phase 
system. 

The illustration also shows the General 
Electric link type insulators which carry the 
wires and prevent the current from leaking 
to earth through the steel towers. In going 
around curves the insulators stretch out nearly 




ONE -HUNDRED- AND-TEN THOUSAND VOLT LINE AND METHOD OF SUSPENSION 



Dam, Michigan, and Grand Rapids, carries 
current at this pressure. The line is 50 
miles long and is carried on 5 2 -foot triangu- 
lar steel towers, 10 towers to the mile on the 
straight-away portions. 

As will be seen in the picture the line is 
in duplicate, there being two rows of towers 
side by side. If anything happens to one 
line the other is ready for instant use. There 
are three wires carried by each tower, fol- 



horizontally. Where the line wires are 
straight the insulators hang vertically, carry- 
ing the wires at the lower end. The insu- 
lators are each made up of five disks of 
specially mixed and carefully glazed porce- 
lain. They are 10 inches in diameter and 
are hung together byf'steel links. Any 
current to pass [to 'earth ;must jump across 
or creep over the surface of the entire five in- 
sulators, which it cannot do. 



20 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



In the strain type (horizontal) insulator 
you will see that the wire carrying current 
is brought up to the ends of the two sets of 
insulators and anchors. It then drops in 
a long loop down beneath the insulators and 
far enough away from the steel cross-arm 
of the tower so that it cannot jump the 
space. 

It is said that, at the working pressure of 
110,000 volts, about the highest that has 
ever been used for transmission purposes, 
the brush or static discharge from the wires 
is plainly visible at night and a slight noise 
is distinctly heard. This discharge, how- 
ever, does not represent a serious loss of 
power. 



Electric Platform Trucks 



In some of the stations in our large cities 
the sturdy little electric platform truck is 



platform from the train, may note that the 
long, low-bodied truck standing at the door of 
the baggage-car is being loaded with an ex- 
traordinarily large number of trunks and 
bags, and will perhaps pity the man, or 
set of men, who (he imagines) are going to 
have to push such a load, even on the level 
concrete surface. 

The new Edison storage battery applied 
to the motors of the truck, however, makes 
no pushing necessary. This battery, which 
was first launched about six years ago, and 
which has now been developed to meet the 
exacting requirements of propelling auto- 
mobile trucks and vehicles of all kinds for 
road use, is now the happy means of trans- 
forming the human pack animal on dock and 
platform into the driver of a power truck. 
He sits at his ease at the steering-wheel of 
a little giant of a truck that walks away with 
a mountain-high pile of baggage about as 
easily as a lady carrying a shopping-bag. 

The type of four-wheel truck shown 
making its way through the snow has a 
flat, "flush" top or deck, with the storage- 
battery and motor slung beneath, out of 
the way of the load. The rubber-tired 
driving-wheels are in the middle and the 




becoming a 
common 
sight. The 
average pas- 
se n g e"r, 
alighting 
from an in- 



coming 

train, would 

perhaps hardly detect the difference from 

the old hand-operated vehicle. The 

more observing person, as he walks down the 



TRUCK EQUIPPED WITH NEW EDISON BATTERY 



two other wheels "fore and aft." The 
steering mechanism by which the driver 
controls the vehicle operates to twist the 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



21 



front wheel one way and the rear wheel 
the other way. 

At the new $20,000,000 Union railroad 
station at Washington — the finest railway 
terminal in the world — somewhat similar 
trucks are now used. The concourse of 
this station being big enough to accommodate 
the entire standing army of the United 
States, made virtually imperative the use of 
some substitute for the old-time truck that 
would cover the great distances involved 
with less consumption of time. The new 
power truck does this admirably, and in ad- 
dition to operating, under normal condi- 
tions, at from three to six times the average 
speed of the hand-power truck, it moves a 
load several times as great as is permissible 



Record of Fever Temperatures 

An apparatus for recording the variable 
temperature of feverish patients has been 
designed by Siemens & Halske of Berlin, 
Germany. Its principle is very simple, 
depending upon that quality of platinum by 
virtue of which its resistance to the flow of 
an electric current through it varies with its 
temperature. 

In this unique German instrument a 
small coil of platinum wire forms part of the 
electrical circuit and is enclosed in a lit- 
tle tube which may be placed in the 
mouth or under the arm of the patient. 
Current from a battery passes through 
the coil of platinum wire and through the 




FEVER TEMPERATURE RECORDING APPARATUS AND ONE OF THE RECORDS 



with the old-style equipment. In short, as 
demonstrated at the Washington terminal, 
one power truck will do the work of at least 
five or six hand-power trucks, and inasmuch 
as both styles are operated by colored men 
at the same wage rate, the saving effected 
is the more tangible. 

Two classes of the electric trucks have been 
introduced at the Washington station. They 
are identical in design and in almost all 
particulars save size and capacity. The 
larger size which will ultimately be used 
almost exclusively has a carrying capacity 
of 4800 pounds, and twenty-five of these 
trucks will be employed. 



instrument which is similar to a millivolt- 
meter. As the temperature of the patient 
varies, the resistance of the platinum coil 
varies in direct proportion, and the needle 
of the instrument moves back and forth. 
This needle of the millivolt meter has a pen 
attachment which marks a record on a strip 
of paper carried by a drum which is re- 
volved at a regular rate by clock work. 

Thus the pen of the millivolt meter marks 
the record on the sheet of paper in the form 
of an irregular curve indicating just what 
the temperature of the patient was at any 
minute and hour during the days that the 
instrument is kept connected. 



Talks with the Judge 

HOW THE TELEPHONE "TALKS" 



I entered the Judge's office one day just 
as he had finished speaking at the telephone, 
and as he swung around in his chair to greet 
me there was an interrogation point in his 
look and manner. In a half musing way 
he said, "I suppose I use that telephone a 
hundred times a day. It is a part of my 
business life — yes, and my home life as well; 
but do you know, when my little boy asked 
me the other day how it is that a telephone 
can talk I fell down entirely when I tried 
to tell him. Yes, sir! I found that when 
I got right down to it I was almost abso- 
lutely ignorant of the principle of the greatest 
time saver of this or any other age. All I 
knew was that there is a diaphragm in the 
transmitter and another in the receiver — 
and the kid knew that much himself. 

"Now I want you to tell me once and for 
all how the thing works. I don't propose 
to be caught again." 

"You are no more at sea than the majority 
of people," I responded. "Most of us are 
prone to rest easy in the belief that we un- 
derstand a thing until we are called upon to 
give exact information on the subject, and 
then we are astounded to find that our 
knowledge extends only as far as a few 
generalties. However, I think I can put 
you right as far as the telephone is con- 
cerned." 

"I shall not try to take you through all 
the intricacies of talking circuits, ringing 
circuits, switchboard apparatus, etc., for that 
would require a book. But what you want 
to know, I imagine, is the principle of the 
transmitter and receiver which convert 
sound waves into electrical waves and back 
into sound waves at the distant end. 

"To begin with, sound, as you know, is 
only vibrations in the air. These vibrations 
strike upon our ear drums and set them to 
vibrating in unison, which vibrations are 
interpreted by the brain, through the audi- 
tory nerve, as sound. 

"In the telephone transmitter, which you 
speak into, there is a diaphragm made of 
thin sheet metal. It is something like the 
drum in a person's ear, and as the air waves 
generated by your voice/strike against it 
the diaphragm vibrates in unison with these 
waves. 



"Back of the diaphragm is fastened a little 
platinum point which moves back and forth 
ever so little with the vibrations of the dia- 
phragm. This point is adjusted so that it 
just touches a little carbon button mounted 
in the back of the transmitter. The pres- 
sure, therefore, of the point against the button 
is determined by the strength of the air 
fluctuations striking the diaphragm. 

"That's about all there is to the principle 
of the transmitter most commonly used. 
One wire comes out from the telephone ex- 
change and connects with the carbon but- 
ton. The other line wire connects with the 
platinum point. When you lift the receiver 
from the hook a switch is closed in the in- 
strument so that an electric current flows 
from a battery at the telephone exchange 
out over one line wire, through the carbon 
button and platinum point and back to the 
exchange. Now this current is very weak, 
but it flows constantly while you talk into 
the transmitter. As you talk against the 
diaphragm, the degree of pressure of the 
platinum point against the carbon button 
varies directly with the intensity of the voice 
vibrations, so that the area of contact be- 
tween the point and the button increases 
and decreases with the pressure. This in- 
creases and decreases the resistance to the 
flow of current and, as a consequence, the 
talking current, as it is called, is a constantly 
fluctuating one, the rise and fall or the 
fluctuations of the electric current corres- 
sponding to the rise and fall of the air waves 
created by your voice. 

"We will now consider that the proper 
connections have been made at the exchange 
and that the two wires from your instru- 
ment have been made to go straight through 
to the instrument of the party to whom you 
are talking. The next thing to consider is 
the receiver at the distant station. 

"Inside the receiver is a long permanent 
magnet wound on the ends with little coils 
of very fine wire which are connected with 
the line wires. W r hen the connection is 
made between you and your party, current 
flows as before described from the battery, 
through one wire to your transmitter, 
through the transmitter, back to the exchange 
through the other wire, then out through 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



23 



one of the wires of the called subscriber's 
line, around the little coils in his receiver 
and back through his other line wire to the 
exchange battery. 

"By one of the principles of electricity, 
when current flows through a coil of wire 
wound around a magnet the magnet becomes 
stronger or weaker according to the strength 
of current flowing through the coil. There- 
fore the poles of the magnet in the receiver 
become stronger or weaker according to the 
fluctuations of the talking current set up by 
your voice, as before explained. 

"Now right in front of the poles of the 
magnet of the receiver is a thin iron dia- 
phragm similar to the diaphragm in the 
transmitter. The poles of the magnet draw 
the diaphragm toward themselves with a 
force corresponding to the strength of the 
poles, which, again, is dependent upon the 
strength of the current flowing around the 
coils. 

"Therefore, it is plain to be seen that as 
you talk into your transmitter you cause the 
diaphragm to vibrate, which causes the cur- 
rent to fluctuate, which in turn causes like 
fluctuations in the strength of the poles of 
the distant receiver magnet, causing the re- 
ceiver diaphragm to vibrate in unison with 
your transmitter diaphragm. 

"The receiver diaphragm then sets up 
air vibrations which impinge on your friend's 
ear drums — and he hears." 



Are Upward Signs Coming? 



Across the seas in Auvernier, Switzerland, 
an enterprising hotel keeper has decorated 
his inn with this sign: 




Evidently he is catering to both the auto- 
mobile enthusiasts and the aerial navigators, 
for his sign is the only one in the whole 
canton of Neuchatel that can be read from 
above. But he would have done still better 
by having the upper edge of his sign studded 
with electric lamps spelling the letters 
straight "upwards for the enticement of the 
real "high fliers" who might patronize him. 



Subscribers' Unique Telephone Sets 

The illustrations from Telephone Systems 
of the Continent of Europe will interest many 
because of the curious and elaborate de- 
sign which was early displayed in the sub- 




scribers' telephone sets used in Sweden. 

The handsome wood carving and inlaid 
decorations are foreign to American instru- 
ments, while the connecting of receiver and 
transmitter is unusual except on testing out- 
fits. A lightning ar- 
rester and connecting 
plug is shown on each 
wall instrument just 
above the bells. 

The desk sets with 
the exposed gear wheel 
and central hook sup- 
ports for receiver and 
transmitter remind one 
of a miniature fire en- 
gine. The cranks on 
opposite ends of the 
magneto- ringing shaft 
on one of the sets, 
are so placed to enable the bell to be 
rung from opposite^ sides of the table on 
which the instrument is placed. 




Underground Railways of Paris 



Of all the corners in Paris which have 
been turned upside down, so to speak, by 
the works of the Metropolitan Railway, the 
Place de POpera is the one that has suffered 
longest from the presence of the workmen. 
Three railways, each on a different level, 
are being built there, underground, and for 
each of these railways there must be a sta- 
tion requiring special means of access, and 
intercommunicating passages allowing the 
public to go from any one of these stations 
to another. These stations, being very 
near to each other, have been extremely 
hard to build because the whole of the earth- 
work and masonry has had to be done under- 
ground. The elevator shafts, only, have 
been opened up through the ground to the 
level of the pavement. 

The three lines cross in the center of the 
place, one above another, one line, No. 3, 
crosses No. 7 upon a diagonal steel bridge, 
and line No. 7 crosses No. 8 the same way, 
so that the whole appearance of the work, 
outside of the masonry, is that of three 
metallic bridges placed one above* another. 

The preliminary work having been effec- 
ted, there remained to construct a stairway 
of access common to the three lines by means 
of a general ticket-office; then to clear the 
way for the platforms and finally to provide 
the means of transfer between the platforms 
of the three lines. The three stations are 
disposed at the three points of an inclined 
triangle. Further, the second stairway lead- 
ing down will be established on the enlarged 
refuge opposite to that of the first one, and 
within the axis of this latter and of the 
monument. It is the creation of these ap- 
proaches which now makes of the Place de 
1' Opera an immense basin, an exact idea of 
which is given by the plan on the opposite 
page. 

The transfers between the six platforms 
will be effected by galleries, giving access 
to stairways. It may be imagined what 
difficulties were overcome by the engineers 
in establishing the plan of this labyrinth. 
Finally, in order to assist the passengers in 
knowing what direction to take, it was 
decided to build a vast hall of intercommuni- 
cation through which the passengers can 
reach all the platforms. Furthermore, two 
elevators will deposit people conveniently 



at the level of their starting platforms after 
leaving the ticket offices. 

This great hall of intercommunication, 
situated over 20 feet below the surface of 
the ground, measures 98 feet in length by 
23 feet in width. It occupies a space ex- 
cavated transversely before the Boulevard 
des Capucines. From there start the pas- 
sages and the stairways leading to the two 
platforms of each station, to the two eleva- 
tors and to the two distributing halls. The 
hall of intercommunication constitutes the 
central point of transfer. 

Besides this network of communications, 
there have also been provided passages to 
connect platforms with the two elevator 
cages and with each other and with the 
ticket office. 

The engineers took upon themselves the 
task of making all these passages, stairways 
and subterranean halls with the use of a 
single shaft, equipped with an electric crane 
and which is located at one of the extremi- 
ties of the works not shown in the cut. It 
is through this shaft that all the waste and 
rubbish are carried up, and all the materials 
for construction are carried down. Never- 
theless, when the tops of the two elevator 
cages reached the level of the pavement, 
they were obliged to open two shafts into 
which to place the elevators, but these served 
only for that purpose. All the masonry has 
been executed in concrete of slag cement or 
in crushed stone and cement mortar. 

The total height of the elevator cages is 
62 feet. Each one of these, measuring 16.4 
feet on each side, contains two elevators 
running in opposite directions. The rails of 
the line No. 8 are 43.4 feet below the level 
of the street; those of the line No. 7 are 35.8 
feet, and those of the line No. 3 are 20.4 feet 
below the same level. Finally, to give a 
concrete idea of the extent of the galleries 
built in this part of the Parisian sub-soil, 
we will say that they contain about 375 
stairway steps. In short, the construction 
of these approaches was a veritable head- 
splitting Chinese puzzle, and gave rise to 
numerous projects with unceasing modi- 
fications, the execution of which was rendered 
more difficult by the necessity of doing this 
work under ground. Condensed from a trans- 
lation from La Nature, by Annette E. Crocker. 




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Pipe Lines of Wood 



Continuous-stave, wood pipe is now very picture on this page illustrates the banding 

extensively used for conducting water to rod utilized on this remarkable conduit, 

water power electric plants from reservoirs which conveys the water to the hydraulic 
far back in turbines. 

C ion On PIPE LINE OF WOOD STRENGTHENED WITH BANDS OF STEEL wr0 6 

wood pipe, « iron, while 

which is a non-conductor of electricity, it is cheaper than either of the above 

The illustration on the front cover shows and its capacity at all times is con- 

the construction of the continuous stave stant. The carrying capacity of iron and 

pipe line 8J feet in diameter of the Great steel is said to decrease as time goes on, due 

Northern Railway power plant, while the to rust, greater friction, etc. 



Setting Up Gravity Cells 



A writer in the Signal Engineer gives the 
following directions for cleaning and setting 
up gravity batteries in order to reduce 
crystallizing: 

(i) Have the jars, zincs, copper, and 
vitriol clean. 

(2) Place the copper in the jar and fill, 
to the even top of the copper, with vitriol. 
Avoid using dust. 

(3) Put the zinc in place. The top of the 
zinc should be one inch below the top of the jar. 

(4) Pour in clean water so that it fills 
the jar to a point just below the bottom of the 
zinc. 

(5) Put a plug of wood in the center of 
the zinc. 



(6) Carefully remove zinc from an old 
cell and pour the sulphate of zinc from this 
old cell into a pail having a cloth over the 
pail to strain it, so that it will be clean to 
fill the new jar. 

(7) Pour this sulphate slowly into the 
new cell letting it fall only upon the piece 
of wood in the center of the zinc. In this 
way the sulphate will run down slowly and 
will stay on top of the water. 

Then, in a very short time, five minutes 
or so, the battery will be up in voltage and 
amperage and ready for business; the blue 
line will form in the center of the jar and the 
battery will respond in a satisfactory man- 
ner. 



28 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 





Correct and Incorrect Window Lighting 




' The principle of efficient show window lighting de- 
mands that lamps be placed high up in the front of the 
window and out of sight of the passer-by. Also] the 
light must be strong in the window and minimum out 
on the sidewalk. The] cuts illustrate the difference 
between efficient and inefficient lighting, being drawn 
on the plan employed by illuminating experts to illus- 
intensity of light distribution. 

In Fig. i a form of trough reflector is used, sometimes 
these are home-made affairs. A large percentage of 
the light is not thrown into the occupied portion of the 
window at all but is directed into the street and over 
the top and ends of the window. It can only be made 
efficient by using a large number of lamps, which is 
expensive. 

Fig. 2 shows the same window equipped with trans- 
lucent, prismatic or opal reflectors. Considerable 
light passes through these reflectors and is wasted as 
far as results in the window are concerned. Such re- 
flectors are all right in their place but not for show 
window lighting. 

More nearly approaching the correct effect is that 
produced by what is called the X-ray reflector shown 
in Fig. 3. Here the distribution of light is strongest 
in the part of the window where it is needed. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



29 



Wire Measuring Devices 



When wires or cables are bought by the 
foot, as is the case with all rubber covered 
wires used for indoor circuits, it pays to get 
exacf measurements of the lengths of each 



America Made Photography 
Practical 




For^Lai^ge Ccn'r>es 

WIRE MEASURING DEVICES 

size used on any given job. All that is 
needed for the purpose is a wheel of known 
circumference which will be rotated as the 
wire is drawn over it and which will record 
the number of times it revolves. If the cir- 
cumference of the wheel is exactly one foot, 
the length of the wire we are measuring will 
be as many feet as the number of times the 
wheel has revolved. 

Small sizes of wire may be guided through 
a pair of eyes in uprights on opposite sides 
of the measuring wheel. For large sizes 
the eyes can be replaced by vertical and 
horizontal rollers which^may be adjustably 
spaced to suit varying diameters of wires. 
In either case an extra wheel resting on the 
wire makes it bear firmly on the measuring 
wheel so that it will not slip past the latter 
without turning it. 



While the original photographic process 
was invented by a French artist, Daguerre 
to whom the French government gave a 
pension of 6000 francs in recognition of his 
work, it was an American who made this 
process practical. Just seventy years ago 
Prof. J. W. Draper took the first commer- 
cially successful photographs in the old 
building of New York University. London 
experts, perhaps a little vexed at having 
1 gland left out of the early photographic 
nonors, described Draper's success as "due 
to the brilliancy of the climate." 

Perhaps there was some truth in this 
unsolicited comment, but America was not 
to stop with offering merely the brightness 
(and freedom from fogs) of its atmosphere 
for picture taking. When the incandescent 
lamp was perfected here, it was soon applied 
to photography but required too long an 
exposure to be extensively used. The arc 
lamp (also an American invention) proved 
much quicker for the purpose, but it took 
still another American to outstrip them all 
by developing a mercury vapor lamp which 
is cheaper to install and quicker in action 
than the arc lamp. For, while the greenish 
light of the Cooper-Hewitt mercury vapor 
lamp does not give the most pleasant ap- 
pearance to what it lights, it abounds in 
highly "actinic" rays, that is, in rays which 
are quick in affecting chemicals such as 
are used on photographic films or plates. 

So our British cousins were quite right. 
It was the brilliancy of the light here that 
has led to American advances in photog- 
raphy, and when the natural brilliancy of 
daylight was too slow for American ways, 
we made it more and more brilliant arti- 
ficially until now the brightness of the outer 
day (or night) need not be considered at alb 
by the successful photographer. 



Tungsten Ore 



Most of the tungsten ore used in the 
United States is mined in the region of 
Boulder, Colo. A new field of deposits has 
been found near Round Mountain, Nevada, 
however and preparations are under way to 
mine the ore at these beds which are said 
to be more extensive than at Boulder. 



30 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Spiral Steel Pipe Lines 



Electric Furnaces as Auxiliaries 



The accompanying picture illustrates the 
way water is brought from a source, some 
three miles distant, to the hydro-electric 
plant of the Homestake Mining Company at 
Englewood, South Dakota. The pipes, one 
of which is something over two feet in diam- 





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PIPE LINES OF SPIRAL STEEL 

eter, are made of spiral steel so well riveted 
as to withstand a pressure of 210 pounds per 
square inch. At the lower end where the 
power plant is located these pipes are equip- 
ped with nozzles which direct the stream 
of water into the buckets of the water- 
wheels driving the dynamos. These streams 
of water rush out of the nozzles under terrific 
pressure and are almost as solid as a bar of 
steel when they impinge on the buckets of 
the water wheels. 



At present the chief field for electric 
smelting furnaces seems to be in localities 
where both ore and waterpower are cheap 
and where the electric process can therefore 
compete with smelting by means of coal or 
other fuel. But even where coal is cheap 
and water power scarce, the electric furnace 
may still find its place as a supplement to 
the ordinary methods whenever high grade 
iron or steel is desired. The fuel-using 
furnaces all have their limitations because 
the flames themselves have an ef'ect on the 
charge, which ei ect annuls the action that 
might otherwise be obtained from well 
known and cheap ingredients. 

For instance, in making hi^h grade steel 
by the Siemens-Martin process, the so- 
called protoxides of iron in the charge should 
be deprived of all of their oxygen so as to 
leave merely the iron. This is attempted 
by the use of silicon in the charge, but the 
flame of the fuel again oxidizes the hot 
mixture and undoes part of the good work. 
Now if the molten product is run into an 
electric furnace and silicon is again added 
there, its work can readily be completed 
as there is no oxidizing flame present in 
the electric furnace. By running the molten 
metal into this auxiliary, very little current 
will be required to keep it going and the 
absence of flame and smoke will make it 
comparatively easy to obtain standards of 
purity that have been impossible with the 
older methods. 



Fire Protection in Electric Plants 



In the case of a fire in an electric power 
plant more care must be used than in an 
ordinary building because of the danger 4 to 
firemen. The operator must decide whether 
any circuits may be "killed." Fine sand 
is commonly provided. However, in a 
recent fire starting from trouble in a com- 
pensator in which the cover of the latter 
was blown off, sand only raised the level of 
the oil without hindering the fire, which was 
finally put out by smothering with a heavy 
wet canvas tarpaulin. A Babcock fire 
extinguisher had no effect. 

Care must also be used in playing a chem- 
ical extinguisher upon live apparatus, for 
it is said that the chemicals have the property 
of conducting electricity. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



;\i 



Trackless Trolley Lines 



Trackless trolleys as they are called are 
in reality street car lines without metal rails. 
They are coming into quite extensive use 
abroad. One of the pictures shows a line 
running between Pirano Portorose and St. 
Lucia in Austria, a distance of about three 
miles. Four trolley wires are used two- 
thirds of the way and two the rest of the 
distance. Unlike the ordinary trolley pole 
with a single wheel, this car has a pair of 



systems are used in Germany, some of which 
haul loads of fifteen or twenty tons up 
hills having a 45 per cent grade. 

It is obvious, though, that before extensive 
use can be made of such systems in this 
country the roads must be improved to such 
an extent as to compare favorably with those 
in Europe. 



Electrical Bleaching Is Spotless 



The damage done to clothes, paper or 
fabric by using chloride of lime for bleaching 
is due largely to; two causes. First, there 
are impurities in* the ordinary chloride of 




sliding con- 
tacts, one to 
receive the cur- 
rent and pass 
it to the con- 
troller and 
twenty-two 
horse-power 
motor, the 
other to return 
it from the 

motor to the line. The car carries twenty 
passengers, runs at a speed of about fifteen 
miles an hour, and with/ubber tires on stone, 
asphalt and macadam roads is a pleasant 
means of travel. 

The second illustration from Wurzen, 
Germany, shows a trackless trolley loco- 
motive capable of hauling twenty-seven 
wagons of grain weighing five tons each, at 
a speed of three and three-quarters miles per 
hour. Like the Austrian road, two wires 
and sliding contacts are used, but two trolley 
poles instead of one. Current is supplied 
both systems at 500 volts pressure, which is 
the voltage ordinarily used for street cars in 
this country. Several short trackless trolley 



TRACKLESS TROLLEY LOCOMOTIVE AT WURZEN 



lime which discolor the articles treated. 
Then it is difficult to dissolve the chloride 
of lime and any undissolved parts will 
either stain the fabric or eat holes into it. 

Both of these troubles are avoided by the 
electrolytic method which consists simply 
in passing a current through a solution of 
common salt. Everybody knows how easy 
it is to make a clear solution of ordinary 
salt, and when the electric current frees the 
chlorine from the dissolved salt, this also 
is readily soluble in water so that it remains 
well distributed. The result is a clear 
bleaching liquid with no half dissolved parts 
to damage the pulp or fabrics — the ideal 
bleaching mixture. 



m 



POPULAR KLECTRICITY 



Color Changes in Early Stage 
Lighting 

One of the interesting points about the 
early epoch of electric stage lighting was the 
way in which the changes in colors were 
brought about. At that time, more than 




FOOTLIGHTS 

25 years ago, incandescent (carbon filament) 
lamps were about as costly as the present 
Tungsten lamps, so the installing of sep- 
arate rows of white, red and blue lamps 
would have been too expensive. Moreover, 
the coloring of the lamp globes themselves 
was still an undeveloped art, 
so color screens had to be 
used. These were made of 
the thin gelatin as still used 
in Christmas tree ornaments 
and either attached to the 
same base with the sockets 
or arranged as separately 
movable slides. 

For the footlights, each 
lamp was partly surrounded 
by a gelatin screen half of 
which was red and the other ijlli^Hi 
half blue. The screen reached | 
only two-thirds of the way 
around the lamp so that the 
other third exposed the clear 
lamp which was mounted 
so that it could be rotated strip 
with its socket. Then a cord lights 
was run alternately in opposite 
directions around the bases of the lamps as 
shown in the cut, so that pulling the cord 



Pfe-n 




BORDER LAMPS 

would rotate the lamps and expose one cr 
the other color of screen. A somewhat 
similar pull arrangement was used with the 



border lamps which were hung from their 
pivots, while in the strip lights the lamps 
were stationary and the screens were moved 
past them. These gelatin screens were too 
thin and flimsy to support themselves, so 
they were held up by the wire meshwork 
indicated in the cuts which show the ar- 
rangement originally used at a theatre in 
Munich. 



A Surprise for Foundrymen 

It was to be expected that electric pyrom- 
eters when used for measuring the high 
temperatures of foundry cupolas would give 
more accurate readings than the devices 
formerly used for this purpose. But in- 
stead of merely giving the temperatures with 
greater exactness, the electric devices have 
shown that some of the readings taken with 
the older types of thermometers were far 
out of the way. 

Thus in the case of cast iron, our text- 
books and cyclopedias commonly state (and 
on high authority, like that of Regnault or 
Rankine) that the melting point lies between 
2600 and 3400 degrees Fahrenheit, varying 
with the percentage of combined carbon. 
Now careful measurements with electric 
pyrometers have shown that this melting 
point really lies between 2000 and 2250 F. 
and that cast iron is generally poured into 
the molds at a temperature of little over 
2150 F. 

So if discrepancies should be found be- 
tween old and new textbooks on this sub- 
ject, the greater accuracy of the electric 
thermometers may be thanked for correcting 
the figures. 



Electric Tableaux Here and Abroad 



To us in America, the word tableau im- 
plies "living pictures" or similar represen- 
tations by persons in costume. But not so 
to the electrical fraternity in Germany. 
There the term tableau means what we call 
an "annunciator," which, there as here, 
may be had in either the drop or in the dial 
type. 

The idea evidently is that the dropping 
of a flap shows a number or name to the 
European, while with us it announces it. 
Hence what we call a drop annunciator sells 
abroad under the imposing name of (Ta- 
bleaux- Klappen-Apparat) or, literally 'Ta- 
bleau-shutter-apparatus." 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



33 



Public Telephone Station in Holland Can Trolleys Climb Mountains? 



Without a telephone in the house, it is 
usually necessary in this country to go to 
the nearest drug store to find a public tele- 
phone. In Holland this is somewhat dif- 




PUBLIC TELEPHONE STATION IN HOLLAND 

ferent, as is shown by the picture of a public 
telephone station in Baarn. 



Insulation — Electric and Otherwise 



In its broader meaning, the term insulator 
means any substance which will not readily 
permit the passage of some form of energy. 
The latter may be a current of electricity, 
or it may be energy in the form of heat. 
Thus the layers of asbestos, magnesia, gran- 
ulated cork or mineral wool which the steam 
fitters wrap around steam pipes in basements 
and around the "risers" or vertical pipes 
leading to the upper stories of tall build- 
ings, are insulations. They are heat in- 
sulation just as truly as the wrappings around 
copper wire are current (or electrical) in- 
sulations. Hence the curious instance of a 
large Milwaukee and New York concern in 
which the electrical department is entirely 
distinct from the insulation department, the 
latter being devoted to the sale of heat- 
nsulating pipe coverings. 



How steep a grade are trolley cars able 
to climb ? 

The answer depends not only on the speed 
at which the cars are run in proportion to 
the power of their motors, but also on the 
loads they have to carry. Steam railroads 
can readily limit the number of persons 
crowding into one of their cars; but the 
moment an electric line tries to do the same 
there is a general protest from the public, 
for apparently everything is thought possible 
when electricity is the moving power. 

Thus on the electric railway running from 
the mining town of Cripple Creek to the city 
of Victor in Colorado, the rush hours often 
find the miners not only filling the cars but 
crowding the roofs as well, so that the load 
is far beyond that for which the cars were 
planned. Still the cars readily take the 
steep grades, climbing a thousand feet in a 
distance of three miles and making the total 
run of six miles in the remarkable quick time 
of forty minutes. 

The grades on the Cripple Creek side 
average 6\ per cent and the same cars 
could easily climb much steeper grades if 
they were to carry only the number of 
passengers which they could readily accom- 
modate. 



Why Electric Autos Wear Longest 



"Whom the gods would destroy, they 
first make mad." Thus said the ancients 
tens of centuries before the days of our 
present machinery. Were those same Greeks 
or Romans alive today, they probably would 
apply the same saying to modern devices 
such as our automobiles. To them the 
auto having a mechanism that jerks, twists 
and thumps would seem possessed of some 
mad spirit that was working to destroy it; 
as indeed it is, for sudden strains do more 
to shorten the life of any machine than is 
done by long continued smooth running. 

This absence of jarring and pounding is 
one of the great differences between the 
electric and the gasoline autos. With an 
equally strong framework and mechanism 
(or even with a somewhat lighter one for 
the electrically propelled vehicle) it takes no 
expert to see that the madly thumping one 
will be the one that will need the frequent 
repairs and that will give out much sooner 
than its smoothly purring competitor. 



34 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Freak Electric Locomotive 

This picture is not part of the structure 
of a bridge as the reader may at first glance 
assume, but is a very oddly built electric 
locomotive for hauling canal boats. The 
masonry work upon which the locomotive 
rests is a roadway along a canal near Bremen, 



Growth of the Telephone Business 




FREAK ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE 

Germany, and has to be kept clear for the 
passage of teams. In order to do this, the 
two U-shaped steel structures were built 
and held together by the connecting girder. 
The trolley wires supply a motor located 
in the upper part of the peculiar locomotive 
and also furnish current for lamps which 
light the roadway as the locomotive passes 
along. 



Electric Switch Mat 



Operators of machines driven by small 
electric motors are apt to forget to turn off 
the current when they leave the machine. 
The mo tor keeps 
on running and 
wastes current. 
The Beynon 
switch mat is de- 
signed to pre- 
vent this waste. 
It is so con- 
structed that the 
weight of the 
feet on the up- 
per surface presses itjiown and closes the 
circuit. Upon lifting the feet the circuit 
is opened and the motor stops. 




ELECTRIC SWITCH MAT 



President Theodore N. Vail has sent to 
the 35,000 stockholders of the American 
Telephone and Telegraph Company the 
annual report of the directors, showing that 
1909 was a year of remarkable progress. 
The important activities include the pur- 
chase of a substantial in- 
terest in the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, the 
conversion of over a hun- 
dred million dollars of 
bonds into stock, the in- 
crease in the number of 
shareholders by over nine 
thousand during the year 
and the rearrangement of 
territories of some of the 
associated companies in 
accordance with state or 
geographical boundaries. 

The number of sub- 
scribers' telephone stations 
in the Bell system was 
increased to over five mil- 
lions, including one and 
a half millions operated 
by connecting companies; the wire mile- 
age of the Bell companies has been in- 
creased to over ten million miles, the 
traffic has increased to" nearly twenty million 
connections a day, amounting to six and a 
half billion connections a year; the plant 
additions were over $28,000,000, with nearly 
$45,000,000 applied out of revenue to 
maintenance and reconstruction purposes, 
with the result that the plant has steadily 
become more permanent. 

All the telephone apparatus of the Bell 
Companies is manufactured by the Western 
Electric Company, being concentrated prin- 
cipally at its great plant in Hawthorne, 111., 
a suburb of Chicago. The business of this 
latter company showed an improvement of 
$3,000,000 net during the year. 

The relation between the telegraph and 
the telephone and the obligations of the 
company to the public consequent upon 
taking over a substantial interest in the 
Western Union Telegraph Company are 
explained at some length. 

Briefly stated, it is maintained that the 
two services are supplemental or auxiliary 
to one another rather than competitive. 

Telegraphy eliminates time of transit of 
correspondence, by the electrical transmis- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



35 



sion of the text from the office of origin, to 
the office of destination, but it is incomplete 
in that the methods of collection and de- 
livery are slow and primitive. 

Telephony eliminates distance by placing 
parties at distant points in direct personal 
communication with each other, but the 
expense prohibits its use for the transmission 
of written messages over long distances. 

Telegraph operation requires a separate, 
distinct and entirely different operating 
organization and equipment from that of 
a telephone company. Line construction 
and maintenance are common to both and 
can be combined or performed jointly with 
economy. The same wires may be used 
for both telephone and telegraph circuits at 
the same time, but the wires must be 
strung differently, and the differentiation 
continues from that point. Where there is 
density of message traffic sufficient to keep 
busy an expert telegraph operator, the tele- 
phone cannot compete with the telegraph 
in handling message traffic, but where the 
traffic is comparatively light, the telephone 
will gradually supersede the telegraph in 
handling message traffic. Each will have 
its well-defined field, the telegraph between 
centres of density and for long distances, 
the telephone for short distances and for 
collection and distribution between the 
customer and such centres. 



Creeping of Rails 



English as It Is "Translated" 



When foreign technical writers try their 
hands at the king's English, the resulting 
twists of words are sometimes rather curious. 
Part of them are easily understood, as for 
example the term "glow lamp," which the 
British persistently use instead of saying 
incandescent lamp, as we do. But other 
expressions are not so easily accounted for, 
as for instance the following five gleaned 
from a 1909 edition of a prominent tech- 
nical dictionary: 

Stretching Insulator (Strain Insulator). 

Hook Screw (Screw Hook). 

Cross Rod (Ground Anchor). 

Indicator Disk Drop (Annunciator Drop). 

Wall Lamp Holder (Wall Socket). 

Perhaps those of us who are not interested 
in promoting Esperanto or some other 
prospective world-tongue, would do well 
to try and standardize the terms of our own 
international language. 



As you sat the other afternoon in a swiftly 
moving interurban car, being carried to 
your destination, you probably did not 
realize that the steel pathway which stretched 
out ahead of you is moving just a little in 
the direction you 
are going. The 
rails are "creep- 
ing," and that 
gang of men who 
stepped aside to 
let you pass are 
sawing off rails, 
readjusting 
joints, and re- 
placing track 
bolts due to this. 
Roads having 
two or more 

tracks with traffic in one direction on each 
are subject to this trouble. 

Engineers and trackmen are not (mite 
sure as to the cause, but the blows given the 
end of a rail by the wheels, and the wave 
motion given to it are supposed to be re- 
sponsible. The illustration shows a device 
to prevent creeping, any tendency to move 
in the direction of traffic only causing the 
clamp to grip the rail closer. 




RAIL CLAMP 



Please to Push the Button 



If Rip Van Winkle were to awaken today, 
we can easily imagine him as looking in vain 
for the massive knocker at the front door of 
almost any house he might approach. Of 




course among English speaking peoples we 
have no such out-of-time folks to deal with, 
but they are still to be found among the 
people of the smaller villages in other lands 
where even as simple an electric device as 
the doorbell has been slow to introduce and 
they need be told how to use it. That at 
least is what we would infer when we find 
pushbuttons still on the German and Austrian 
markets labeled "Bitte zu Driicken," which 
in our tongue reads "Please to Push." 



36 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




Purifying a City's Water Supply 



The water supply of Jersey City, N. J., 
is derived from the Rockaway River and is 
impounded in the Boonton reservoir, having 
a capacity of 8,500 million gallons. A 
rather unusual feature of this great under- 
taking is that the water itself provides the 
power by which it is sterilized and made 
wholesone to drink. 

A common method of sterilizing water 
is to use a substance known as hypochlorite 
of sodium. A very small quantity of this 
so-called "bleach" will purify a vast quan- 
tity of water, the objectionable bacteria in 
the water being destroyed by oxidation. 
At this plant the hypochlorite of sodium is 



made by passing an electric current through 
an electrolytic cell containing a solution of 
common salt (sodium chloride) and water. 
The electricity for this purpose is generated 
on the spot by a water turbine and dynamo 
driven by the water from the reservoir on 
its way into the pipes which supply the city. 
Thus the water not only serves the purpose 
of quenching the thirst of thousands but 
at the same time provides the means for 
its own purification. 

After it is sterilized the water is carried 
to the city through a steel pipe conduit 23 
miles long, the average flow being 40 million 
gallons a day. 




POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



37 



First Aerial Lighthouse 

To make aerial navigation even reason- 
ably safe at night, there will have to be 
strongly lighted points corresponding to the 
lighthouses on our coasts and rivers. The 
first of these has already been provided by 
the German government which has fitted up 
a tower at Spandau for this purpose. The 
equipment consists simply of 38 incandes- 
cent lamps of high candle power placed up- 
right on a circular horizontal frame some 
twenty feet in diameter. By flashing the 
lamps at stipulated intervals, they will also 
be tried as a means of signaling at night 
to the military airships and dirigible balloons 
during the spring maneuvers at Spandau. 
Thus begins the new era when lighthouses 
will no longer be confined to points on our 
seacoasts and along navigable streams, but 
will dot our inland landscapes also. 



weight, one firm is building them after the 
general plan of our farm thresher engines, 
with the engine mounted right on the boiler. 
The combination is considerably cheaper 
to transport to distant lands than the sep- 
arate boiler and engine would be for the 
same capacity, and can easily be of much 
higher efficiency than our farm engines. 
The illustration shows such a 235 horse- 
power combination, the engine being a 
compound one, in the electric light plant at 
Lorenzo Marques in Portuguese South 
Africa. It also shows the native helpers 
of the electric light company who are being 
trained to understand the value of electrical 
devices. 



No Longer an Infant 



Boiler-Top Electric Light Engine 



In exporting apparatus of any kind, the 
transportation rate depends partly on the 
weight and partly on the space which the 
goods occupy in the hold of the vessel. 




BOILER-TOP ELECTRIC LIGHT ENGINE 



Knowing this the Germans who have been 
more keenly after the export trade than we 
of the United States, have designed some 
unusually compact types of machinery for 
this export trade. Thus instead of offering 
boilers and engines with separate bases, 
each of which adds to both the bulk and the 



Among people of any education we now 
very rarely find any one so poorly informed 
as to repeat the old phrase that "electricity 
is still in its infancy." However it takes 
time for well balanced conceptions of any 
topic to become universal and occasionally 
our readers may still find some ready to 
repeat this long outworn quotation. If they 
do, just let them be ready with a few figures 
to show the. healthy 
strength of the so-called 
infant. Not figures as to 
the extensive use of elec- 
trical devices (for a few 
decades more may make 
the present number of 
users seem quite paltry) 
but as to the rate of de- 
velopment attained in 
electrical devices as com- 
pared with any others. 

For instance, the steam 
engine, in spite of so 
many years of develop- 
ment, rarely reaches an 
efficiency of 16 or 17 per 
cent, while dynamos and 
motors with an efficiency 
of 85 or 90 per cent are 
commonplace and even 96 
per cent is frequently 
reached. In other words, these electric 
devices have already attained five or six 
times as much of their possible growth in 
efficiency as the steam motors which are 
many times as old in years. 

Which then is really the immature 



38 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




A car, driven by electricity, which may be operated without a trolley wire or third 
rail, is realized in the type shown in the illustration and is somewhat dif erent frcm 
the one described in the January issue. This car may be run over steam roads or city 
car tracks. A direct current, electric dynamo is coupled to a ioo horse-power, eight-cylinder 
gasoline engine and supplies current to two 60 horse-power motors. A water cooler for keep- 
ing the engine cylinders at a low temperature is shown on the roof of the car. A storage 
battery lights the car, and heat is provided by passing the exhaust of the engine through 
pipes in the car. 



Electricity Solves a Dredging 
Problem 



A land company was recently engaged in 
pumping sand out of the bed of the Des 
Moines river near Ottumwa, la., and load- 
ing it into cars on the river bank. The out- 
fit consisted of a centrifugal pump on the 
bank driven by a steam engine. A long 




MOTOR PUMP ON A DREDGE 

pipe extended out into the river from the 
pump, supported on floats, and sucked the 
sand and water up from the bed of the 
stream. 

In high water the pump was submerged 
and they could not work. In low water 
the pipe line had to be extended half way 
across the river and it was almost impossible 
to retain an air tight suction system. 



While in this predicament the Ottumwa 
Railway and Light Company suggested that 
it be allowed to try a motor driven outfit, 
which, after considerable argument and 
figuring was permitted. 

It was then possible to put the pumping 
outfit out in the middle of the river on a 
barge; the cost of this would have been 
prohibitive with a steam plant. A 75 horse- 
power motor was put on the barge along with 
the pump. The suction end of the system 
was thus very short, being only from the 
pump down into the bed of the stream, 
and there was almost no leakage. After 
leaving the pump the sand and water was 
forced through the long pipe line under pres- 
sure instead of by suction. Here there was 
some leakage at the joints, but it was the 
water which leaked out instead of the sand, 
so no harm was done. 

This system worked so well that they were 
able to fill a car with sand in 30 minutes in- 
stead of in one and one-half to three hours 
by the old method. Moreover the electric 
pump would work in all stages of water. 



Letters By Telegraph 



The Western Union Telegraph Company 
have inaugurated a night letter service be- 
tween the hours of 6 p. m. and midnight. 
Between these hours fifty words may be 
sent at the same rate as ten during the day. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



39 



Lamp Adjuster 



A Pioneer Telegrapher 



The sketch illustrates the "Noslip" lamp 
adjuster for regulat- 
ing the height of an 
incandescent lamp when 
it is attached to the 
ordinary lamp cord. 
The device is made 
of hard fibre and the 
weight of the lamp and 
cord, when the latter 
is threaded through the 
two holes, causes the 
two cams which turn 
on centers to turn 
slightly and grip the 
cord so that it can- 
not slip. The cord is 

put in place by removing the center 

piece. 




LAMP ADJUSTER 



Arc Lengths Vary with the Gas 



When Louis B. Marks, who is now one 
of the prominent illuminating engineers of 
New York City, developed the first success- 
ful enclosed arc lamp, he 
found that the length of 
the arc is much longer in 
a partial vacuum than in 
the open air. 

If instead of air we use 
some simple gas in the 
enclosing globe, the 
lengths will again change 
according to the gas used. 
And more than this: Vil- 
lari (a French scientist ) 
has found that the arcing 
length changes even in the 
same gas when the current 
is reversed. Thus in 
comparing hydrogen and 
oxygen as gases for use 
in the arc chamber, he found that with the 
positive carbon uppermost, the arc in 
oxygen was 25.7 times as long as in hydro- 
gen; but when the negative carbon was up- 
permost, the arc in oxygen was only five 
times as long as in hydrogen. 

The average experimenter might not have 
thought of reversing the current, so this 
shows how many factors must be watched 
by the true scientist and how important it is 
to have the test readings cover varying con- 
ditions. 




Colonel Joseph Green, one of the oldest 
telegraphers in this country, while visiting 
the Philadelphia Electrical Show sent a 
wireless message from the station to ships 
on the Atlantic. He is 77 years old, and 
remembers the time when the telegraph 
instrument was as much of a curiosity as is 
wireless apparatus today. Colonel Green 
had the unusual honor in his younger days 
of hearing Professor Morse use the tele- 
graph key, and of "working a wire" with 
Thomas A. Edison. 




Street Lighting Once Thought 
Sacrilegious 



Those of our readers who have traveled 
in continental Europe will recognize this 
characteristic profile of the city on the Rhine 
that was over six centuries erecting the mag- 
nificent cathedral whose 500 foot spires are 
among the tallest in all lands. But few of 
them may know that one of the greatest 
battles in the early campaign for street light- 
ing was fought here almost a hundred years 
ago, centering largely around the city hall 
whose magnificent tower shows at the left 
of the cathedral in the silhouette. The most 
influential local paper, the Koelncr Ameiger 
even combated the proposed street lighting 
on religious grounds, contending in strong 
editorials that "had the Almighty intended 
to have night turned into day, he would have 
created a second sun to shine after dusk." 

To this the advocates of street lighting 
promptly replied: "Then since the Lord 
did not create a second sun, do you mean 
to imply that He intended us all to go to bed 
with the chickens ?" For, devout as the peo- 
ple of Cologne were, they would go out after 
dark and were soon won over to the adoption 
of a general system of street lighting. This 
meant an extensive installation of gas lamps 
which in recent years have been supple- 
mented and partly replaced by electric 
lights, for the great city on the Rhine con- 
tinues to be among the progressive ones. 



40 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Electric Lighting on Shipboard 



The electric wiring on board ships, espe- 
cially those navigating in salt water, is diffi- 
cult to keep in good condition unless well 
installed. It may interest some to know 
that this class of wiring has received parti- 
cular attention from the Underwriters' Na- 
tional Electric Association in that the Code 
devotes several 
pages to " Rules 
for Marine Wir- 
ing." 

Salt water on 
any current car- 
rying device acts 
very readily as a 
carrier of current 
to ground, and 
copper also is led 
away, and what is 
called electrolysis 
or electrolytic 
action takes place 
soon, leaving the 
damp copper in a 
corroded condi- 
tion. 

The lighting fix- 
ture shown is pro- 
tected from me- protected lamp used 
chanical injury on shipboard 

by a substantial 

guard. Inside of this is a heavy glass 
globe, commonly called a "vapor-tight 
globe, "/screwed against a rubber gasket in 
the metal box containing the socket. The 
use of heavier metal in the conduit outlet 
than usual may also be noted, the whole 
device forming a water-tight fitting. 




The Relief of Lucknow 



Again the appeal for aid has come from 
the famous city in British East India where 
1700 men held out for twelve weeks against 
a besieging force of 10,000 during the mutiny 
of 1857. But this time it will not be a thrill- 
ing theme for a Lowell to treat in poetry or 
a Bruch to set to music. For now it is relief 
from darkness and backwardness that this 
ancient city is seeking when it is asking for- 
eign manufacturers to figure on lighting it 
electrically. And the relief will surely come, 
for a city of 250,000 people must offer a good 
field for electrical progress even in benighted 
India. 



Galileo and the Telegrapr 

Had that keen observer, Galileo, been as 
fond of writing fiction as he was of stating 
exact facts, we might today be crediting him 
with being the first to predict the telegraph. 
Indeed, he just missed his opportunity, for 
in his "Dialogues" one of the speakers has 
this to say: "You remind me of a man who 
wished to tell me a secret for enabling one 
to speak, by means of a certain sympathy 
of magnetized bars, to some one at a distance 
of two or three thousand miles. I said to 
him that I would willingly purchase the 
secret, but that I would first like to see the 
experiment, and that it would satisfy me to 
perform it, I being in one of my rooms and 
he in another. He answered me that at so 
short a distance the operation could not well 
be seen. Thereupon I dismissed him, say- 
ing that I had no desire just then to go to 
Cairo or Moscow to see his experiment, but 
that if he, however, would go thither himself 
I would do the rest by remaining at Venice." 

Evidently Galileo had some idea of the 
transmission of signals. A Jules Verne 
would not have ended the matter there, but 
would have sent one of the parties a thousand 
miles off to test the suggested magnetic 
celegraph. But Galileo, intent on his studies 
of pendulums, telescopes and the solar sys- 
tem, was too sober a scientist for this. 
Some years later the report spread in France 
and Germany that it was possible to cor- 
respond at a distance by means of magnets, 
but it took two more centuries to make this 
an accomplished fact. 



High Efficiency Lamps in Ireland 



That the proverbially thrifty Scot should 
take advantage of the high efficiency tanta- 
lum and tungsten lamps to save current, was 
to be expected. But how about his col- 
leagues of the Emerald Isle? If any one 
thinks they have been left behind, let him 
read the recent news from Dublin. There 
the people took so generally to the high 
priced, current-saving lamps that it cut the 
revenues of the electric light plant down to 
a losing point, whereupon the Dublin Elec- 
tric Light Commission ordered a ten percent 
advance in the rate for current! Can this 
be another proof of the contention that cen- 
turies ago part of the Scotch emigrated to 
Ireland, taking their characteristic thrift 
with them? 



ELECTRIC CURRENT ATWORK 

NE W DEVICES FOR APPLYING ELECTRICITY 



n;vu^A)WUUWV^uu^nn/^;utf^vvw»^;uwuv^v^wvuuwvvtfvwyll^lvul)^^lMnnnmuuuu^^)vv^ nM»,^ ; ^nMM, UU u k „,^, u „^„, ^ln , uuuu ,| ^1 , ^^u ^ u ^,^„ fl ^ 



"Stay Connected" Connector 



An hour spent in hunting for a broken 
wire or trouble on a bell or alarm system 
operated by batteries, frequently ends in 
finding one or more loose contacts where the, 
wires are attached to the 
binding posts of the bat- 
tery cells. 

The Fahnestock con- 
nector is designed to hold 
the ends of two wires 
which are to be joined to 
close a circuit, the cur- 
rent flowing from one to 
the other through the 
metal of the connector. 
It is also made in a slightly different form 
to act as a battery binding post. Obvi- 
ously no tools are necessary in making 
connections. 




CONNECTOR 



Telephone Booth Ventilation 

"Gee! But that's a hot place." How 
often that remark is made by someone who 
has just emerged from a telephone booth 
on a moderately warm day. The ordinary 



' T^^^yvw*-"*** -rrwy- .::. ■ 



.'•:A 



LOCAL Ar> 
S UBU R.B/« 
EXCHANG 



TELEPHONE BOOTH FAN 



Hi ' 


LOCAl 




S U B U 


Jnfi 


E.XCH/ 



telephone booth contains about 40 cubic 
feet of air, and in some states health depart- 
ments require that this air be changed at 
the rate of 30 cubic feet per minute. 



The picture illustrates a booth ventilating 
apparatus manufactured by the B. F. 
Sturtevant Company, Hyde Park, Mass. 
The equipment consists of a motor,- fan, 
piping, and diffuser shown inside the booth. 
Fifty cubic feet of air can be blown into two 
or more booths every minute without noise, 
the air being released by a patent arrange- 
ment which does not affect the hearing at 
the receiver. Further, the dead air breathed 
by a previous user and containing germs of 
disease, perhaps, is driven away. 



Lifting Magnets Save Space 

One reason why electric magnets are 
preferred by modern steel mills to the old 
types of devices for gripping the articles to 
be lifted, is because they save space both in 
handling and in storing the articles. For 





HOW LIFTING MAGNETS SAVE SPACE 

instance, in handling steel I-beams by the 
old method, the tongs or grapple-hooks 
themselves spread 7 out alongside the flange 
of the beam, so that these beams cannot 
be set close to each other. They may be 
slid over afterwards, but that requires manual 
labor and also means that they must either 
be slid back or tipped up when they are to 
be gripped again. Electromagnets, as now 
used more and more for such work, save 
this extra time and labor. With them each 
beam or rail can readily be set snug up against 
the previous one so as to use the storage 
space to the best advantage. 



42 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




TESTING APPARATUS FOR AUTOMATIC JOURNAL ALARM 



Heat Alarm in Grain Elevators 



"Insuring grain elevators is a lottery," 
remarked an insurance man recently. Filled 
with floor openings and chutes, with always 
an unavoidable quantity of grain-dust and 
dirt present, a fire spreads rapidly in this 
class of buildings. 

An overheated bearing covered with oil 





THE JOURNAL THERMOSTAT, CIRCUIT 
OPEN AND CLOSED 

and dust affords good conditions to start a 
fire. Automatic journal alarms used in 
18 elevators in Chicago and in something 
like 42 in other cities, gives warning of hot 
bearings by ringing electric bells. The 
small illustrations show a journal ther- 



mostat, one being set in the cap of every 
bearing and connected to bells and bat- 
teries. (A) [is metal surrounded by hard 
rubber (B), upon which fits a metal base 
(F). The coiled spring and T-shaped 
metal (C) are held down by solder which 
melts at 165 F., closing the circuit at (A) 
to ground. This operation rings a bell 
which gives the number of the circuit where 
the trouble may be, and the oiler can thus 
locate the A bearing quickly. 

The testing apparatus is usually located 
in the engine room. The right hand portion 
of the large illustration is a clock arrange- 
ment which may be revolved, making an 
electrical contact with the fingers shown, 
telling the engineer whether or not the cir- 
cuits are clear. On the left are magnetic 
drops, one for each circuit. A fused thermo- 
stat operates the drop which tells the number 
of the circuit needing attention. 

The "Western Fire Appliance Works, 
Chicago, which installs and maintain this 
system, states that a record covering several 
years shows that the number of warnings of 
dangerously hot bearings in any elevator 
every three years equals the total number of 
bearings. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



43 



Electric Hoists as Time Savers 



In moving machinery or materials by 
means of a crane, every minute saved in 
time increases the daily capacity of the 
man operating the machine; and where the 
parts moved are so heavy that it takes sev- 
eral men to guide them, every minute saved 
in the time of handling these materials 
counts for all of the men. For quite heavy 
loads a slow speed means severe enough 
strains on the crane and hoist, but when the 
loads are lighter it is logical that the same 
hoist should move them more quickly. 
This is actually done by modern electric 
hoists which are so designed that the speed 
changes automatically with the load. Thus 
in the case of a three-ton electric crane the 
rate of raising or lowering varies as follows, 
in feet per minute: 

Load 6000 lbs Speed 

4000 



2500 
2000 
1000 
500 
None 



ft. 



13 

15 



In other words, the empty hook returns 
to a new position in one-third of the time it 
took to move it with the three-ton load. 



Combined Insulation Cutter and 
Pliers 

It is no small trick to be able to remove 
the insulation from a wire quickly and deftly 




COMBINED INSULATION CUTTER AND 
PLIERS 

in preparing it for a soldered joint. Wire, 
being "drawn," has a hard outer surface, 
which, if it be nicked with a knife when cut- 
ting through the insulation, loses much of 




CUTTING INSULATION 

its strength and the wire is liable to break 
at that point if there is any vibration or 
working back and forth. Also in "skinning" 
the wire it is quite difficult to do a neat job 
quickly as 
the insula- 
tion tends to 
fray out. 

The Goehst 
combination 
cutting pliers 
and insula- 
tion cutter, 
made by Ma- 
th ias Klein & 
Sons, is a 
novel tool designed to 
relieve ' the wireman 
from working with 
jack-knives and other 
make-shift tools. 
When cutting insula- 
tion hold the wire in 
the V-shaped cutters 
and press the jaws 
firmly together, when 
the insulation will be 
cut through. It may 
then be pressed off 
with the flat nose of 
the pliers as shown in 
the second illustration. 

The method of slit- 
ting the insulation on slitting insula- 
duplex wire is shown tion 

in the third illustra- 
tion and is very simple, being done with the 
cutting jaws. These jaws are forced through 
the insulation and the pliers drawn toward 
the operator, the insulation being cut as 
rapidly and as clean as a piece of cloth with 
a sharp pair of scissors. 




44 



POPULAR ELECI RICH Y 



Electric Smelting Furnace 



An Ironclad Bell 



The accompanying illustration shows an 
iron and steel smelting furnace located in 
Domnarfvet, Sweden. Three-phase alter- 
nating current at 40 volts is turned onto 
three electrodes, two of which are shown 
plunging down at an angle in the top of the 
furnace. These electrodes are raised and 




ELECTRIC SMELTING FURNACE 

lowered by wires and pulleys. The lower 
ends come close together in the lower part 
of the furnace and the heavy current forms 
an arc across from one to the other so that 
intense heat is generated. No air is used in 
this furnace. The charge is made up of 
ore, lime, coke and charcoal. 

When the charge is melted the plug shown 
in front is removed and the glowing liquid 
metal flows out through the spout. 



New Rotary Snap Switch 



The Tirrill snap switch upsets our idea 
that a rotary snap switch is usually placed 
on the side wall. This switch is designed to 
be placed on the ceiling. A strong fish cord, 
attached to the interior mechanism, extends 
through the switch cover to within reach. 
One pull turns the light on, and a second 
turns it off. 



In the ordinary electric bell, the vibrating 
stem requires a long slot in the cover over 
the works, so that these cannot be completely 
housed in. If this vibrating clapper could 
be arranged to slide lengthwise through a 
closely fitting opening in the cover, then the 
mechanism could be better protected from 
the weather. 

This can be done by connecting the usual 
vibrating armature of the magnet to a plun- 
ger mounted so that it will strike the gong 
at one end of its travel. It is easy to fit 
this plunger snugly into an opening in the 
casing which can be a heavy casting. The 
wires are brought out through a stuffing 
box which can easily be sealed watertight. 
For marine use the castings can be made of 
malleable iron and copper plated to with- 
stand the action of the salty mists. 



Electric Transfer Table 



The Oneida Railway of New York has 
adopted transfer tables to use in handling 
their cars in switching at the barn instead 
of putting in a costly layout of switches and 
track that is not required with this arrange- 
ment. Not only does the arrangement 




ELECTRIC TRANSFER TABLE 

quickly and efficiently convey cars from one 
track to another, but it also does it silently 
and without the changing of trolleys neces- 
sary in switching. This device also saves 
a considerable amount of space in front of 
the barn for the laying of switch frogs 
in the old method. 

The movable track is run by a regular 
car motor of fifty horsepower and controlled 
with an ordinary controller. The photo- 
graph shows one of the cars in the process of 
handling by this unusual method. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



45 



Motor Driven Grinder and Buffer 

Along with the rapid increase in the use 
of labor saving devices in shops and factories 
comes a General Electric induction motor 
equipped with an emery wheel, a water 
supply arrangement and a tool rest about 




MOTOR DRIVEN GRINDER AND BUFFER 

the shaft on each side of the motor. The 
entire device is shown in the illustration 
and is a valuable help in shops where sharp 
tools are necessary. The shaft being thread- 
ed at each end, buffers for smoothing up 
and finishing work may be attached when 
desired. 



Mine Telephone 



Prevention of loss of life from fires in 
mines has become imperative. The most 
practical safeguarding measure that has 
been advanced , by /authorities on the sub- 
ject is a systematic use of the telephone. 
The cut here shown is oCamimproved mine 



MINE TELEPHONE 

telephone made by the Western Electric Com- 
pany which has special features adapting it 
to damp underground places. 

All the parts are enclosed in a compact 
metal case, and when the door is closed they 
are protected from the wet and from cor- 
rosion due to acid fumes and gases, all of 



which would quickly destroy the usefulness 
of an ordinary, unprotected telephone. 

The parts may also be readily removed with- 
out the use of a soldering iron and so are easily 
accessible for quick inspection and repair. 
The gongs are especially designed to give 
a loud, clear ring which can be heard a 
long distance in the mine. They are 
protected by a hood, making it im- 
possible for large particles of foreign 
matter to fall on them or interfere 
with their action. 



Charging Coke Ovens 



The accompanying illustration shows 
an electrically driven coke oven charging car 





COKE OVEN CHARGER 

designed and built at Columbus, Ohio. 
A large driving motor of the rolling mill 
type of construction is geared directly 
to the rear axle of the car, and is 
- 1 operated from the controller in the en- 
closed cab at the left. This motor is 
suspended from the truck frame by heavy 
springs to reduce jarring strain on the 
gears. A second motor operates two 
shafts at the top of the hopper, and 
from these, two "poking" rods prevent 
the coal from clogging the discharge 
spouts through which it must pass to the 
ovens. At the top of the hopper are two trolley 
poles instead of one as on the ordinary 
trolley car; one trolley wire bringing the 
current to the motors and the other con- 
ducting it back to the power plant, an ar- 
rangement frequently used in Europe on 
trolley cars operated without a track. 



40 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Room Illuminated by Miniature 
Lamps 

The world-renowned art dealers Keller 
& Reiner of Berlin, Germany, have recently 
remodeled their old establishment on Pots- 
dam Street. One of the rooms in this 
building is fitted up as a parlor containing 
the most elaborate decorations. This par- 
lor, which was designed by Prof. Peter 
Behrens of Neubabelsburg-Erdmannshof, 
contains something new in the way of illu- 
mination. 



possible by the miniature lamps, while 
prisms of crystal glass heighten the light- 
breaking and decorative effects. A faint 
idea of the beauty of the arrangement is 
shown in the picture, reproduced from 
Mitterlungen der Berliner Elektricitats-Werke. 



Humming of an Induction Motor 



Inquiry is often made as to the cause of 
the singing or humming of induction motors. 
This in part is due to the vibration produced 




MINIATURE LAMPS STRUNG IN FESTOONS 



The visitor on entering the parlor is sur- 
prised by what appears to be a wealth of 
pearls spread in graceful festoons over the 
whole upper part of the room. The artist 
seems to have had the intention of proving 
that the chains of small globular lamps, 
destined originally by the General Electric 
Company of this country for use only for 
purposes of festive illumination, may well 
be employed as permanent lighting factors. 
And he arrived at his conclusion through the 
consideration that the lighting of a room can 
best be effected not by the strongly concen- 
trated light from one source only, but by 
the diffusive one, dissolved into numberless 
small light centres. This method is made 



along the air-gap by the teeth of the rotor 
and is lessened by building the slots nearly 
closed. 

We know also that by striking a magnet- 
ized steel bar several sharp blows with a 
hammer that much, if not all of its mag- 
netism will be lost. The theory of a magnet 
is that its molecules arrange themselves 
end to end along the path of the magnetic 
lines of force, which are not strong enough 
to hold these particles against the shock of 
the hammer. 

The changing magnetic action about the 
laminated portions of an induction motor 
no doubt causes vibrations which add their 
notes to those of the air-gap's song. 



Electrical Men of the Times 



ENOS M. BARTON 



The man whose strong face is pictured 
on this page has played an important part 
in the development of the electrical industry. 
For forty years Mr. Barton was actively 
engaged in the manufacture of electrical 
apparatus, and when, in 1908, he retired 
from the presidency of the Western Electric 
Company to become chairman of the board 
of directors, probably no man in the higher 
positions in the entire 
industry had exceeded 
him in length of ser- 
vice. Mr. Barton built 
up a great business, 
identified largely with 
the telephone — a busi- 
ness that numbered 
its employees by the 
tens of thousands and 
became known around 
the world. But he 
traveled no easy road 
to success. 

Enos M. Barton was 
born on a farm in 
Lorraine Township, 
Jefferson County, 
N. Y., December 2, 
1842. He now lives 
on a farm, at Hinsdale, 
near Chicago, but it is 
a different sort of a 
farm. He started in 
life with one great ad- 
vantage; he was well born — well born in 
the American sense that he came from a 
long line of sturdy, upright, native ancestors, 
with the inestimable advantage of the ex- 
ample and counsel of a good mother. The 
Barton farm contained but 17 acres; the 
household was one of plain living and high 
thinking. The father, a school -master and 
a scholarly man, died before Enos was 13, 
and even before that the boy had gone to 
work, first in a grocery store and later in 
the Watertown (N. Y.) telegraph office, 
where he learned the rudiments of tele- 
graphy. Thereafter, for several years, he 
had many vicissitudes. At one time the 
ad was a clerk in the Watertown post- 




office. Here his fellow clerk was the 
late Roswell P. Flower, who became gov- 
ernor of the state. In the intervals of various 
employments, Enos was studying and going 
to school when he could. At 16 we find 
him a night telegraph operator in Rochester, 
where he managed to attend a preparatory 
school and later the University of Rochester, 
where he remained a year. From 1861 
to 1863 he was a West- 
ern Union operator 
in New York, hand- 
ling press reports of 
war news. While 
there he entered the 
University of New 
York and completed 
his sophomore year. 
Returning to Roches- 
ter as chief day oper- 
ator, Mr. Barton work- 
ed faithfully for sev- 
eral years. Then he 
managed, partially by 
the help of his mother, 
who mortgaged her 
home, to raise the 
money to enter into 
the business of manu- 
facturing electrical 
supplies in Cleveland, 
in partnership with 
George W. Shawk. 
This was in 1869. 
The Cleveland enterprise prospered. With- 
in a year Mr. Shawk sold out to Elisha 
Gray, later one of the inventors of the tele- 
phone. In 1870 Gray & Barton removed 
to Chicago, General Anson Stager having 
previously been admitted to the firm. The 
ultimate successor of this business was the 
Western Electric Company, formed in 1882, 
of which Mr. Barton became president in 
1886. 

Mr. Barton has been a man of deeds 
rather than words, but his work proves him 
to be an executive of the very first rank. 
His success has been conspicuous, and it has 
beenan' honestly earned, clean success. 




ELECTRICITY IN THE 
HOUSEHOLD 



The Electric Fireless Cooker 



We hear a lot of talk these days about 
fireless cookers. They all work on the 
principle that a comparatively small amount 
of heat is required for the ordinary cooking 
operations if that heat can be confined and 
not allowed to escape as wasted energy, 
which is the case in the ordinary cook stove. 
The simplest form of fireless cooker consists 
of a large receptacle of some kind which is 
lined with material which is non-conductive 
of heat. Into this is set the cooking utensil 
containing the food which is 
to be cooked, the latter hav- 
ing been partially cooked in 
an oven or on the stove and 




As stated above this is the principle of 
the simplest form of fireless cooker. Obvi- 
ously an improvement would be to generate 
the small amount of heat necessary inside 
of the cooker itself and do away with the 
stove altogether. This idea has been worked 
out in an electrical fireless cooker, the heat 
being generated by electric lamps of special 
design. These lamps are of low efficiency 
as far as lighting goes but throw off a great 
deal of heat as in the case of the lamps used 
in luminous electric radiators. 
You say you do not see 
how an incandescent lamp 
could produce a temperature 
high enough to cook with. 




CEREAL COOKER 



PLATE WARMER 



COFFEE URN 



already at a high temperature. The fireless 
cooker is then covered over airtight and left 
to stand, the cooking process going on unin- 
terruptedly for several hours due to the heat 
already in the materials, which heat cannot 
escape. Beans, which require a long time 
to bake, can be thoroughly cooked through 
in this manner after having been only 
partially baked in an oven. 



It could not if it were exposed and the 
heat were constantly being carried away into 
the atmosphere. But take that lamp and 
confine it in a place where the heat cannot 
escape and the temperature will immediately 
rise to an astonishing degree. 

In the line drawings showing the interior 
of the utensils will be seen the principle 
applied to an electric cereal cooker, plate 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



49 



warmer and egg 
poacher, and a coffee 
urn. As will be seen, 
the ordinary cooking 
utensils such as are 
sold by the thou- 
sands, and conse- 
quently of low price, 
are employed, with 
slight alterations. 
Take for instance 
the cereal cooker; an 
ordinary one is em- 
ployed and a hole 
cut in the bottom 
over which a tomato 
can is soldered in an 
inverted position to 
receive the incan- 
descent lamp. This 
is mounted on a suit- 
able, base to keep 
the heat from escap- 
ing. The same is true 
of the coffee urn 
and the egg poacher, 
an outer heat-hold- 
ing casing being 
added where neces- 
sary as in the case 
of the urn. In every 




case the lamp im- 
parts its heat di- 
rectly to a small 
quantity of water 
which comes in con- 
tact with the vessel 
which contains the 
articles to be cooked. 
It is held that in 
these electric steam 
and vapor cookers 
with incandescent 
lamps there is only 
necessary the heat- 
ing of a small film 
or thin layer of water 
to the boiling point 
or thereabouts, the 
vapor or steam aris- 
ing from this small 
amount of water do- 
ing the cooking in the 
steamer, while the re- 
maining quantity of 
water is at a much 
lower temperature, 
and is utilized only 
as a source of sup- 
ply or storage, while 
it is at the same 
time absorbing heat 




APPLICATIONS OF THE FIRELESS COOKER 



50 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



which is ordinarily wasted by 
radiation. 

As it is well known that 
dead air space is one of the 
best heat insulators, this is 
taken advantage of in this 
electric fireless cooker, by 
providing air chambers and 
outer shells, with air spaces 
between the same, for re- 
taining the heat, the water 
boiling in the center while 
the outer shell is compara- 
tively cold. While with or 
dinary fireless cookers the 
heat is all first absorbed by 
the water heated by a flame, 
and then given off to the 
food during the night, tht 
electric cooker applies only i 
small amount of heat elec 
trically and continuously foi 
a considerable length of time 
the food being then hot anc 
ready to be served. 

With this system of fire 
less cooker units the ordin 
ary gas range becomes 
merely a table as shown ir. 
one of the pictures; in tht 
dining room the sideboarc 
becomes an electric kitchei 
and in the bathroom the 
curling irons and shaving 
mug are heated upon the 
same novel principle of utiliz- 
ing the heat of lamps. 




Why Should You Fear Electricity? 



THE SIDEBOARD BECOMES AN ELECTRIC KITCHEN 

strange and sensational electrical 



There is probably no other subject in the 
world with which really intelligent and 
cultured people are so unfamiliar as 
electricity. We all know, of course, that it 
gives us light and runs motors which do a 
variety of useful work, and that it will heat 
flat irons, warming pads and a few small 
utensils. But that is about as far as most 
people's knowledge goes. 

This is not at all surprising — in fact, if 
people knew much more, that would be 
remarkable. For, in the first place, elec- 
tricity is such uncanny stuff — nobody in 
the whole world knows what it is. All we 
know is that it will do certain things. And 
again, because of its very mystery, the news- 
papers have always "played up" all the 



stories 
until many people are afraid of it. 

Too few have told us about the millions 
and millions spent to make electric service 
not only safe but practically "fool proof." 
Too few have bothered to show us that this 
strange force has been so harnessed and 
trained that a mere child can use it. 

This lack of familiarity with electricity, 
coupled with just a touch of hereditary fear 
of the lightning flash, is back of that timidity 
on the part of some women to adopt elec- 
trical innovations. In this connection there 
are two things to be remembered: modern 
electrical construction will not permit you to 
come in contact with live wires if you try; 
wires of house circuits carry current at such 
low potential or pressure that if you were 
to contrive to touch them you would not 
be harmed. 



Plan of a Parisian Mansion 



BY EMILE RUEGG 



Those who read the description of the 
wonderful electrical mansion of Georgia 
Knap, which 
appeared in 
the January 
issue of Popu- 
lar Electricity, 
may think that 
the application 
of electric cur- 
rent was there 
carried to ex- 
treme. But 
the curiosities 
of today are 
the realities of 
tomorrow and 
we cannot be 
justified in say- 
ing that houses 
built on such 
elaborate plans 
may*[not E ey en 
become com- 
mon as people 




ELECTRIC MANSION OF GEORGIA KNAP 



use electricity more and more. In this 
article some views and plans are shown 

which give a 
better idea of 
how the strange 
things were ac- 
complished in 
Mr. Knap's 
double - walled 
house. 

If electricity 
is to be fully 
applied it is 
evident that 
the exposure 
of wires, tubes, 
motors, switch- 
boards, rails 
and machinery 
of all descrip- 
tions would 
make an awk- 
ward appear- 
ance, thus 
spoiling much 




BILLIARD ROOM WITH DISAPPEARING TABLE 



52 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



ot the real value which such service would 
otherwise afford. 

It is quite natural therefore to build such 
a mansion on the plan of double walls, 
which plan was carried out. 

The construction of double walls gives 
to the house real value if we consider that 
they keep the building warm in winter and 
protect it against the heat of midsummer. 
The chill of the rainy 
weather with all its con- 
sequences may also be al- 
most completely elimi 
nated. Then, too, the 
water and other pipes are 
kept from freezing in win- 
ter, besides being hidden 
from view, and are easily 
reached and repaired 
without intruding into the 
costly rooms. All the 
wires, motors, conduits, 
etc., are easily accessible 
if necessary and remain 
unseen at the same time. 
The plan of the main 
floor as shown here indi- 
cates how the double 
walls are arranged, the 
space between the inner 
and outer walls being 
three or four feet. They 
can be entered and the 
wires, pipes and cables 
can be put in and ar- 
ranged to suit the require- 
ments of the various 
rooms. 

In the dining room is shown the unique 
electrically served table which was de- 
scribed in the previous article. In the 
billiard hall the billiard table is so arranged 
that by closing a switch the table is lowered 
by a motor into the basement beneath, the 
opening closed up, and then the room may 
be used for a ball room. 

With all the plans and illustrations shown 
here and in the previous article it is 
easy to imagine how an electric mansion 
might be arranged to the best possible 
advantage. 

As said before, although this may all 
seem somewhat visionary, still such houses 
have been built, several of them, in Paris, 
according to Mr. Knap's plans, and there 
is no reason why they should not ultimately 
become popular. 



From Whence Comes the Heat? 



"Mama, where does the heat come from ?" 
asked a io-year-old boy as he pointed to a 
dish of water boiling on an electric heater, 
and at the same time felt of the cord that 
led from the plug to the device. "The 
electricity does it," replied the mother, and 
there is where we nearly always stop ex- 




PLAN OF THE DOUBLE-WALLED MANSION 



plaining. 

When electric current^ travels along a wire 
it expects plenty of room, and when this is 
not provided, a protest is made in the form 
of heat, part of the energy of the current 
being used up in overcoming the obstruc- 
tion to its flow, called "resistance." If a 
fine piece of platinum wire be inserted at 
some point in a copper wire carrying cur- 
rent, it will oppose the passage of this, more 
than does the copper wire, and the platinum 
will become white hot. This is just what 
takes place in any electric heating apparatus 
when you turn on the current, but here the 
resistance which may be fine wire or some 
thin fiat metal between the two ends of the 
copper wire in the cord, is hidden under the 
heater plate, on in the "heating unit", as 
it is called. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



53 



An Electrical Fan the Year Around 



With the approach of warm summer days 
it is natural to think about buying an elec- 
tric fan for the home. Last summer and the 
summer before you were on the point of 
doing it, but put it off until the worst days 
were over and then thought that the fan 
would be useless until the next hot season, 
so didn't get it. 

Did you ever stop to think of the electric 
fan as an all-the-year-around proposition? 
Probably not. But just the same there is 
hardly a day in the year when it cannot be 
used to advantage. 

Very little need be said about its advan- 
tages in the summer time when its cool 
breeze is a blessing. But aside from its 
cooling properties it may be made to act 
as a ventilating device on those particularly 
muggy days when there "isn't a breath of 
air stirring" and it seems impossible to 
change the air in the house even with all 
the windows up. 

At such times a little 12-inch fan when 

Jit 

properly placed in front of a window will 
create a very noticeable circulation of air. 
By driving the air out of the house in this 
manner air from the outside must of course 
come in at other points to fill the vacuum 
and so the air circulation is obtained. 

In the cold- 
est days of 
winter it is a 
good plan to 
place a fan 
near the steam 
radiator so that 
the breeze from 
it will play up- 
on the coils. 
This will be 
found a very 
efficient means 
of driving the 
heat from the radiator to the farthest [cor- 
ners of the ' room — heat which otherwise 
would rise to the ceiling. Also if the 
house is heated by a furnace the same effect 
may be obtained by placing the 'fan near 
the register. 

Some days it is almost impossible to get 
the furnace to "draw" properly, especially 
on those cold, still mornings in the winter. 
Then you may transfer the fan from the 
room above down into the basement and 
set it in front of the furnace draft. It is 




GIVES BETTER HEAT 
DISTRIBUTION 




HELPS THE FURNACE 
"DRAW" 



surprising how quickly the furnace will re- 
spond to tnis treatment and get down to 

business. 
On cold 

mornings you 

have had 

trouble with 

frost on the 

windows. Do 

you know that 

a fan placed 

in front of a 

window so that 

the breeze will 

play upon the 

glass will very 

soon clear away every trace of frost? 

This principle is often utilized in show win- 
dows to good advantage. 

There are 
days when the 
clothes cannot 
be hung out 
to dry ; then 
1 is when a fan 
becomes the 
assistant of the 
laundress and 
you will be sur- 
prised how 
quickly the 
clothes will dry 
in the base- 
ment. 
The breeze of the fan is also a ready and 

efficient aid in drying out one's hair after a 

shamDoo. 




DRIES THE CLOTHES 




PERFECTION 



DRIES THE HAIR 

No matter what the season may be there 
is always a use for the fan. 



JUNIOR SECTION 




An Electrical Laboratory for Twenty-Five 

Dollars 

By DAVID P. MORRISON 



PART V. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT AMMETER AND VOLTMETER 



the brass tube. Cut from some g-inch brass 
two pieces one inch long and f-inch wide. 

The ammeter and voltmeter described in 
the previous chapter will work satisfactorily 
on a direct-current circuit, but it cannot be 
used in measuring alternating current and 
voltage. The instruments described in the 
following article will operate on both alter- 
nating and direct current circuits, but their 
indication is more accurate when used on 
the former. 

"The repulsion" or "magnetic vane" type 
of ammeter or voltmeter depends in its 
action upon the fact that, if two pieces of 
soft iron be placed inside a coil carrying a 
current they both become magnetized in the 
same direction; and since like magnetic 
poles repel, the result is the two pieces of 
iron repel each other. If one of these pieces 
is fixed and the other free to move the two 
pieces will be separated. The force tending 
to separate them will depend upon the degree 
to which they are magnetized, which in turn 
depends upon the current flowing in the coil 
surrounding them. The movable piece can 
be balanced on a small shaft that is parallel 
to the axis of the coil, and mounted between 
two bearings so that it is free to move. This 
movable element can be caused to assume 
a definite position by attaching the inner 
end of a spiral spring to it and then fasten 
the outer end of the spring to the stationary 
part of the instrument. With this arrange- 
ment the movable element will take a definite 
position for a given current, since the spring 
acts against the magnetic force tending to 



move the two pieces of iron apart, and as a 
result the deflection will be a measure of the 
current flowing in the coil. This indication 
can be read by means of a pointer attached 
to the movable element and arranged to 
move over a marked scale. 

In the following instructions dimensions 
are given for a moving system that may be 
used as an ammeter or a voltmeter by simply 
changing the winding; which will be explained 
later. 

Secure a piece of brass tubing ij inches 
long, inside diameter 11-16 inch and a 1-16- 




fig. 38 

inch wall. Cut from some 1-1 6-inch sheet 
brass two circular pieces five inches in diam- 
eter. Make an opening in each of these 
pieces one inch from their center and of 
such a size that they will slip on the ends of 
the brass tube. Cut from some £-inch brass 
two pieces one inch long and f-inch wide. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



do 




the holes before you 



Drill two 3-32-inch holes in these pieces 
f of an inch apart and tap them to take 
a machine screw. Now solder them in 
place as shown in Fig. 38, making sure they 
are exactly in place when the solder cools. 
If you tin the surface of the disks and the 
back of the brass blocks you can join them 
by first clamping them in place with an iron 
clamp and then heating the joint until the 
solder melts. The 



solder on the sur- 
faces no doubt will 
be sufficient to hold 
them ; if not, a little 
more can be added, 
making sure that 
there is no solder in 
cool the joint. 

Cut from some |-inch brass three pieces 
2\ inches long and \ inch wide. Drill a 
^-inch hole in the center of each of these 
pieces and tap it for a machine screw. Now 
bend them into the form shown in Fig. 39. 
They should then be soldered to the out- 
side of one of the disks, as shown by dotted 
lines and in cross-section in Fig. 38. The 
spool formed from the two brass disks and 
the tube is to be supported by these three 
pieces, which will rest on the wooden base 
of the instrument and be fastened to it by 
three screws passed through from the under 
side and countersunk. 

The two brass disks can now be soldered 
to the brass tube forming a spool, but before 
doing this cut from some heavy pasteboard 
two pieces whose dimensions correspond to 
those of the brass disks. Slip these on the 
tube before the last disk is soldered in place. 
You must be very careful in forming this 
spool to see that the two disks are parallel 
and that their plane is perpendicular to the 
axis of the coil. 

The pasteboard disks should now be 
fastened in place with some shellac. Wind 
on the cylinder several turns of heavy paper 
and shellac each layer in place. 

Drill two |-inch holes in the lower disk 
as indicated in Fig. 38, (Hi) (H2). The 
terminals of the winding that is to be placed 
on the spool are to be carried out through 
these holes, and they should be insulated. 
Small paper cylinders will serve this purpose 
or the conductor can be well taped where it 
passes through the metal. 

The spool is now complete with one excep- 
tion: you must saw a slot, with your hack- 
saw, through both disks and one side of the 




FIG. 40 



tube as indicated by the line (L) in Fig. 38. 
The purpose of this is to prevent the disk 
acting as a short circuited secondary on 
the field produced by the current in the coil. 

Secure a piece 
of very thin soft 
iron, about two or \_\ 
three-hundredths 
of an inch thick, 
and cut from it a 
piece whose di- 
mensions corre- 
spond to those given in Fig. 40. Bend this 
piece into the form shown in Fig. 41. The 
outside diameter of this piece after it is bent 
should be a little more than the inside diam- 
eter of the brass tube forming the center of 
the spool. Slip this piece into the core so 
that the projection is in the position shown 
in Fig. 42. This piece 
can be soldered in place 
before the insulation is 
put around the outside 
of the brass tube by fil- 
ing a groove in the tube 
and applying the solder 
from the outside, first 
making sure you have the 
iron in the proper place. 
Cut from this same 
fig. 41 piece of iron another 

piece whose dimensions correspond to those 
given in Fig. 43. This piece is to form the 
moving element when properly supported. 
Secure a piece of steel rod two inches long 
and 1-16 inch, or a 
little less, in diame- 
ter. Point both ends 
of this rod and tem- 
per them. Now bend 
the projecting lugs 
on the piece of iron 
around this steel rod 
and solder it in 




BrossCYLmdcr 




FIG. 42 



place as shown in Fig. 44. 

Make a pointer or indicator, similar to 
that shown in Fig. 43, from some very thin 
sheet brass, and mount it on the steel rod 
as shown in the figure. The piece of iron 
and the needle should be on exactly opposite 
sides of the steel rod. 

Form a small brass cylinder \ inch long 
from some 1 -16-inch brass by bending it 
around a piece of iron that has an outside 
diameter approximately the same as the 
steel rod. Solder this cylinder in place as 
shown in Fig. 44. 



56 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Now obtain from the jeweler a small spiral 
spring and solder its inside end to this 
cylinder. The plane of the spring when it is 
soldered in place, should be perpendicular 
to the axis of the steel rod, and so arranged 
that it coils up when 
the end of the pointer 
is moved toward the 
right, the outer end 
of the spring being 
u soldered to a projecting 
jz lug as explained later. 
The moving system 
is [now complete with 
the exception of bal- 
ancing which can be 
done as follows: 
Support the steel rod in a horizontal posi- 
tion by allowing its end to rest on two par- 
allel pieces of thin metal, which are also 
horizontal. The lighter side can be easily 
detected in this way and the system balanced 
by adding solder or beeswax to the lighter 
side. Your instrument will De a great deal 









+ * 


I 

1 " 




■ ' k * lo 


"i 




,1*3 


-► 




4- 


♦ It. 


+ 3- 
16 


«- 



fig. 43 




fig. 44 

more accurate if properly balanced and its 
indication will not depend upon it always 
being in the same position as it was when it 
was calibrated. 

To mount the moving element inside the 
brass tube you will need two supports for 
the bearings in which the ends of the steel 



rod are to be placed. Cut from some £- 
inch brass two pieces whose dimensions cor- 
respond to those of (A) and (B), Fig. 45. 
Drill two holes in (A) to match those 
drilled in the piece (A), Fig. 38. Now 
mount this piece in place with' two machine 




FIG. 45 

screws, with one end projecting over the 
opening in the tube. Cut two pasteboard 
disks that will fit snugly inside of the tube 
and place one in each end having made a 
small hole in the exact center of them. Now 
pass a long needle through both of these 
holes until it strikes the projecting piece of 
brass you just mounted. Mark the point 
where the needle touches the brass, and drill 
a 3-16-inch hole in it with this point as a 
center. 

Now. drill two holes in (B) to match those 
in (B), Fig. 38. Bend this piece into the 
form shown in Fig. 46 and fasten ' 'it r in 
place with two 
screws. Locate 
a point on its 
projecting end 
as you did in 
the previous 
case and drill 
a 3-16-inch 
hole with this 
point as a cen- 
ter. Drill a 1- 16-inch hole in the end 
of (B) after the end has been filed round 
as shown in Fig. 45, and solder the end of 
a piece of brass wire about i\ inches long 
into this hole. 

Two glass bearings can now bejnade as 
described in the previous chapter and they 
can be fastened in place with some common 
sealing wax. The movable piece of iron 
should be the same distance from each end 
of the brass tube, when it is in place, which 
can be accomplished by the proper adjust- 
ment of the bearings in their supports. 

Secure a piece of cherry or other close 
grain wood 6\ inches long and $\ inches 
wide, and one inch thick that is to serve 
as a base for the instrument. Drill three 
holes in this base to match those in the three 




fig. 46 



IM H'ULAR ELECTRICITY 



'7 



pieces shown in Fig. 39 that were soldered 
to the lower side of the brass spool. Drill 
two other holes to match those in the lower 
brass disk, (Hi) and (H2) through which the 
terminals of the circuit are to be passed. 
The first three holes should be countersunk 
so that the heads of the screws used in fasten- 
ing the instrument to the base will be entirely 
below the surface of the board. 

Now mount two binding posts on the 
board one in each lower corner. These 
binding posts in the case of the voltmeter 
need not be very large as they will carry a 
small current, but should be considerably 
larger for an ammeter as they are to carry 
a greater current then, depending, of course, 
upon the current capacity of the instrument. 
It would be best for you to use binding posts 
of the back connected type. Cut two 
grooves in the under side of the base from 
the binding post to the two holes (Hi) and 
(H2). The binding posts should now be 
removed, the edges of the board all rounded 
off and the base thoroughly finished. 

A cover or case with a glass top may next 
be made to suit the fancy of the builder. 

Your instrument is now ready for the 
scale. Cut from some good quality white 
cardboard a disk of the same size as the 
upper brass disk in the spool. Make open- 
ings in this disk so that it will drop down 
upon the brass disk and fasten it in place 
with shellac. Draw two arcs, with the bear- 
ing as a center on the upper portion of the 
cardboard disk. These arcs should be so 
drawn that the end of the pointer is midway 
between them and their length will depend 
entirely upon the angle the moving element 
is to move through. When the zero posi- 
tion on the scale has been located you can 
solder the outer end of the spring. 

Bend the wire, projecting from the end of 
the upper bearing support, down at right 
angles so that it touches the outer coil of 
the spring and cut off the end so that it is 
just flush with the lower side of the spring. 
Now solder the spring to this wire when the 
needle is at zero. 

It is impossible to give the proper number 
of turns that must be placed on the spool 
to give a full scale deflection, with a given 
current through the winding, as there will 
be slight differences in the construction of 
different instruments, due to different quality 
of iron, springs of different strength, etc. 
You can determine the proper number, how- 
ever, as follows: 



Wind on the spool a few turns and pass 
a known current through them, increasing the 
number if the deflection is not large enough 
and decrease them if it is too large. When 
the current with which you desire to produce 
a full scale deflection is flowing through the 
winding the needle should be at the extreme 
right of the scale. The wire you use must 
be of sufficient current carrying capacity to 
carry the current that will produce the maxi- 
mum deflection without undue heating. 
After adjusting the number of turns to their 
proper value solder the ends to the binding 
posts. You are now ready to calibrate 
your instrument which can be done as fol- 
lows : 



Standard 







1 





FIG. 47 

Connect the instrument in series with a 
direct-current ammeter as shown in Fig. 47. 
The switch (S) is a double pole, double 
throw switch so connected that the current 
through the instrument you are calibrating 
can be reversed without changing it through 
the standard ammeter. You will find that 
there will be a difference in the indications 
when the same value of current is flowing 
through the instrument but in opposite di- 
rections. The average of these two indi- 
cations for the same current is the one that 
an alternating current of the same value 
would produce. Make a mark on the scale 
to correspond to this average value. Now 
decrease the current by disconnecting bat- 
teries or changing the resistance (R) taking 
two readings again for the same current 
and making a mark on the scale to corre- 
spond to the average. The nearer these 
marks are together the more accurate the 
scale, you of course need not determine all 
of the small divisions in this way but can 
approximate them quite closely after lo- 
cating those corresponding to greater am- 
pere steps. 

It will always require the same number of 
ampere turns to produce a full scale de- 
flection, that is, the product of the number 
of turns in the coil and the current will be 
constant, so te double the current carrying 
capacity of the instrument you will need to 



58 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



reduce the number of turns to one-half of 
their original value, making sure, however, 
that your wire will safely carry the increased 
current. 

To make this same kind of a moving sys- 
tem serve as a voltmeter you will need many 
more turns of wire than in the ammeter 
and the resistance of the winding should be 
as high as possible. The ammeter will al- 
ways be connected in series and its resistance 
should be very small, while the voltmeter will 
be connected across the circuit and its resist- 
ance should be large to prevent a large cur- 
rent flowing through it; which would mean a 
loss. You will have to determine the re- 
quired number of turns to produce the 
desired deflection experimentally as you did 
in the case of the ammeter. Start with 
No. 28 B. & S. gauge copper wire and change 
the number of turns until a full scale de- 
flection is produced by the desired voltage. 
The connection for making this calibration 

Siandard 




FIG. 48 

is shown in Fig. 48. The new voltmeter is 
connected through a double throw switch, 
cross connected as shown in the figure, to 
the same leads that the standard is connected 
across. Two readings must be taken as in 
the case of the ammeter, with the current 
through the instrument reversed. If you 
make a full scale deflection correspond to 
fifteen volts the instrument can be made to 
indicate higher values by connecting non- 
inductive resistance in series with the coil. 
To make a non-inductive resistance take 
two wires and solder one pair of ends to- 
gether and tape them, then wind them on a 
wooden spool as though they were one wire. 
The outside ends of these two wires will 
form the terminals of the coil. The coil is 
non-inductive because the current flows 
around the core through one-half of the 
turns in one direction and through the re- 
maining half in the opposite direction and 
as a result the magnetic effect of the current 
is practically zero. The wooden spool can 
be made such a size that it can be placed in 
the upper part^of^the brass spool. A com- 
mon binding post can be used and connection 



made for various ranges as shown for the 
direct current voltmeter. 

A HANDY SWITCHBOARD 

When you have completed your instru- 
ments you can mount them on a switchboard 
with your transformer and various connecting 
switches. An inexpensive switchboard that 
will serve your purpose nicely may be con- 
structed as follows: Secure three pieces of 
oak three feet long, 10 inches wide and f 
inch thick. True up the ends and edges 
and glue them together, making a piece 34 
inches long and 28 inches wide. Fasten two 
cleats of wood, 28 inches long, two inches 
wide and | inch thick, across each end, with 
screws about one inch from the end. It 
might be well to glue these pieces in addition 
to using the screws. Now give the piece 
several coats of good shellac, paying par- 
ticular attention to the finish of the front. 




J Sw'ilctiboard 



Bracked 



FIG. 49 



Construct two brackets, from some oak 
pieces three inches wide, as shown in Fig. 49 
that are to serve as supports for the switch- 
board. Two other pieces 18 inches long, 
three inches wide and § inch thick may be 
used at the top to steady the board. The 
figure shows a side view of a board supported 
as just described. 

The transformer previously described can 
be mounted on the back of the switchboard 
and the switches for varying the voltage con- 
trolled by rods projecting through the board 
with small handles or wheels on their outer 
ends, as shown by (Ri) and (R2) in Fig. 50. 
Your voltmeter and ammeter may be mount- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



59 



ed in thejipper corners. It might be well 
to stand them in place rather than to mount 
them permanently and make the connections 
to the binding posts so that they can be 
easily disconnected when it is desired to use 
the instruments in some other part of the 
laboratory. 



Ammeter 



Voltmeter 



Jf^sL. 



WvVvVVVwW ] i 




----/^-l^-ft, 



Fig. 50 also shows the circuit for charging 
a storage battery (which will be described 
in the next chapter) with the electrolytic 
rectifier, transformer and rheostat. This 
circuit is of course subject to many changes 
and is given merely to serve as a guide. 
The voltmeter may be connected to either 
side of the rectifier by means of the switch 
(Si). To charge the battery close (S5) and 
throw switch (S2) down. If you want the 
ammeter to read the current in the alter- 
nating current leads to the rectifier throw 
switch (S4) up and switch (S3) down. If 
you want the current flowing through the 
battery throw (S4) down and (S3) up. 

When you want to discharge the battery 
throw switch (S2) up. The rheostat is 
connected in this circuit and the ammeter 
may be if desired. The terminals (A C) 
are for the alternating current connection 
which may be made with a piece of lamp 
cord with a plug on one end to fit the socket 
in the lighting fixture and the terminals at 
the other end under the binding posts (A) 



and (C). The terminals (DB) are for 
taking current from your storage battery, 
or they may be connected direct to the direct 
current terminals of the electrolytic rectifier. 

The additional handle (R3) on the right 
of the board is to control a rheostat (to be 
described later) that is placed in series with 
the battery on charge and discharge. This 
rheostat is to be mounted on the back of 
the board with the transformer so you must 
mount your tranfsormer on one side of the 
center. Other switches may be mounted 
on the board that will connect to the other 
batteries you have constructed. 

The rectifier and batteries should be 
placed away from the board on account of 
the gases they give off when in use. 

Fuses are placed in the various circuits 
and are represented by (F). The leads 
lettered (1) are the alternating current leads 
to the rectifier, those marked (2) are the 
direct current leads from the rectifier and 
those marked (3) are the battery leads. 
(To be continued.) 



To Operate a Bell from a Light 
Circuit 



A simple method which has been used 
to operate electric bells from the lighting 
circuit and do away with batteries is shown 
in the diagram. A wire is led from one side 
of the 1 10- volt circuit through a 108- volt 
lamp and to one terminal of the bell. From 



Bell 



9. 



1 /0 Volt Circuit - 

WO Voli: 
Lamp 



-®- 



Push Button 



BELL OPERATED FROM LIGHT CIRCUIT 

the other terminal of the bell a wire is led 
through the push button switch back to 
the other side of the circuit. When the 
button is pressed the lamp lights up and the 
bell rings. This scheme will work as long 
as the voltage of the supply current is fairly 
constant around no volts. If it should 
fall, to around 108 for instance, the bell 
would not ring. Likewise if the circuit is 
alternating you will require a bell that will 
ring on alternating current. 



=™2»r--=ae£«^«^«lig^^ 



EIOTI IIY MLESS CLUB 



Membership in Popular Electricity Wireless Club ^is made up of readers 
of this magazine who have constructed or are operating wireless apparatus 
or systems. Membership blanks will be sent upon request. This depart- 
ment of the magazine will be devoted to the interests of the Club, and 
members are invited to assist in making it as valuable and interesting 
as possible, by sending in descriptions and photographs of their equipments. 

Wireless in the Puget Sound Fisheries 

By FRANK C. DOIG 



Sea-going steamers go forth from the ports 
of Puget Sound and Vancouver, B. C, to 
wrest from the waters of the Pacific the crop 
of great white halibut and bring the harvest 
back to be shipped to all parts of the United 
States in fast 
refrigerator cars. 

Off the coast 
of Vancouver 
Island and in 
the vicinity of 
Cape Flattery 
on the Wash- 
ington coast, 
these big fish 
swarm in slug- 
gish schools. 
The little steam- 
ers launch their 
boats and spread 
their nets and 
after loading to 
capacity race 
with each other 
for port. 

The rivalry 
between the 
companies oper- 
ating the steam- 
ers has grown 
in the last few 
years. As a re- 
sult every mod- 
ern device for 
aiding in hand- 
ling the cargoes 
and dispatching 
the vessels, is 
employed. The 
latest addition to 




PUGET SOUND FISHING BOAT EQUIPPED WITH WIRELESS 



the equipments of these steamers is the 

wireless telegraph. 

Managers of the concerns that have fitted 

their vessels with wireless apparatus, say 

wireless has become one of the most impor- 
tant, if not the 
most important, 
addition to the 
equipments. By 
means of it, the 
owners are able 
to keep in con- 
stant communi- 
cation with the 
skippers and 
know to a cer- 
tainty what re- 
sults are being 
accomplished 
with the nets. 

As soon as a 
steamer lifts its 
tackle and starts 
for port, the cap- 
tain notifies the 
home office that 
he is starting 
back. He tells 
the size of the 
catch, the con- 
dition of the 
fish, the prob- 
able time of 
arrival and any 
other informa- 
tion of value to 
his employers. 

With all this 
information the 
managers of the 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



61 




OVERHAULING THE CATCH 



warehouses are able to make arrange- 
ments for receiving and shipping/"! the 
fish. This method saves a large amount 
of money and avoids the annoyance and 
confusion that would result, if this informa- 
tion were not received until the boat docked. 



In addition to the reports of the catch 
the captain may make requisitions for sup- 
plies and repairs, if any are needed. It is 
estimated^by owners who have equipped 
their boats that thousands of dollars can 
be saved yearly. 



Popular Electricity Wireless Club of the Central West 



Popular Electricity Wireless Club of the 
Central West, which was organized in St. 
Louis last fall by Mr. David Marcus,] has 
reached astonishing proportions. It now 
has 2500 members throughout Missouri 
and neighboring states to show for a little 
over six months' work, which figures do 
credit to the organizer and secretary. That 
Mr. Marcus stands high in the opinion of 
the members is shown by the fact that they 
bestowed upon him a diamond-gold medal, 
recently, as the most enthusiastic and popular 
non-professional. The medal was awarded 
in a voting contest and Mr. Marcus received 
a plurality of 1084 votes. 

As we have more than once received in- 
quiries as to how to carry on intelligently 
the work of a local or sectional wireless 
club or association, we believe readers of 



this department will be interested in how 
they went to work to put this St. Louis Club 
on its feet and doing so well in so short a 
time. 

The main object of the club is to exchange 
views and propose experiments relative to 
the development of wireless. Most of this 
is done through the mails. The question 
is mailed to the home office of the club 
(1820 Washington street, St. Louis), and at 
its regular weekly meetings the various topics 
on file are : discussed by the local members. 
The questions are given open debate and 
experiment, and the distant member who 
asked the question is informed of the result. 

As a consequence of these debates and 
experiments carried on at the meetings the 
interest and enthusiasm of the members is 
kept up. 



Hearing Grand Opera by Wireless 

Ey PAUL M. CRAIG 



Considerable speculation in regard to 
a new field for the application of wireless 
has been occasioned by a recent exhibition 
in New York of the transmission of vocal 
solos through several miles of space by Mme. 
Mazarin, the new star of the Manhattan 
Opera Company. 

Of course the idea has not been unfa- 
miliar for some time that wireless could 
some day be utilized for the distribution of 
music, lectures and 
even news, and one or 
two writers have dwelt 
at length upon the pos- 
sibility of having the 
music of an orchestra 
or other entertainment 
reproduced in restaurants, 
on steamships and even 
in the home. 

While it is true that in 
January the entire per- 
formance of "Cavalleria 
Rusticana" by the Metro- 
politan Opera Company 
was heard in such a 
manner as to give con- 



siderable promise for the future of that sort 
of wireless transmission as soon as the 
proper amplifying and sound-gathering -'ap- 
paratus could be perfected, the test of Mme. 
Mazarin was the first entirely satisfactory 
demonstration of opera by wireless to become 
an impressive factor |in the field of enter- 
tainment. 

The prima-donna sang selections fium 
"Carmen" and "Elektra" which were heard 




MADAM MAZARIN SINGING INTO THE WIRELESS TELEPHONE — LEE DE FOREST 

ADJUSTING INSTRUMENT 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



63 



at a wireless laboratory in Newark, N. J., 
by several notable technical writers, but the 
best results were obtained at the wireless 
room of the Metropolitan Life Tower, over 
a mile away from the singer who was sta- 
tioned in the DeForest laboratory, just 
opposite the Grand Central Station. At the 
Metropolitan Tower a select company in- 
cluding Prof. Hudson Maxim, several city 
officials and members of the Manhattan 
Opera Company heard distinctly every note 
of the music. 

The writer's impression of the enter- 
tainment was that of a voice coming from 
nowhere in particular and yet apparently 
emanating very softly from some one present 
in the audience. 

The guests listened through head tele- 
phones, much the same as those used by the 
old-fashioned phonograph, and while close 
attention was necessary for proper appre- 
ciation of the music, the climax of the selec- 
tion from "Elektra" which must have been 
almost deafening in the small transmitting 
room, could be heard several feet from the 



receiving apparatus in the Metropolitan 
Tower. 

After the performance many of the guests 
repaired to the laboratory where Mme. 
Mazarin and Dr. Lee DeForest were heartily 
congratulated for the success of their achieve- 
ment. Prof. Maxim especially was enthu- 
siastic and showed a great knowledge of wire- 
less by ably assisting the inventor in explain- 
ing the operation of the wireless transmit- 
ter, which consisted of a "multi-micro- 
phone" in connection with the new "radio- 
tone oscillator" which sets up a rapidly 
vibrating radiation from the antenna, varying 
in accordance with the variations caused by 
the human voice modifying the microphone 
circuit. The receiving apparatus consisted 
of a regular long distance wireless telegraph 
receiving and tuning apparatus at the 
Metropolitan Life Station, using theaudion 
in connection with half a dozen head tele- 
phones, and at Newark of the regulation 
Navy wireless telephone receiving set with 
both audion and perikon detectors as shown 
on the preceeding page. 



A High-power Wireless Equipment 



By ALFRED P. MORGAN 



PART I.— AERIALS 



The novice in search of information upon 
the construction of wireless instruments, 
has been forced to rely somewhat upon a 
variety of disconnected articles, which often 
lead the reader into the predicament of 
Mark Twain's famous steamboat which 
had such a large whistle and such a small 
boiler that the boat had to be stopped in 
order to whistle. For instance, a tuning 
helix and spark gap are often described and 
used in connection *vith a one or two-inch 
spark induction coil when in reality they are 
more suitable for a one-quarter kilowatt 
transformer. 

In this series of papers it is proposed to 
give details pertaining to the construction 
and operation of a set of wireless instru- 
ments, both for transmitting and receiving, 
which are capable of the most exacting work. 
The apparatus is all entirely practical and 
is only offered after considerable study and 
experimental work. 

The builder need not possess exceptional 
skill or ingenuity but rather patience and 



judgment. No departure from the design 
and dimensions here offered is advisable 
unless they only affect very immaterial 
factors. 

The old proverb, "Haste makes waste," 
applies very well to the construction of 
electrical apparatus. It is apparent that 
straining an induction coil just to see how 
long a spark it will give, before it is properly 
completed and insulated, is exceedingly 
foolish unless the builder is blessed with 
time and a fat pocket book. There are 
always those who prefer not to spend any 
time in putting a finish on the wood or 
metal, but it may well be said that care 
with the little details always insures the 
successful completion and operation of the 
collective instruments. 

The station in question has a positive 
transmitting range of ioo to 300 miles, de- 
pending upon whether the induction coil or 
the transformer is used. By "positive 
range" it is meant that the station will tran- 
mit messages these distances without being 



64 



POPULAR ELECTIRCITY 



seriously hampered by weather conditions 
or the state of the ether. Under very fa- 
vorable circumstances it might be possible 
to communicate three times these distances, 
but such occasions would be somewhat ex- 
ceptional. 

The receiving apparatus is not only cap- 
able of giving good, clear signals in the tele- 
phones when used to receive from the trans- 
mitter in question over the 
distances named above, but if ,.--- 

properly adjusted will detect 
signals over one thousand //' ) , 

miles. 

It should be understood ?/.■■": :j 

that sending and receiving /// /// / 
radii are only relative terms 
and depend upon many 
factors. The ability of the 
operator in many cases de- 
termines the distance over 
which the station can work sucess- 
fully. The favorable location of one 
station sometimes makes it possible to send 
twice as far from that station as from one 
of the same rated power. It is impossible 
to base any statements of the transmitting 
or receiving range of a station on such data 
as the kind of tuning coil, spark gap, aerial, 
etc., but something about the conditions 
under which the station is operated must be 
known and even then the distance cannot 
be based on any data but rather upon knowl- 
edge gained by actual experience. In giv- 
ing the probable range of the outfit which 
we are considering the author has not taken 
into consideration any exceptionally favor- 
able factors but rather considered the ques- 
tion from a more fair standpoint and named 
figures that can be relied upon. 

The antenna or aerial system consists of 
a number of wires elevated in the air and 
insulated from surrounding objects. Its 
purpose is to convert an electrical current 
into electromagnetic waves and to regenerate 
part of the energy of an intercepted wave 
back into an electric current. 

All electrically charged bodies are sur- 
rounded by an electrostatic field, the nature 
of which in theory is a state of strain. The 
action of the tn nsmitter is to charge the 
aerial, say with negative electricity, and es- 
tablish a field of force in its vicinity varying 
in area from a few feet to several miles. 
The lines of electric strain stretch from the 
aerial to the earth on all sides as repre- 
sented by the dotted lines in Fig. i. They 



are spherical in form although of course on 
paper they must be represented in one 
plane. 

When the charge reaches a certain value, 
the air gap between the spark knobs is 
broken down and the space- becomes con- 
ductive so that the electricity in the aerial 
rushes down into the earth and the aerial 
is discharged. With the discharge the 



tit jii iU tit i?ii q ?ft.i ♦ W \\\ \\ \ \\\ 



FIG. 1. THEORY OF THE ACTION OF WIRELESS WAVES 



strain in the electrostatic field is released, 
but in so relaxing it produces a new current 
and charges the aerial with positive elec- 
tricity. A new strain is immediately built 
up around the antenna but is opposite in 
direction to the first. This process repeats 
itself very rapidly and with every oscilla- 
tion or reversal of current the direction of 
the dielectric strain is changed and the lines 
which originally stretched from the aerial 
to the earth are displaced and the ends 
terminating on the aerial run down it and 
form semi-loops or inverted "U's" standing 
with their ends on the earth in a circular 
ripple around the aerial and moving away 
from it with the speed of light. In Fig. i 
two complete oscillations are represented 
as having taken place and the aerial is about 
to discharge a third time. The small arrow 
heads indicate the reversals of direction in 
the lines of strain. Right here it may be 
stated that the distance between like points 
on any two consecutive waves is the wave 
length. 

Modern practice demands greater effi- 
ciency in producing oscillations than the 
above method affords, but the systems, 
although they differ in the details of 
their operation are the same in principle. 
Instead of generating oscillations directly in 
the aerial itself, they are first produced by 
means of condenser and spark gap and then 
impressed upon the aerial through the me- 
dium of a transformer called a transmitting 
helix. The action of the condenser will 
be explained later. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



65 



A long wave length is generally desirable 
since the dissipation of energy due to trees 
and sunlight is not so pronounced. The 
length of the wave emitted by an aerial 
composed of a single vertical wire having a 
spark gap at its lower end near the earth is, 
generally speaking, between four and five 




ssbssssssssssss^^ 



FIG. 2. THE UMBRELLA AERIAL 

times the length of . the wire. However, 
many undeterminable factors depending 
upon the location of the aerial influence its 
wave length and make it impossible to ac- 
curately predetermine it without the aid of 



electrostatic held and consequently the more 
powerful will be the electrical waves de- 
veloped. But after a height of from one 
hundred and eighty to two hundred feet is 
attained the engineering difficulties and the 
expense increase so rapidly that few but 
ultra-powerful stations exceed it. 

After the limit in a vertical direction has 
been reached, the only remaining possi- 
bilities are to increase the surface and to 
spread out horizontally. 

The desirable feature of an aerial is 
measured by the quantity of the charge re- 
quired to raise its potential one unit, and 
is called its electrostatic capacity. An in- 
crease in capacity enables more energy to 
be accumulated in the antenna and conse- 
quently more poAverful waves are emitted. 
The capacity may be increased by adding 
wires to the aerial, but the increase must 
not be carried too far or the transmitting 
apparatus will not be able to raise its po- 
tential sufficiently. Owing to an effect of 
mutual induction between the wires, the 
lines of strain are not distributed evenly and 
symmetrically. As a result, the capacity 
does not vary directly as the number of 
wires but rather approximately as the square 
root. In order to decrease this effect and 
use the surface more efficiently, the wires 
should not be placed nearer than one-fiftieth 
of .their length and preferably farther apart. 

A few years ago the wireless antenna con- 
sisted of a metal plate, high in the air and 





3?- 




±1 

FIC. 4. THE "t" TYPE AERIAL 

having a wire suspended from it. But today 
the form best capable of sending and re- 
ceiving equally well in all directions is that 

a special instrument termed a cymometer or illustrated in Fig. 2, called the umbrella 

wave meter. aerial. 

The higher an aerial is placed above the The wires spread out from the top of 

surface of the earth, the wider will be its the mast similarly to the ribs of an umbrella. 



FIG. 3. INVERTED L" AERIAL 



66 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The outside or lower ends lead into the 
station at the foot of the mast. 

It often happens, as is the case on ship- 
board, that the horizontal space available 
is confined to two dimensions. The best 
form is then one of the flat top aerials shown 
in Figs. 3, 4 and 5. 

Fig. 1 is the inverted "L" in which the 
vertical leads are taken off from one end of 



the "T" or inverted "L" may be converted 
to this form by bringing the vertical leads 
in pairs down to the receiving instruments. 
A station equipped with a looped aerial 
system does not suffer the annoyance of a 
bum in the telephone receivers caused by 
induction from neighboring light and power 
lines. It has the further advantage of being 
well adapted to long waves and close tuning. 




FIG. 



THE LOOPED AERIAL 



the horizontal. This form is advisable only 
in certain well defined cases, where, for 
instance, two stations are intended only for 
communication with each other and not 
with outside stations. 

This aerial radiates its waves most 
strongly in a direction opposite to which its 
free end points and receives its signals best 
from a station lying in the direction of maxi- 
mum radiation. 

This directive action may be considerably 
lessened by taking the leads off at the centre 
and forming a "T" aerial as in Fig. 4. This 
type is slightly directional and emits or 
receives signals best in its own plane, but 
the effect is not pronounced unless the 
horizontal is much greater than the vertical 
height. 

The leads should preferably be taken off 
at right angles to the horizontal but some- 
times an oblique direction is necessary. 
There is a difference of opinion whether or 
not the ends of the horizontal wires should 
be connected together and it is impossible to 
say with good reason which method is the 
best. 

Fig. 5 illustrates the type of aerial used 
by the United Wireless Telegraph Com- 
pany, and known as a looped aerial. Either 



The next consideration, after choosing the 

type of aerial, is the means of suspension. 

On ship board this is an easy problem, for 

the masts may be readily utilized. In the 

case of a land station, the masts are usually 

erected either on the roof of the building 

Q in which the operating room is located or 

/#00^00 i^/M ^ else set up in the ground outside. For effi- 

| E. I cient service the aerial should be at least 

125 feet above the ground. The erection 

of a pole of any considerable height is a 

matter best left to the dealer who furnishes 

the pole and so nothing will be said here 

regarding the operation. 

It is very important that the material used 
for the insulation and suspension shall be 
of the best grade so that in event of bad 
weather, the station will not be losing en- 
ergy or be put out of operation because the 
aerial blew down. Every effort must be 
made to guard against faults in the insula- 
tion which would cause leakage. Hard 
rubber is undesirable since it is affected by 
the atmosphere and becomes coated with 
a conducting layer. The most widely used 
form of aerial insulator is that shown in 
Fig. 6, called the Electrose insulator. 

It is made of a dense, hard material known 
under the trade name of Electrose. The 
iron rings are moulded into the ends so 
that it is impossible for them to pull out. 
The insulator is corrugated so that it pre- 
sents a large surface and tnere is less likeli- 
hood of a conducting nlm forming on the 
surface. 

The wires are held apart by two wooden 
spars and one spreader, preferably of spruce, 
and made to conform with the dimensions 
indicated in Fig. 7. The spars are nine 
feet long and 2% inches in diameter at tbe 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



67 



centre. They taper to ih inches in diameter 
at the ends. If the aerial is short the middle 
spreader is unnecessary unless the vertical 
wires are taken off at the centre, when it 

FIG. 6. ELECTROSE INSULATOR 

must be used to prevent the horizontal 
wires from being pulled together. 

The necessary hardware may be pur- 
chased from a dealer in ship chandlery. 
Two mast withes 2J inches in diameter and 
having one eye, four two inches in diameter 
also having one eye and four 1^ inches in 
diameter having three eyes are required, 
as shown in Fig. 8. Eight lap links are 




<Sec/-/on oS C 



Sect ion <* A 
FIG. 7. SPAR 



Section & 8 



used to fasten the insulators to the spars. 
Forty feet of steel stranded cable, 3-16 inch 
in diameter and two wire rope thimbles and 
two screw shackel bolts shown in Fig. 9 
are necessary to form the bridle. 

One of the largest mast withes is forced 
on the centre of each spar, and the next 
smaller ones, 1^ feet to either side. The 
smallest withes should just fit on the ends 




FIG. 8. MAST WITHES 

of the spars and be placed so that one of the 
three eyes points down and the other two 
respectively to the front and rear. 

An Electrose insulator is secured to each 
of the eight withes other than the two centre 
ones by means of the lap links. 

The bridle is arranged as shown in Fig 
10. The ends of the wire rope are spliced 
through the rear eyes in the end withes. A 
wire rope thimble is included in the centre 



of the bridle and a short length of cable 
leads from the thimble to the eye on the 
centre withe. A rope thimble is fastened 
to the end of the hoisting rope and con- 
nected to the thimble in the bridle by means 
of the screw shackle. A short piece of 
hemp rope fastened through the lower eyes 
in the end withes and tied to the supporting 





fig. 9. 



WIRE ROPE THIMBLES AND 
SHACKEL BOLT 



mast some distance below the pulley will 
prevent the aerial from turning over and 
becoming twisted in windy weather. 

The wire used for the aerial itself is so.t 
drawn phosphor bronze cable, made up of 
seven strands of No. 20 B. & S. gauge. 
Phosphor bronze is tougher, has better 
wearing qualities than copper and does not 
sag or stretch as easily. Four pieces are 
cut, each about one foot longer than the 
length of the aerial and all of exactly the 
same length. 

The spars are laid on the ground, at a 
distance apart equal to the desired length 




FIG. 10. BRIDLE 

of the aerial, and the ends of the wires 
passed through the eyes in the corresponding 
insulators. The ends are then doubled 
back, bound with a No. 16 phosphor bronze 
wire and soldered. In case the aerial is a 
looped system of the second type, the wire 
may be one continuous length laced around 



C8 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



through the eyes in the insulators. If a 
"T" aerial is used, the leading-in wires 
which are also phosphor bronze cable are 
soldered as nearly as possible to the centre. 
In this latter case the horizontal wires pass 
through short lengths of hard rubber tubing 
set in the spreader, shown in Fig. n, so 
that the strain of the vertical wires cannot 
pull them together. 

The rope used to sustain the aerial is 
one inch manilla hemp. It passes through a 




FIG. II. SPREADER 

tackle block fastened to the top of the sup- 
porting mast so that when the aerial has been 
assembled as directed above it may be hoisted 
aloft. It should not be pulled up taut but 
rather allowed to hang slightly slack. 

The leading in wires must all be of exactly 
the same length and gradually converge 
until they terminate in one wire just outside 
of the point of entrance to the building where 
the operating room is located. Where the 
wire enters the building itself it must be 
very highly insulated and the best method 
is to lead it through a hard rubber bushing, 
:,Fig. 12, in the window-pane. 




FIG. 12. WINDOW PANE BUSHING 

The construction of this bushing is il- 
lustrated in Fig. 13. A |-inch hole is bored 
through the axis of a hard rubber rod six 
inches long and \\ inches in diameter. One 
end of -the rod is turned down to one inch 



in diameter for a distance of two inches. 
The centre portion is threaded for a distance 
of ih inches. Two hard rubber flanges or 
washers \ inch thick and three inches in 
diameter are bored through .their centres and 
threaded to fit the middle portion of the rod. 
A piece of |-inch brass rod, 7J inches long, 
is threaded at both ends for f of an inch and 
passed through the axis of the hard rubber 
rod. 

A hole i\ inches in diameter is bored 
through the centre of the window pane in 
the operating room and the insulator placed 
therein with one of the hard rubber washers 
on either side of the glass. A soft rubber 
gasket must be placed between each of the 
hard rubber flanges and the glass to reduce 
the liability of its cracking. 

The leading-in wire is clamped to the 
outer end of the brass rod which passes 



7f- 





\*~- FLANGt 


"D 


J] 



BRASS J 
ROD' 



FIG. 13. DETAILS OF BUSHING 

through the insulator, by means of two brass 
nuts. A wire connects to the inner end in 
the same manner and leads to the aerial 
switch. The high tension cable used for 
the secondary wiring on automobiles, is very 
suitable for the interior wiring. 

The leading-in wire must be anchored 
outside of the building with an Electrose 
insulator, so that the glass pane is relieved 
from all strain. 

(To be continued.) 



The Kentucky and Alamo 



Motors connected to fire pumps are now 
built so as to be entirely enclosed or "splash 
proof." Need of this protection was re- 
cently shown in another line, when the 
steamship Alamo rescued the Kentucky 
after receiving a wireless call. It is said 
that the dynamo for operating the wireless 
on the latter had to be wrapped in tarpaulin 
blankets to keep out the water until the 
rescue. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



69 



First Wireless Union 



Record of the first movement to organize 
wireless workers was made on Feb. 18, ioio, 
when formal application was presented to 
E. McEachren, president of the Cleveland 
Federation of Labor, for admission to the 
American Federation of Labor. 

This new organization, according to the 
application, names B. D. Smith as presi- 
dent. The name of the "Order" is to be 
the "Order of V/ireless Operators and Con- 
structionists," and is the first of its kind in 
the world. 



by paraffined paper about one-fourth inch 
larger all around than the metal sheets. 
Alternate sheets of metal are connected 
together. A total metal surface of 400 
square inches is sufficient for most wireless 



' fS AtrM 




WIRELESS QUERIES Jf. &%#r,«w3$&3w 



V.O.- Variable Conef'tsei" 

TC-fixed Condenser 



~D-J3e1ecior: 

~p- Tote* f 10 meter: 



Answered by A. B. Cole 



Questions sent in to this department mus* 
comply with the same requirements that are 
specified in the case of the questions and 
answers on general electrical subjects. See 
"Questions and Answers" department. 



Wave Length; Sliding and Stationary Con- 
densers 

Questions. — (A) How many meters' wave length 
will a tuning coil like that described in the January, 
1910, issue respond to? (B) What would be the 
wave length of this tuner using enameled wire, and 
what size enameled wire should be used for the 
primary and the secondary, and how many ounces 
of each ? (C) Please explain how to make a sliding 
condenser and a stationary condenser. (D) Give 
diagram for connecting two sliding and one sta- 
tionary condenser, a variable coupling tuning coil, 
electrolytic detector, potentiometer,, and 2000 ohm 
telephone receivers. — E. J., Chicago, III. 

Answers. — (A) About 500 meters, if used 
in connection with an aerial 60 feet long. 

(B) About 600 meters, with the above 
aerial. The primary will take about nine 
ounces of No. 18 enameled wire, and the 
secondary will require about six ounces of No. 
24. 

(C) By a sliding condenser you probably 
mean a variable one. This may consist 
of two brass tubes of slightly different 
diameters, separated by paraffined paper. 
The larger tube may have an inside diam- 
eter of two inches, and both may be eight 
inches long. Connect a binding post to 
each tube. By sliding the smaller into the 

i larger, the capacity of the condenser is in- 
> creased. By a stationary condenser you 
'probably mean a fixed condenser. This 
consists of sheets of metal or foil separated 



CONNECTIONS OF VARIABLE AND FIXED 
CONDENSER 

purposes, if a moderate pressure is applied 
to keep the sheets close together. 
(D) See diagram. 



Portable Five-Mile Outfit 

Question. — What instruments would be neces- 
sary to assemble a portable wireless outfit to send 
3 to 5 miles? Please name instruments for as 
cheap and compact an outfit as will do the work; 
also show diagram of connections for such a set. 
I already have a one-inch spark coil. — H. H., 
Monmouth, 111. 

Answer. — The following instruments will 
be needed: Two inch coil; D. P. D. T. 
porcelain base switch; spark gap; telegraph 
key; eight dry batteries; single slide tuner; 
small fixed condenser; silicon detector; 
double headband with two 500-ohm re- 
ceivers. The aerial should be at least 60 



7o 4 e rial 



"TK 




T f?.- Tel- T?ec- T>- rVe tecfor. 

T ■ -Tfniij Coil- Sw- Aerial Switch. 

V -fired eorfettser. SG- Stxir/f Gap- 

C -Coil Clinch.)- K - IUY- 

23 -fatten G' -Grot/rief. 

CONNECTIONS OF PORTABLE EQUIPMENT 

feet high, and consist of at least four par- 
allel wires. A one-inch coil might send five 
miles, but could not always be depended 
upon to do the work. See diagram above 
for connections. 



QUESTIONS AND AN^EPSI 



Use of this department is free to readers of Popular Electricity, but atten- 
tion will not be given to questions which do not comply with the follow- 
ing rules: All questions must be written in the form of a letter addressed 
to the Questions and Answers Department and containing nothing for 
the other departments of the magazine; two-cent stamp must be enclosed 
for answer by mail, for space will not permit of printing all answers; 
the full name and address of the writer must be given. 



Action of Induction Coil; High Tension Coil; 
Plunge Battery 

Questions. — (A) Please explain the action of a 
medical induction coil. (B) -How can I make a 
high tension jump spark coil? (O) Explain the 
plunge battery as to construction, voltage, current, 
use and internal resistance. — F. B., Great Kills, N. Y. 

Answers. — (A) If two wires be placed side 
by side and parallel yet insulated from each 
other, and a current be sent through one 
wire, this current by induction produces a 
current for an instant in the second wire. 
Then if the current in the first wire be inter- 
rupted or the circuit broken, a galvanometer 
in the second wire will show another rush 
of current in a direction opposite to that 
caused by the closing of the circuit in the 
first wire. Thus we know that opening and 
closing circuit No. i induces a fluctuating 
current in circuit No. 2. Circuit No. 1 is 
termed the primary circuit and circuit No. 
2 the secondary circuit. By winding wire 
No. 1 on an iron core, and over and insula- 
ted from it wire No. 2 be wound, a strong in- 
ductive effect is produced between the two 
coils by concentrating the lines of force. 
Providing a contact breaker described in 
several issues of Popular Electricity gives 
the means for making and breaking the 
primary circuit. What is called extra cur- 
rent must be taken careof. On the "make," 
induced current in the secondary flows in the 
opposite direction to that in the primary. 
The primary wire acting on itself weakens 
its own current so that at the "make" the 
effect on the secondary is weak. However, 
at the break a current is induced similar 
in direction to. the inducing current. In the 
primary wire the same effect is found and 
the two currents, initial and induced, travel 
in the same direction in the same wire, which 
produces a strong effect on the secondary and 
shows itself in the extra current in the primary 
by giving a bright spark at the contact 



breaker when it opens the primary circuit. 
To reduce this sparking and assist the effect 
on the secondary coil, a condenser is bridged 
across the make and break contact. 

(B) On page 724 of the March, 1909, 
issue of Popular Electricity are given com- 
plete "Specifications for a Thirty-inch Spark 
X-ray Coil." Also see article "Spark Coil 
Construction and Operation," May to 
August, 1909, issues, for coils for wireless 
work. 

(C) In a plunge battery, the plates are 
of zinc and carbon, usually three of the 
former and four of the latter in each cell. 
The electrolyte which is best contained in 
glass jars is made of three parts of potassium 
or sodium bichromate dissolved in eighteen 
parts of water, to which four parts of sul- 
phuric acid is added. This cell gives a 
voltage of about two volts, and has an in- 
ternal resistance of about one ohm. The 
American Bell Telephone Co. uses the Fuller 
bichromate cell, which is capable of giving 
.6 of an ampere at two volts. 



The Leclanche Cell 

Question. — Will you please tell me how to make a 
sal ammoniac cell? — J. P. H., Macon, Mo. 

Answer. — Provide a glass jar 4.5- inches 
in diameter and 6 or 7 inches high; a 7-inch 
zinc, § inch in diameter; a porous cup, 3 
inches in diameter and 5 J inches high; 
carbon, 6 inches by ij inches by 5-16 inch. 
In the porous cup place the carbon stick 
and pack around it coarsely powdered man- 
ganese dioxide mixed with small pieces of 
crushed coke. Drill a hole in the carbon 
stick and run in a little lead. Drill this 
lead for a binding post. A binding post 
contact should also be arranged on the zinc 
rod. Over the top of the packed carbon 
stick and manganese pour paraffin to prevent 
creeping of the salts from the porous cup. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



71 



Sealing wax also may be used for this latter 
purpose. Place the porous cup and zinc 
in the glass jar and fill with water two- 
thirds up, putting in about five ounces of 
sal ammoniac. 



Railway Crossing Signal 

Question. — Please explain how to connect an 
electric bell in such a way as to have it ring when 
a car passes over a certain place in the track about 
one-eighth of a mile from the bell. — H. B. W., 
Bennington, Vt. 

Answer. — The diagrams show the general 
arrangement of Hall's electric railway signal 
for crossings. The essential parts are: 
two track instruments (A, B), two inter- 
locking magnets (C, D), a gong (G), and 




HALL S ELECTRIC RAILWAY SIGNAL 

two sets of batteries. Suppose a train to be 
approaching the crossing (X) from the di- 
rection indicated by the arrow. When the 
engine reaches the point (A), the track in- 
strument is operated by the weight of the 
wheels and closes the circuit through battery 
(i) and magnets (C), the armature (F) of 
the latter being attracted. Armature (H) 
passing through a slot in (F) and being 
notched, as shown, holds (F) locked. (F) 
in being attracted pulls against the tension 
of spring (S), and a projection on the hori- 
zontal bar presses spring (T), making con- 
tact at (U), closing the gong circuit through 
its battery (2). The gong now continues 
to ring until the engine reaches (B) where the 
second track instrument closes the circuit 
of magnet (B) which attracts its armature, 
releasing (F) which is drawn back by (S), 
the gong circuit being then broken at (U). 
The points (A) and (B) are chosen in ac- 
cordance with the length of the train and 
the length of time it is desired that the gong 



shall ring before the train reaches the 
crossing. 

The second illustration shows a little more 
in detail the track instrument which is a 
lever with one end at the track and the 
other resting between hard rubber buffers 
(B, B), so that the instrument can be opera- 
ted only by a heavy weight. The vertical 
rod (F£) has at 
its upper end 
an opening and 
closing device 
which operates 
as the rod, to 
which is at- 
tached a pis- 
ton (P), rises 

and falls. All delicate working parts are 
enclosed in metal. 




DETAILS OF TRACK 
INSTRUMENT 



High Voltage Transmission; Copper and 
Aluminum Wire 

Questions. — (A) Compare the carrying capacity 
of copper and aluminum wire on a no, 000- volt 
line. (B) What is the advantage of small wires over 
large ones on a transmission line ? (C) Can a cop- 
per wire § inch in diameter carry an unlimited 
voltage if the insulation is sufficient? (D) Sup- 
pose a w 7 ire on a 110,000-volt line were to break 
and fall on dry grass. Would it set the grass on 
fire ? (E) Suppose the wire in (D) fell on a wire 
fence supported by cedar posts, would it kill a 
cow leaning against the fence some distance from 
the line? (F) When giving the voltage of a system 
what is meant? — H. R. H., Burlington, Ont., 
Canada. 

Answers. — (A) Aluminum has a con- 
ductivity of about one-half that of copper, 
and its density is 2.7. Aluminum wire 
2.7 1 

weighs x-= .607, or a little more than 

8.89 .5 
one-half as much as a copper wire of the 
same length and resistance. Although alu- 
minum wire is light, it must have about 
twice the cross-section of an equivalent 
copper wire, and hence would require more 
insulating covering where used inside. 

(B) Your question is not clear. Do you 
refer to small wires in a cable or do you 
have in mind the small wires used in three 
phase transmission lines. 

(C) Yes, if properly insulated. It is 
the current to be carried which determines 
the size of the wire. 

(D) If the soil were damp or contained 
mineral deposit, current into the soil 
through these conductors offering resistance 
would generate heat. Absolutely dry soil 



72 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



without mineral conductor would act as an 
insulation. 

(E) In rainy weather enough grounds 
between wire contact and cow might be 
established to provide for escape of current 
to the earth, sufficient to kill the animal. 

(F) The highest reading obtainable by 
connecting each wire of a system through 
a voltmeter to earth is the potential of the 
system, or the highest voltage obtainable by 
a voltmeter reading between various wires. 
If a series arc system, the voltage reading 
to earth at the positive terminal of the dyna- 
mo is the potential of the system. 



Messenger Call Box 

Qiiestion. — What is the circuit of a messenger 
call-box? — J. W. M., Boston, Mass. 

Answer. — The diagram shows a single 
stroke bell (B) operated by an electromagnet 
wound to about four ohms. (G) is a four- 
ohm magnet operating a pen Morse register. 
(B) and (G) on the same circuit work as this 
circuit is opened and closed by relay (R) 
of ioo ohms on the back stop. This por- 
tion of the equipment is in the central office. 




MESSENGER CALL BOX CIRCUIT 

The call-box contains the toothed wheel (W) 
and a recoil spring (S). (W) is mounted 
loose on the shaft of crank (C), but is geared 
to wheel (P) so that the tendency is to turn 
the latter in the direction of the arrow. 
When a call is sent in, crank (C) is pulled 
to the right, and the cam is moved out of 
the path of pin (P). The wheel (K) is 
then free to move. A ratchet and pawl 
prevent (W) from turning with (C), and (S) 
is put under tension. When the crank is 
released the spring unwinds, turning (W) 
with it, operating wheel (K). (K) makes 
one complete revolution when the cam again 
resumes its position in the path of pin (P). 
Spring (M) falls into the notches in wheel 
(K) making and breaking the circuit to the 



central office in accordance with the box 
number which in this sketch is five. To 
guard against the opening of the circuit when 
the call-box is in its normal position an 
additional spring (N), resting against the 
cam, is provided with connections to the 
same point as spring (M). In case (M) 
fails in normal contact, a closed circuit is 
still maintained. 



Wiring a Three Push-Button Annunciator; 

Uses of Brushes on Dynamo; A 

Ground Circuit 

Questions. — (A) Please give diagram for wiring 
a three push-button annunciator. (B) Of what 
use are the brushes on a dynamo? (C) What is 
meant by a ground circuit? — R. S., West Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Answers. — (A) In the diagram a common 
wire (C) is run from the battery to one side 
of each magnet coil. From the other side 
of the battery taps are taken off running 



DD 



IO 



w 



WIRING OF ANNUNCIATOR 

through each push-button and to the mag- 
net coil this button is designed to operate. 

(B) The brushes on a motor or dynamo 
are for collecting current from, or passing 
current to the moving commutator or slip 
rings. 

(C) The dynamo at the railway power 
house has its positive terminal connected 
to the trolley wire and the negative wire 
grounded. The current passing from the 
trolley wire down the pole to the motor and 
off to the tracks makes its way back to the 
power station along the rails, by way of 
pipes, earth, etc. This return path is a 
ground circuit. Single wire telephones are 
operated by using the earth as one side of 
the line. The March, 1909, issue, page 
725, shows a diagram of this latter circuit. 



Flaming Arc Lamps 

Question. — Can flaming arcs be used on either 
direct or alternating current? — H. H. S., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Answer. — Both alternating and direct 
current lamps are on the market and are 
made up for the standard voltages, 



Notes on the Law of Patent Titles 

By OBED C. BILLMAN, LL. B., M. P. L. 



i. In General. — Patents and interests 
therein may be owned, transferred, and made 
the subject of contracts like any other proper- 
ty, subject to such restrictions or conditions 
as may arise out of the nature of patent rights 
as property, or as are imposed by law. 

2. Legal or Equitable Title. — As in the 
case of other property, the legal title to 
a patent may be in one person and the 
equitable title in another. And in such case 
a court of equity will ordinarily treat the 
holder of the legal title as trustee for the 
equitable owner. But the legal title will 
prevail over the equitable title unless the 
former was acquired with notice of the latter. 

3. Co-ownership. — Where a patent is 
issued or assigned to two or more persons 
they become cotenants. There is no limita- 
tion in the United States of the number of 
persons who may be joint owners of a patent 
right. The exact mutual rights and lia- 
bilities of co-owners of patents are perhaps 
not fully settled in all respects, the peculiar 
nature of patent rights as property making 
it difficult in some cases to apply the ordi- 
nary rules of the law of cotenancy. 

Assignment by Co-tenant. — One part owner 
may assign his undivided interest without 
the consent of his co-owner and the latter 
cannot sue the assignee for infringement. 

Use of Patent. — Each co-owner may use 
the patented invention with or without the 
consent of his co-owner, and without being 
liable to account to him for profits. 

License by One Co-owner. — A license 
granted by one co-owner of a patent is valid 
as against the licensor and his co-owners, 
and the licensee is liable to the licensor for 
the agreed price, but he is not liable to the 
other co-owners. There are intimations 
in some of the cases that the licensor is 
liable to account to his co-owner for what he 
receives from the licensee, but in a recent 
case it has been held that he is not so liable. 

Co-owners May Become Partners by Agree- 
ment, but in the absence of such agreement 
they are not partners. 

Power to Bind Co-owner. — One part owner 
cannot bind his co-owner by any special 
contract with an assignee of the patent, not 
connected with the enjoyment and exercise 



of the common privilege under the patent. 
Nor can one part owner prejudice the rights 
of his co-owners, as by a release of the right 
to recover damages for an infringement, 
or otherwise. 

4. Partnership. — Patent rights may be 
held in partnership like other property, the 
mutual rights and liabilities of the partner 
being determined by the agreement of the 
parties and the general law of partnership. 

5. Invention by Employee. — An inven- 
tion made by one employee independently 
of his employment and without any assistance 
from the employer belongs to the inventor. 

6. Transfer of Patent Rights. — Assign- 
ments. 

1. In General. — A patent right being 
created by the federal laws may be trans- 
ferred only when and in the manner author- 
ized by such laws. 

Ihe statute provides that "every patent 
or any interest therein shall be assignable in 
law, by an instrument in writing; and the 
patentee or his assignee or legal representa- 
tives may, in like manner, grant and convey 
an exclusive right under his patent to the 
whole or any specified part of the United 
States. 

2. Who May Assign. — By the terms of 
the statute, a patent or interest therein may 
be assigned by the patentee or his assignee 
or legal representatives. 

3. Who May Be Assignee. — No restric- 
tions whatever are imposed by the statutes 
as to who may be an assignee of a patent 
right or interest therein. 

4. What Constitutes Assignment. — (a) 
Execution — aa. In General — Necessity for 
Writing. — The assignment must be by an 
instrument in writing, executed by the 
assignor, or by some one acting for him and 
in his name under legal authority. As be- 
tween the parties, however, a verbal assign- 
ment is valid and passes an equitable right. 

Seal. — The assignment need not be under 
seal, though executed by a corporation. 

Acknowledgment, is not required by the 
statute, but an acknowledgment in due 
form obviates the necessity for other proof 
of execution. 



74 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Recording. — The statute provides that 
an assignment, grant, or conveyance of a 
patent or interest therein shall be void as 
against any subsequent purchaser or mort- 
gagee for a valuable consideration, without 
notice, unless it is recorded in the patent 
office within three months from the date 
thereof. The only object of this provision 
is to protect bona fide purchasers for value 
without notice. As to them the assignment 
is void unless recorded as prescribed. But 
as between the parties, or as against in- 
fringers, or subsequent purchasers with 
notice or not for a valuable consideration or 
within three months from the date of the 
assignment, the assignment is valid though 
not recorded. 

Time of Recording. — It is immaterial 
whether an assignment offered in- evidence 
was recorded before or after the suit was 
brought. 

Effect of Record. — Where an assignment 
has been duly recorded the assignee will 
be protected as against a subsequent as- 
signee of the assignor. The record of an 
assignment is constructive notice to all the 
world, and a purchaser has the right to 
rely upon the record title. 

Form and Contents. — No particular form 
of assignment is required, but there must, of 
course, be some operative words expressing 
at least an intention to assign. A mere 
certificate in writing that a certain person 
has .a joint interest in a patent right with 
the subscriber will not operate as an assign- 
ment. But an irrevocable power of attor- 
ney to hold and control a patent may operate 
as an assignment. 



BOOKREVIEWS 




The Electrical Engineer's Pocketbook. By 
the International Correspondence Schools. 
Scranton: International Textbook Company. 
1908. 414 pages with 225 illustrations. Price 

$2.00. 

There is such a vast amount of available 
material which might be profitably embodied 
in an engineering handbook, that the prob- 
lem becomes one of selection and condensa- 
tion of information which is likely to come 
up the most times in every-day engineering 
work; and at the same time keep the book 
from becoming an encyclopedia instead of 



a handbook. The publishers appear to 
have made the selection and condensation 
of the material in a logical manner and the 
book is everything that it is designed to be 
— a pocketbook in reality as well as in name. 
It is 3 \ by 5 \ inches and easily carried in the 
coat pocket. But in these small dimensions 
there has been collected a great quantity 
of useful information; and it is presented 
in very readable form, for the printing is 
good and the illustrations nicely done, leav- 
ing nothing to guesswork. The most im- 
portant subjects have been treated in con- 
siderable detail, such for instance as the 
description of dynamos and motors, the 
faults to which they are. liable and the me- 
thods of locating and remedying these faults. 



Shoe Shining Machine 



This device for shining shoes is auto- 
matically operated by an electric motor in- 
side the neat appearing cabinet. At the left 
is a dauber wheel, for polish, and at the 
right is the polishing brush. These are 
carried on flexible rotating shafts. In the 




SHOE SHINING MACHINE 

middle of the front panel is a snap switch 
for turning on and off the current. 

To shine your shoes you step on a plat- 
form, turn on the current, remove the dauber 
from the hook and apply the polish. Next 
take down the polishing wheel and complete 
the operation. Then turn off the current. 
The inventor is George E. Russell of Long- 
beach, Cal. 




ON POLYPHASE SUBJECTS 




EDISON WRITES FOR POPULAR ELEGTRIGITY 



Let everyone be glad! Thomas A. Edison has contributed an article to Popular Elec- 
tricity, and it will appear in the June issue. Long and anxiously has the public waited for 
a message direct from Mr. Edison and it is with just pride that we announce his selection 
of Popular Electricity as the medium through which he will make known his views on sub- 
jects near to his own heart and to the hearts of his readers. 

"The Tomorrows of Electricity and Invention" is the title of Mr. Edison's article. 
The keen insight of the great inventor into the needs of humanity is manifest in every para- 
graph, every sentence, and the promise of future strides to be taken toward the conservation 
of human energies, the triumph of brain over brawn and the general betterment of condi- 
tions of living are bright, indeed, for those who are to live on, in the great Electrical Age 
which we are barely entering. 

Great as have been the accomplishments of Edison; world-wide though his fame may 
be, as the greatest inventor of any age; ideal that he is of every aspiring boy in the land, 
still, with characteristic modesty he believes his work to be only preliminary to that of an 
age of electrical development along practical and economic lines which will completely 
overshadow the things which have thus far been done. He says: 

"It is those that will work at the art in the next fifty years that are to be envied. We 
poor gropers of the last fifty are like the struggling farmers among the bare New England 
rocks before the wide grain fields of the West were reached. The crops have been thin, 
without reapers or threshers to harvest them. We haven't got very far beyond Franklin 
or Faraday." 

For the man who has taken out nearly a thousand patents in his time, contributing 
to almost every field of electrical development and other fields far removed from electricity; 
inventions so original in their conception and far-reaching in their benefit to mankind as 
those of the incandescent lamp, the phonograph, and the moving picture machine — for him 
to say that these are only gropings in the realm of scientific discovery is truly significant. 
Yet in the mind of an Edison there are visions of future things which do not come to the 
minds of other men. 



Read, then, his own words in the June issue and live with him for a time in the Great 
Age that is to come. 




, < ■■"'■■■■ < i 




1 w^,^f ' 



SHORT CIRCUITS 




The Fernie (B. C.) Free Press, has recently had an 
electrical equipment installed and has consequently 
suddenly become electrically enthusiastic to the ex- 
tent of printing the following definitions: A trans- 
former is an apparatus that hangs on a pole on the 
street and grinds the volts into domestic sizes for ad- 
jacent consumption. A meter is an automatic case- 
keeper that is designed to keep the conscience of the 
consumer pure and untainted. A motor is a Christian 
Science medicine box that is influenced from the 
powerhouse by absent treatment. The method of 
operation is as follows: The armature amperes the 
rheostat at the switchboard by kilowatting the voltage, 
thereby transforming the resistance into two-phase 
electromotive ohms, with which the motor absorbs 
the peak load on the cut off. The dynamo reduces 
the insulation of the series wound exciter, producing 
multipolar generators on the direct current, and you 
pay at the city ^lej;k's office. 

* * * 

A sailor had just shown a lady over the ship. In 
thanking him she said, "I am sorry to see by the 
rules that tips are forbidden on your ship." 

"Lor' bless you, ma'am," reolied the sailor, "so 
were apples in the Garden of Eden." 

The First Phonograph. — A reporter was interview- 
ing Thomas A. Edison. 

"And you, sir," he said to the inventor, "made the 
first talking machine!" 

"No," Mr. Edison replied. "The first one was 
made — long before my time — out of a rib." 

'There was a young lady named Banker 
Who slept while the ship lay at anchor; 
She woke in dismay 
When she heard the mate say, 
'Now hoist up the top sheet and spanker.' " 

* * * 

"Oi'll work no more for Dolan." 

"An' why?" 

"Sure, an' 'tis on account of a remark he made." 

"An' phwat was that?" 

"Says he, 'Casey,' says he, 'ye're discharged.' " 

* * * 

Bystander: Come, cheer up, old man. You may 
not be so badly hurt after all. 

Victim: How can I tell how badly hurt I am until 
after I have seen my lawyer? 
# * # 

It takes a lot of nerve to enable a young married 
man to enter a store and purchase a dozen safety pins 
from a former sweetheart. 



On a recent declamation day in a New Jersey school 
a promising young idea shot off the subjoined. 
"Our yaller hen has broke her leg, 
Oh, never more she'll lay an egg; 
The brindle cow has gone plumb dry, 
And sister Sal has eat a pie; 
This earth is full of sin and sorrow — 
We're born today and die tomorrow." 



A good story is told of a doctor, who, while making 
out a patient's receipt, forgot his visitor's name. 
Not wishing to appear forgetful, and thinking to get 
a cue, he asked her whether she spelled her name with 
an "e" or an "i". The lady, smilingly replied, "Why 
doctor, my name is Hill." 



Hipe — Do you keep your mug at the barber's? 
ipe — No. Only take it there to get it shaved. 



Sunday School Teacher (to the quiet looking boy 
at the foot of the class) — In what condition was the 
patriarch Job at the end of his life? 

"Dead," calmly replied the boy. 



"They say that when a mountain climber has a fall 
all the sins he ever committed flash through his mind. 
Was this the case with you?" 

"Oh, no. You see, I fell from a ledge only a hundred 
yards high." 



The Speaker — Marriage, my dear sisters, is a huge 
mistake! Believe me, I would not marry the best 
man in the world — 

Sweet Voice (from audience) — You couldn't, for 
I've got him. 



Little Girl — Papa would like to borrow your lawn 
mower. 

Subbubs — Tell your father I'm sorry, but I've made 
a rule never to let it go off my premises. But if he'd 
like to use it on our own lawn, it's at his disposal at 
any time. 

$ $ . Hs 

"Father, what is meant by bankruptcy?" 
"Bankruptcy is when you put your money in your 
hip pocket, and let your creditors take your coat." 



A Scotchman and a commercial traveler occupied 
neighboring seats. The Scotchman was not inclined 
to talk. Finally the commercial man said: "Could 
you lend me a match?" The Scotchman took one out 
of his pocket, and gingerly placed it on the window- 
ledge. 

"Oh! by-the-way, I've forgotten my tobacco, tool" 
said the traveling man. 

"Um! Then ye'll nae need the match," replied 
the Scotchman. 



Ethel, aged six, had gone down the village street with 
her new doll. It could be plainly seen that she was 
in dire distress. She stood still, and after a close 
scrutiny of several men who passed, she accosted one. 

"Say are you an honest man?" she demanded. 

"Why, yes, I think so," was the astonished reply. 

"Well, then, if you're sure you're an honest man," 
said the little maid, "please hold my dolly while I tie 
my shoe." 




# .MRCtt/NE FDR CRILPREN WHO 
RSK /CTDVjOTW QU£iT/C/V5 PER PAY 




ELECTRICAL PRIZF FIGHTERS 




i/ifc* 1 



ME HflT'j 
CfiOWIH fOR 
EIGHT O'CLOCK- 
I'LL BE LRJE 

To WORK 



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S/ect/?/crl Hf)T 

THAT WILL CROIV 







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FOR BffrH Ft/(- rooN{ KEN 




ELECTRICAL TERMS DEFINED 

In this age of electricity everyone should be versed in its phraseology. 
By studying this page from month to month a working knowledge 
of the most commonly employed electrical terms may be obtained. 




Accumulator. — A term commonly applied to 
a storage battery. Also used to designate a Leyden 
jar; a condenser. 

Acoustic Telegraphy. — The method of read- 
ing messages by means of a sounder, the dots and 
dashes being distinguished by the periods of time 
between the forward and back stroke of the 
armature of the magnet. 

Adaptee. — A threaded coupling used to provide 
a screw shell for an Edison base lamp on old type 
sockets having a center screw contact. A device 
for connecting incandescent lamps to gas fixtures. 

Adjuster for Lamp. — A device for regulating 
the height of an incandescent lamp suspended by 
a flexible cord. 

A. I. E. E.— An abbreviation for "American In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers," the foremost elec- 
trical engineering society in the United States. 

Aerial. — A term used to designate electrical 
conductors suspended in air as distinguished from 
those in the water or underground. Applied also 
to the antennae in wireless telegraphy. 

Ageing of Transformer. — A condition brought 
about in the iron core of a transformer by running 
it at a temperature exceeding 8o° C, which increases 
the core loss and decreases the efficiency. The 
mechanical and chemical character of the core iron 
has much to do with this change, which may also 
be produced by heating in any other way. Known 
as transformer fatigue. 

Air -Gap. — The space between the armature 
and pole pieces of a motor or dynamo. It tends to 
cause magnetic scattering or leakage of the lines of 
force. Also designates the space between the poles 
of a magnet. 

Alarm, Electric. — Any system operated by 
electricity to give a warning of signal when certain 
conditions exist. Among those so designated are : 
water level, overflow, valve, sprinkler supervision, 
fire, journal and burglar alarms. 

Alive. — A term commonly applied to electrical 
conductors, switchboards or other devices when 
subject to electric pressure or carrying current. 

Alloy. — A mixture of two metals which com- 
bine upon [the application of heat or in an elec- 
trolytic cell. 

Alternating Current. — Current which changes 
direction periodically, the voltage and current 
starting from zero rising to a maximum in one 
direction, dropping to zero, pass- 
ing to a maximum in the oppo- /\ 

site direction and returning to _ =< X»=A^— •f 
zero, in a constantly recurring \J 

cycle. Alternating current is «"»• 

represented by a curve of this general form 
known as a sinusoidal curve. 

Alteenation. — A change in the direction of 
flow of current; one-half cycle. 

Alternator. — A dynamo which generates al- 
ternating current. 

Amalgamation. — Covering a metal with a film 
of mercury, usually done by dipping first in sul- 
phuric acid and then in mercury. Amalgamation 



prevents eating away of the zinc by the chemical 
action of the acid. 

Ammeter. — An instrument measuring the am- 
peres of current flowing in a circuit. Sometimes 
called ampere-meter. 

Ampere. — The unit of current. It is the rate 
at which electricity will flow through a resistance 
of one ohm under a potential of one volt. As de- 
fined by the International Zlectrical Congress it 
is the current which, under specified conditions, 
will deposit .001118 gram of silver per second when 
passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in 
water. 

Ampere-Hour. — The quantity of electricity 
passed by a current of one ampere flowing for one 
hour. A unit sometimes used by light and power 
companies to measure electric energy in which case 
the voltage must be constant. Used also in rating 
the capacity of a storage batten.-, which by agree- 
ment among manufacturers is referred to an eight 
ampere-hour rate as a standard. This rating is 
based on the constant current at which the battery 
will discharge without the voltage falling below 
1.75 per cell. A batter}- giving fifteen amperes 
under this condition would be called a 120-ampere- 
hour battery. 

Ampere-Turns. — A term applied to magnet 
coils and specifying the product of the number of 
turns of wire multiplied by the number of amperes 
flowing in the coil. Thus, a magnet wound with 
a coil of ten turns of wire carrying two amperes 
would be regarded as affected by twenty ampere- 
turns. 

Angle of Declination. — The angle measur- 
ing the amount that a magnetic or compass needle 
deviates from the true north and south position. 
This deviation varies according to location, and is 
due to the fact that the real north pole and the 
north magneti" pole are not at the same place. 

Angle of Inclination. — The angle measuring 
the dip beloY/ t':e horizontal which a magnetic 
needle free to move makes, when placed in the 
magnetic meridian. Due to the path of the 
earth's magnetic lines. 

Angle of Lag. — Self-induction in a circuit 
carrying alternating current causes the current to 
lag behind the electromotive force or voltage which 
is forcing the current through; that is as the voltage 
rises and falls (see alternating current) the current 
will reach say its maximum value a little later than 
the electromotive force. Considering a cycle or 
double alternation as 360 degrees, the angle by 
which the current lags behind the electromotive 
force is called angle of lag. The term is also applied 
to the angle through which the brushes of a motor 
are moved backward against the direction of rota- 
tion (given a lag) to overcome sparking. 

Angle of Lead. — When a circuit contains 
capacity, such as a condenser, the current leads the 
electromotive force; that is it reaches a maximum 
value during the cycle before the electromotive 
force. The amount (measured in degrees) is 
called the angle of lead. Also the angle through 
which the brushes of a dynamo are moved forward 
to secure sparkless commutation. 




Popular Electricity 

IN PLAIN ENGLISH 



HENRY WALTER YOUNG. Editor 




VoL III 



June, 1910 



No. 2 



CONTENTS 



Page 

THE TOMORROWS OF ELECTRICITY AND IN- 
VENTION. By Thomas A. Edison 79 

ELEMENTARY ELECTRICITY. CHAPTER XXVI. 

By Prof. Edwin J. Houston 84 

New Type of Transmission Tower 86 

THE LIGHT AND POWER OF BROOKLYN. 

By W. W. Freeman 89 

The Meditations of a Science Man 91 

CURRENT FROM WHERE? CHAPTER III. By 

Edgar Franklin 92 

THE NEW EDISON STORAGE BATTERY 99 

Magnetic Pull and Temperature 101 

German Wireless Vs. British Cable. . •. 101 

To Test Current Polarity 101 

THE GHOST ELECTRICIANS. By Fred R. Furnas 102 

Three Illustrious Wrights 103 

THE FIRST CARBONLESS ARC LAMP. By War- 
ren H. Miller 104 

TALKS WITH THE JUDGE 106 

WHERE ELECTRICITY STANDS IN THE PRAC- 
TICE OF MEDICINE. CHAPTER VI. 

By Noble M. Eberhart 107 

Drawn Tungsten Filaments Ill 

GETTING OUT AN "EXTRA" 115 

Arc Light Bath 116 

How to Calculate Illumination 116 

Protecting Signal Batteries 117 

Magnet Coils as Heaters 117 

Ice Handling by Electricity 118 

Holding Court by Telephone 118 

Plant Growth and Electricity 118 

Electric Diving Sign 119 

Automobile Battery Exchange 119 

Collapsible Signs . . 119 

Bare Wires of an Unseen Metal 119 

Resistance 119 

Some Odd Electric Lamps 120 

The Newspaper Cause 121 

Telephone in the School Room 121 

Pira Rubber 121 

Lightning and the Ancients 122 

Exhibit Hall for Accident Prevention 122 

The Eskimo and the Telephone 123 

Cutting Lamp Filaments on a Planer 123 

Lamp Flasher 124 

Using Saw Dust Electrically 124 

What Weight Can a Dry Battery Lift 125 

Displaying Lamp Shades 125 

Telephone Coil Carrier 125 

Lifting Magnet Recovers Cargoes 126 

Across the Atlantic with a Thimble Battery 127 

Curing the Sleeping Sickness 127 

Electrocuted Eggs 127 

In-Door Lighting from Out-Door Lamps 128 

Navigating in Lake Ice 128 

Making Battery Porous Cups 128 



Page 

All in Thirty Years 128 

Telling Temperature in Bins of Grain 129 

Demagnetizing Watches 129 

Sharpening Files 129 

Submarine Telegraph Cable 130 

Heating Pad as an Incubator 130 

Electric Steels as Money Savers 130 

The Telephone's Alertness 130 

Cutting Metals by Electric Arc 131 

Electric Crane to Carry Locomotives 132 

Portable Power Elevator 133 

The Storing of Electric Heat 133 

Electricity Produces Mountain Air 134 

A Ton at a Time or One 1.35 

Simplicity the Key Note 136 

An Electric Pyrometer's Record 137 

Electric Anesthesia 138 

Electric Welding Saves Heat 138 

Electric Gate Opener . 139 

Railroad Crossing Signals •...'. 139 

Paper Making with Electric Power 140 

Electric Driving Increases Output 140 

The Latest Taxicab 141 

Getting the Time in Races 141 

Stone and Marble Cutter 142 

Candelabra Switch 142 

ELECTRICAL MEN OF THE TIMES. H. M 

Byllesby 143 

SPEAKING OF WASH DAY 144 

Electric Travelers' Iron 145 

AT THE CHAFING DISH LUNCHEON 

By Florence Latimer 146 

Connecting Cooking Devices 147 

Fans and Home Comfort 148 

AN ELECTRICAL LABORATORY FOR $25 

PART VI. By David P. Morrison 149 

Trapping a Telephone "Josher" 154 

A HIGH POWER WIRELESS EQUIP- 

MENT. PART II. By Alfred P. Morgan 155 

THE COLLINS WIRELESS TELEPHONE 158 

Protective Device for Wireless Apparatus 159 

Eiffel Tower Wireless Station 160 

That Night at Chester 161 

The "Pyron" Detector 162 

Spark Coil Dimensions 163 

Wireless Queries 164 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 165-167 

NOTES ON THE LAW OF PATENT TITLES. ... 168 

Training Base-Ball Pitchers 169 

Electro-Magnetic Ironing Board 169 

Tuning Fork for Ear Treatment 170 

Aging and Curing Tobacco 170 

Book Review 170 

ON POLYPHASE SUBJECTS 171 

SHORT CIRCUITS 172 

COMMON ELECTRICAL TERMS DEFINED 174 



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Copyright 1910 by Popular Electricity Publishing Co. 



r n Plain English 



VOL. HI 



JUNE 1910 



No. 2 



<r xn vention 



<By 




I understand that the readers of Popular 
Electricity are numbered among those who 
are interested rather in the future of electric- 
ity than in its past. I shall be glad to be 
counted as belonging to this class, for while 
no longer young in the sense of mere years, 
it is with what electricity can yet do that I 
am concerned in these days. If I thought 
that the possibilities of electrical develop- 
ment were exhausted I should not give it 
a moment's consideration. Sometimes fa- 
thers come to me, or write to me, about their 
sons, and want to know if in view of the 
fact that so much of the field of work is 
already occupied by electricity, I would 
recommend it as a career. It is assumed by 
them that all the great electrical inventions 
have been made, and that nine or ten billions 
of dollars is about all that electricity will 
stand, in the way of investment. Well, if 



I were beginning my own career again, I 
should ask no better field in which to work. 
The chances for big, new electrical inven- 
tions are much greater than before the tele- 
graph, the telephone, the electric light and 
the electric motor were invented; while 
each of these things is far from perfect. 
We shall have easily $50,000,000,000 of 
money in electrical service in 1925, and five 
times as many persons will then be employed 
in electricity as now, most of them in branches 
for which we have not yet got even a name. 
I often pick up my laboratory note books, 
of which I have hundreds, full of hints and 
suggestions and peeps into Nature, and real- 
ize how little we have actually done to set 
electricity at work, let alone determine its 
secret. Why, barely thirty years ago, there 
was no dynamo in the world capable of 
supplying current cheaply and efficiently 



Copyright toio by Popular Electricity Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 



80 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




L 



to the little incandescent lamp, and some of 
the keenest thinkers of the time doubted if 
the subdivision of the electric light was 
possible. Tyndall remarked in a public 
lecture, with a dubious shake of his head, 



that he would rather Mr. Edison should 
have the job than himself. It is those that 
will work at the art in the next fifty years 
that are to be envied. We poor gropers of 
the last fifty are like the struggling farmers 



THE TOMORROWS OF ELECTRICITY AND INVENTION 



81 



among the bare New England rocks before 
the wide grain fields of the West were 
reached. The crops have been thin, with- 
out reapers or threshers to harvest them. 
We haven't gone very far, yet, beyond 
Franklin or Faraday. 

Look at the simple chances of improve- 
ment in what devices are known today. 
They are endless. About one hundred 
million carbon filament lamps are made 
here every year, "much the same in all es- 
sentials as a quarter of a century ago. We 
must break new ground. Lately the art 
has gone back to metallic filaments bringing 
down to one-third the amount of current 
needed for the same quantity of light. That 
is only a step. The next stage should be to 
one-sixth, and, as Steinmetz says, carbon 
is still in the game, for many of its qualities 
render it superior to metal. It is the same 
way with electric heating and cooking ap- 
pliances, very ingenious even now, and 
better than any other means; but ten years 
hence they will be superseded and in the 
museums with bows and arrows and the 
muzzle-loaders. As for the electric motor, 
it will not be perfectly utilized until every- 
thing we now make with our hands, and 
every mechanical motion, can be effected 
by throwing a switch. I am ashamed at 
the number of things around my house and 
shops that are done by animals — human 
beings, I mean — and ought to be done by a 
motor without any sense of fatigue or pain. 
Hereafter a motor must do all the chores. 

Just the same remarks apply outdoors. 
For years past I have been trying to perfect 
a storage battery and have now rendered it 
entirely suitable to automobile and other 
work. There is absolutely no reason why 
horses should be allowed within city limits, 
for between the gasoline and the electric 
car, no room is left for them. They are 
not needed. The cow and the pig have 
gone, and the horse is still more undesirable. 
A higher public ideal of health and cleanli- 
ness is working toward such banishment 
very swiftly; and then we shall have decent 
streets instead of stables made out of strips 
of cobblestones bordered by sidewalks. 
The worst use of money is to make a 
fine thoroughfare and then turn it over 
to horses. Besides that, the change will 



put the humane societies out of business. 
Many people now charge their own bat- 
teries, because of lack of facilities; but I 
believe central stations will find in this work 
very soon the largest part of their load. 
The New York Edison Company or the 
Chicago Edison should have as much cur- 
rent going out for storage batteries in auto- 
mobiles and trucks as for power motors; 
and it will be so some near day. A central 
station plant ought to be busy twenty-four 
hours. It doesn't have to sleep. So far, we 
electrical engineers have given our atten- 
tion to two-thirds of the clock; and between 
10 p. m. and 6 a. m. have practically put 
up our shutters, like a retail store. I am 
proposing to fill up that idle part of the clock. 

Electricity is the only thing I know that 
has become any cheaper the last ten years, 
and such work as I have indicated, tending 
to its universal use from one common source, 
is all aimed consciously or insensibly, in 
this direction. I have been deeply impressed 
with the agitation and talk about the higher 
cost of living, and find my thoughts inces- 
santly turning in that direction. Prices are 
staggering! Before I became a newsboy 
on the Grand Trunk Railroad, I raised and 
distributed market garden "sass" grown 
at the old home at Port Huron, Michigan, 
and made many a dollar for my crude little 
experiments that my mother with great 
doubt and trepidation let me carry on. 
Thus with early experience as a grower and 
distributor, reinforced by fifty years of in- 
venting and manufacturing, I am convinced 
pretty firmly that a large part of our height- 
ened expense of living comes from the cost 
of delivering small quantities to the "ulti- 
mate consumer." 

My poor neighbors in Orange pay four 
or five times what I do for a ton of coal be- 
cause they buy in such small quantities; 
and thus the burden falls on the wrong 
shoulders. This appeals to my selfishness 
as well as to my philanthropy, for the work- 
ingman hasn't much left to buy my phono- 
graph or to see my moving pictures with, 
if all he makes is swallowed up in rent, 
clothing and food. I'll speak about rent 
a little later. In clothing we have got onto 
the universal "ready-made" basis which 
has vastly cheapened dress while ensuring 



82 



POrULAR ELECTRICITY 




a fastidious fit. When we come to food, 
let us note how far we have already gone in 
centralized production of the "package." 
I believe a family could live the year around 



without using anything but good "package" 
food. What is needed is to carry that a 
step further and devise automatic stores 
where the distributing cost is brought down 



THE TOMORROWS OF ELECTRICITY AND INVENTION 



83 



to a minimum on every article handled. 
A few electro-magnets controlling chutes 
and hoppers, and the thing is done. I won- 
der the big five- and ten-cent stores don't try 
the thing out, so that even a small package 
of coal or potatoes would cost the poor man 
relatively no more than if he took a carload. 
If I get the time I hope to produce a vending 
machine and store that will deliver specific 
quantities of supplies as paid for, on the 
spot. 

Butchers' meat is one of the elements in 
high cost of living that this plan may not 
apply to readily; but it is amazing how far, 
even now, automatic machinery goes in 
carving up a carcass. We shall simply have 
to push those processes a little further. 
Thousands of motors are now in use run- 
ning sausage machines, for example. Be- 
sides I am not particularly anxious to help 
people eat more meat. I would rather help 
them eat less. Meat eating like sleeping 
is a bad habit to indulge. The death rate 
and sickness of the population of the country 
could be reduced several per cent, in the 
ratio of abstinence from animal food. 

One most important item in the modern 
high cost of living is rent. The electric 
railway has been an enormous factor for 
good in distributing people so as to lessen 
congestion and lower rents. But homes and 
rents are still much too high in price because 
of the cost of construction. I saw it coming 
long ago and hence went into the making of 
cement, the cheapest and most durable build- 
ing material man has ever had. Wood will 
rot and burn, but a cement and iron struc- 
ture seems to last forever. Look at the 
old Roman baths. Their walls are as solid 
today as when built two thousand years 
ago. When I came to the close of some 
experiments on magnetic ore milling, on 
account of the opening up of the Mesaba 
Range — which will not last forever — the 
insurance companies cancelled their poli- 
cies because of the "moral hazard" on my 
idle buildings. I said to myself that I 
would construct buildings that did not have 
moral risk, and thus went into the Po: lland 
cement industry. I have already put up a 
great many large buildings of my own all 
of steel and concrete, avoiding this moral 
risk, and now I am rapidly developing the 



idea, in building with large iron molds, 
houses for poor plain folk, in which there 
is no moral risk at all, nothing whatever to 
burn, not even by lightning. When I get 
through, the fire insurance companies can 
follow the humane societies, for the lack of 
material to work on. 

My plans are very simple. Nothing that 
is fundamental and successful in dealing 
with the wants of humanity in the mass, must 
ever be complicated. I just mold a house 
instead of a brick. A complete set of my 
iron molds will cost about $25,000, and the 
working plant $15,000 more. As a unit 
plant, I will start six sets of molds, to keep 
the men busy and the machinery going. 
Not less than 144 houses can be built in 
a year with this equipment. A single 
house can be cast in six hours. With in- 
terest and depreciation of 10 per cent on a 
sum of say $175,000, the plant charge against 
each house is less than $125. I believe that 
the houses can be erected complete with 
plumbing and heating apparatus for $1200 
each when erected on land underlaid with 
sand and gravel. Each house may be dif- 
ferent in combination of design, color, and 
other features; and endless variation of style 
is possible. The house I would give the 
workingman has a floor plan 25 by 30 feet, 
three stories high, with cellar, on a lot 40 
by 60 feet, with six large living and sleeping 
rooms, airy halls, bath and every comfort. 
In cut stone such a house would cost $30,000. 
These houses can be built in batches of 
hundreds and then the plant can be moved 
elsewhere. When built these communities 
of poured houses can become flowered towns 
with wide lawns and blooming beds, along 
the roadways. Rats and mice and Croton 
bugs will have as much show in them as in 
the steel safe of a bank. Cement neither 
breeds vermin nor harbors it. There is 
nothing in all this that is not common sense 
and easy of practice. With a fair profit 
these houses should rent at ten to twelve 
dollars per month. Who would not for- 
sake the crowded apartment or tenement on 
such terms for roomy, substantial houses, 
fitted with modern conveniences, beautified 
with artistic decorations, with no outlay for 
insurance or repairs and with no dread of 
fire or fire bugs? 



Elementary Electricity 

By PROF. EDWIN J. HOUSTON, PH. D. (Princeton) 



CHAPTER XXVI. — THE INCANDESCENT ELECTRIC LAMP 



The incandescent electric lamp depends 
for its operation on the fact that any part 
of a circuit the resistance of which is com- 
paratively high, will be heated to incandes- 
cence by the passage of the proper current. 
The possibility of producing artificial 
light by electricity flowing through a high 
resistance conductor has been known for 
a long time. At a very early date a man 
named Children made an investigation on 
the effects produced by the passage of elec- 
tricity through conductors consisting of 
different metals. The current employed 
for this purpose had sufficient strength 
to raise the wires to bright incandescence. 
Besides the above, a num- 
ber of early experiments were 
made by De La Rue, Grove 
and others. De la Rue pro- 
duced a device not unlike 
the electric lamp of later 
days. It consisted of a spiral 
wire placed inside a glass 
cylinder in order to protect 
the glowing conductors from 
the action of the air. This 
early form of lamp is repre- 
sented in Fig. 1 66. 

But since the amount of 

O light produced by most of 

these early devices was so 
small and their life or ability 
to continue supplying this 
light so short, none of these 
devices can properly be con- 
sidered as operative lamps. 
One of the most im- 
portant properties that a 
substance suitable for use as the incan- 
descing or light-emitting part of an in- 
candescent electric lamp is a high refractory 
power; that is, it must be capable of being 
raised to a high temperature without fusing, 
such, for example, as a wire of platinum or 
a cylinder or rod of carbon. Without going 
into their description, it may be said that 
many early forms of incandescent electric 
lamps employed these substances for their 
light-emitting material. 
As we have seen, the heat produced in any 





FIG. 1 66 
de la rue's 

LAMP 



conductor by the passage of an electric cur- 
rent may be either entirely non-luminous 
or unaccompanied by light, or partly lumin- 
ous or accompanied by light. Unfortunate- 
ly, the radiation produced by the passage of 
an electric current through wires of plati- 
num or rods of carbon contains a greater 
proportion by far of non-luminous than of 
luminous heat. 

Even in the case of the best form of fairly 
modern incandescent electric lamps the heat 
emitted by the glowing filament is greatly 
in excess of the light. Sixteen candle-power 
incandescent lamps, or those that produce a 
light equal to that produced by sixteen 
standard candles, require, for their proper 
operation, an expenditure of electric energy 
equal to about 50 watts. Now, it can be 
shown that of this activity about 48 watts 
are employed in producing non -luminous 
radiation, and but two watts, or four per cent, 
in producing luminous radiation. Although 
in later types of incandescent electric lamps 
somewhat better results have been obtained, 
the fact exists that even in its best form the 
incandescent electric lamp is far better as 
a source of heat than of light. Indeed, 
electric lamps have been successfully em- 
ployed for electric heaters. 

Nor is this disproportion between the 
percentage of the non-luminous and lu- 
minous heat limited to incandescent elec- 
tric lamps. Nearly all other sources of 
artificial illumination are equally deficient 
in this respect. Indeed, most luminous 
sources show even a greater disproportion 
as can be seen from the following figures. 
The Welsbach incandescent-mantle gas- 
lamp, a lamp that is far more economical 
than the light of the ordinary gas burner so 
far as the amount of light it produces, but 
which possesses the disadvantage of pro- 
ducing ghastly effects in interior illumination 
from the absence of the red rays and the 
presence of a large percentage of green rays, 
produces 2% per cent of light and 97^ per cent 
of heat, while a common candle flame yields 
but i^ per cent of light and 98^ per cent of 
heat. The light of the magnesium lamp 
produced by burning a ribbon of metallic 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



85 



magnesium, produces 12 per cent of luminous 
rays and 88 per cent of heat rays. The 
ordinary carbon arc lamp possesses a some- 
what greater economy, but even it yields 
only 13 per cent of light rays to 87 per cent 
of heat rays. 

In strong contrast with the above is the 
light emitted by the glow-worm or the fire- 
fly. This is essentially a cold light as dis- 
tinguished from the" above sources which 
produce what might be called a hot light, 
since the light emitted by these animals 
consists of probably 98 per cent or 99 per 
cent of light and two per cent or one per cent 
of heat rays. 

In order to increase the percentage of the 
luminous rays emitted by any heated con- 
ductor, it is only necessary to raise the con- 
ductor to a higher temperature. Generally 
speaking, there is no difficulty in raising 
the temperature of an incandescent carbon 
thread or filament and thus increasing the 
percentage of its useful light-producing en- 
ergy. To do this it is only necessary to 
increase the electromotive force or electric 
pressure applied to the lamp terminals. 
But when this is done the life of the filament 
is thereby greatly shortened. Indeed, it is 
possible to pass a sufficiently powerful cur- 
rent through the filament instantly to de- 
stroy it by the resulting high temperature. 
There is then a practical limit beyond which 
the light-emitting power of a carbon filament 
cannot be carried. 

A comparatively small increase in the 
temperature of an incandescent filament is 
attended by a marked increase in the amount 
of light it gives off. The temperature at 
which the ordinary incandescent filament 
is employed is about 1345 C. (2453 F.). 
If this temperature is increased a few de- 
grees only, the candle-power, or the quantity 
of light the filament emits, will be materially 
increased. But even this slight increase 
results in the gradual disintegration of the 
carbon in the filament, and, consequently, 
in a decrease in its light. It has been shown 
that an increase of but 2 C. is accompanied 
by an increase of 3 per cent of light emitted. 

Were it possible safely to double the tem- 
perature of an incandescent filament, the 
amount of light it would be capable of giving 
off would probably be something in the 
neighborhood of 64 times what it originally 
emitted. It will be understood, therefore, 
how valuable the discovery would be of some 
substance that could safely be employed 



as an incandescent filament at a higher 
temperature than that at which the carbon 
filament is ordinarily employed. As will be 
shown in the next two chapters this has been 
done in the case of the tantalum, tungsten, 
and osmium lamps as well as with the 
Nernst and the Cooper-Hewitt lamps, with 
the most satisfactory results. 

The substance almost universally em- 
ployed for the filament or light-emitting 
part of the incandescent electric lamp up 
to within the past few years was carbon. 
Carbon possesses a number of properties 
that eminently fit it for this character of 
work. It can readily be obtained in a nearly 
pure condition; can be prepared in threads 
or strips of uniform diameter; can be readily 
rendered electrically homogeneous throughout 
all parts of its length ; can be given a surface 
eminently qualified to emit or throw out 
light; and, most important of all, is ex- 
ceedingly refractory, since it can be heated 
to a very high temperature without disin- 
tegrating or breaking up. Generally speak- 
ing, however, this lamp can be made to 
possess an efficiency of from 3.1 to 3.5 watts 
per candle with a life of about 800 hours. 

The general principles of operation of 
the incandescent electric lamp having now 
been described, it remains to show how 
lamps are actually constructed in practice. 
Since, when exposed to the air, incandescent 
carbon rapidly unites with the oxygen, it is 
evident that it would be impracticable to 
attempt to use incandescent carbon filaments 
when exposed to the air, as such filaments 
would rapidly be destroyed by combustion. 
It is necessary, therefore, to place them 
inside a transparent globe or chamber. 

It was at one time believed that it was 
not necessary to exclude all gases or air 
from the lamp chamber or globe; that if 
the oxygen only were removed, the presence 
of nitrogen or carbonic acid gas would be 
harmless. Indeed, at one time incandes- 
cent lamps were constructed in which the 
globes were purposely filled with nitrogen 
gas. Such lamps, however, were soon found 
to possess smaller efficiency than the lamps 
provided with vacuum globes since the con- 
vection currents set up in the lamp chamber 
lowered the temperature of the glowing 
filament by the rapid extraction of heat. 

But a more serious objection soon mani- 
fested itself in the employment of an atmos- 
phere of inert gas within the lamp chamber. 
A rapid disintegration or breaking down of 



86 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



the filament resulted from the dashing of the 
gaseous molecures against the glowing car- 
bon. This process, known as air-washing, 
resulted in the mechanical disintegration 
of the filament and consequently a decrease 
in the length of its life. 

It was not long before it was found that 
a lamp chamber filled with carbonic acid 
gas was also impractical. While carbonic 
acid gas is incapable of combining directly 
with any more carbon and would not there- 
fore be injured, yet it was able to give up 
some of its oxygen to the glowing carbon, 
thus being converted into carbon monoxide 
and liberating oxygen. It is, therefore, the 
universal practice of the present day to 
place the incandescent carbon filament inside 
a lamp globe or chamber in which a vacuum 
is maintained as nearly perfect as prac- 
ticable. 

The early forms of incandescent electric 
lamps employed rods of carbon, cut or 
fashioned from the bard carbon deposited 
inside the retorts in which illuminating gas is 
produced by the destructive distillation of 
coal. The impracticability of obtaining 
such rods in sufficient length and thinness 
led to the employment of other kinds of 
carbon. 

In Edison's early form of incandescent 
electric lamp, the carbon filaments, were 
formed by cutting a horseshoe-shaped piece 
from a sheet of cardboard or other stiff 
paper and then subjecting it to a carbonizing 
process by prolonged heating while out of 
contact with air. By means of carbon 
filaments so prepared he produced the in- 
candescent lamps that when first exhibited 
created such excitement all over the world, 
and resulted in the unwarranted and there- 
fore but temporary depreciation of the sell- 
ing price of gas stocks. 

Another thing necessary in the construc- 
tion of an incandescent lamp is to provide 
a suitable support inside the lamp chamber 
for the incandescing filament, as well as 
means for passing the current into and out 
of the chamber. These supports must be 
of such a character as will make it pos- 
sible to maintain a high vacuum in the 
chamber. The leading-in wires, i. e., the 
wires by which the current enters and leaves 
the lamp chamber must not, by expansion, 
crack or break the portions of the glass 
chamber through which they pass. 

It is evident that the dimensions of the 
leading-in wires must be such that they will 



not be sensibly increased in temperature 
by the current. Moreover, they must con- 
sist of some fairly good conducting material 
whose rate of expansion, under an increase 
of temperature, does not differ greatly from 
that of the walls of the glass chamber through 
which they pass. 

Of all the materials that have been em- 
ployed for leading-in wires, platinum has 
been found the best, since the rate at which 
it expands by increase of temperature is 
practically the same as that of glass. 

Various forms of glass supports are em- 
ployed for the carbon filaments. In the 
form shown in Fig. 167, the leading-in 
wires are fused to the glass support shown 
by melting the glass 
around them. As will 
be seen, this support con- 
sists of a small piece of 
glass tubing (T) with a 
shoulder blown on it at 
(S). The two platinum 
wires (PP) are placed in- 
side the tube, which is 
then fused around it by 
the flame of a blowpipe. 
In order to decrease the 
expense of manufacture, 
platinum wire is only 
employed at the places 
where it is sealed into 
the glass of the sup- 
. W z port, the remainder of 
the wire for by far the 
greater part of its 
length consists of pieces 
of copper wire (Wi W2). 
It is especially neces- 
sary to provide good 
electrical joints, where the incandescent 
filament joins the leading-in wires. Various 
plans have been employed to provide such 
a joint. Probably the simplest and best 
consists in joints formed by a paste of a 
carbonaceous material that is afterwards 
hardened by baking. 

The filament so mounted is then placed 
inside a suitable glass chamber or lamp 
globe, such as shown in Fig. 168. This 
globe is first provided with a glass tube 
(A T), as shown in Fig. 169, and a suitably 
shaped shoulder formed on it. The 
opening at the neck thus formed is of such 
a size that when a mounted filament is 
introduced as shown in Fig. 170, the shoul- 
der comes so nearly in contact with the 




fig. 167 

GLASS SUP- 
PORT FOR 
FILAMENTS 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



87 



narrow part of the neck at (G) that an air- 
tight joint can be formed by fusing the glass 
of the support and that of the lamp cham- 
ber together. 

Matters being thus arranged it is now- 
necessary thoroughly to exhaust the lamp 
chamber. The pumps employed for this 
purpose are capable of producing a nearly 






fig. 170 



STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF LAMP MAKING 



complete vacuum. In most cases the 
greater portion of the air is first removed 
by the action of a mechanical pump with 
automatically operated valves, and the 
rest of the exhaustion obtained by any good 
form of mercury pump. When the required 
vacuum is reached the lamp is removed from 
the pump by a blowpipe flame applied at 
the constriction (A) in the tube (T), so as 
to separate it by fusion. 

No little trouble was experienced in the 
early days of manufacture of the incandescent 
electric lamp from the difficulty of main- 
taining the necessary vacuum. No matter 
how carefully the lamp chamber had been 
sealed, air would somehow or other leak into 
the chamber so that the length of life of 
the lamp was too small to permit it to be 
used in practice. This leakage was at first 
attributed to air entering at the points of 
the lamp chamber through which the leading- 
in wires passed; for, it would seem that 
this was the only place where air could possi- 
bly get into the chamber. When it was 
found that the difficulty was not situated 
at these places, it was suggested that the 
leakage was probably due to the platinum 
wire, taking in or occluding gas which passed 
through the spaces between the molecules 
and so found entrance into the chamber. 
Happily, however, the problem was soon 
solved, so that the vacuum of an incandes- 



cent lamp bulb can now be made so high 
that lamps are now made that may have a 
life in excess of 800 hours. 

If, as was done in the early history of the 
manufacture, the lamp bulb with its mounted 
filaments was removed from the pump by 
fusion of the glass at (A) while the lamp 
filament and chamber were cold, the vacuum 
would necessarily be rapidly 
destroyed by the air that had 
been occluded or shut up 
between the pores of the 
carbon filament, or had ad- 
hered in the shape of a thin 
film of liquefied gas to the 
walls of the lamp globe or 
chamber. The force with 
which the occluded air clings 
to the solid surfaces would 
be so great that it would not 
pass out of the lamp chamber, 
during the operation of pump- 
ing, along with the free air, 
and would, therefore, remain 
in the bulb and filament 
after the lamp was sealed off and 
removed from the pump. Under these 
circumstances, as soon as the current 
was sent through the filament, thereby 
heating both the filament and the lamp 
chamber, the gas was driven off, greatly 
vitiating the vacuum, and soon resulting 
in the destruction of the filament. 

The cause of the difficulty having been 
discovered, its remedy was evident. As 
soon as the lamp globe has all the air it 
originally contained drawn out by the pump 
except that occluded by the filament or 
adhering to the walls of the chamber, an 
electric current is passed through the fila- 
ment the strength of which is somewhat in 
excess of that required to maintain the lamp 
in constant operation. If, while this is being 
done, the pumps are kept in constant opera- 
tion, the air thus liberated is carried out of 
the chamber, so that when the lamp chamber 
is sealed, a permanently high vacuum is 
assured. 

There is a requirement of the carbon fila- 
ment of the incandescent electric lamp that 
has not yet been alluded to. The filament 
must not only nave a much higher resistance 
than other portions of the lamp circuit, but 
it must also possess a comparatively small 
mass together with a fairly extended sur- 
face; for, it is from the surface of the glowing 
filament that the light is emitted. The 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



double requirement of a fairly extended 
length of glowing conductor, and a small 
mass, can only be met by making the glow- 
ing conductor of comparatively small diam- 
eter; that is, of giving it the form of a thread 
or filament. 

But the requirements of the carbon fila- 
ment do not stop here. Not only must it 
possess a fairly high resistance but this 
resistance must be the same for any small 
portion throughout its entire length. If the 
resistivity of the carbon, that is, its electric 
resistance per unit of mass, varies in differ- 
ent parts, or if the carbon filament is thicker 
in some places than others, its electric re- 
sistance at different portions of its length 
will vary. Consequently, when the electric 
current passes through it, only those parts 
of the filament that possess the relatively 
highest resistance will begin to glow or emit 
light, so that the filament will possess a 
disagreeable spotted appearance. 

If, in order to avoid unequal brightness 
of the glowing filament, the strength of the 
current be increased, the portions of next 
highest resistance will begin to glow until 
finally, when a sufficiently strong current 
strength has been reached, the filament will 
glow uniformly throughout its entire length. 
But such a filament must necessarily be 
short lived. If the current strength is such 
as to produce good luminous effects in the 
parts of lowest resistance, it will be too 
great for those of high resistance. The life 
of the filament would therefore be necessarily 
short. 

By the use of an ingenious process known 
as the flashing process, spotted filaments 
can be readily rendered electrically homo- 
geneous throughout. Before mounted in 
the lamp globe, each filament is placed in a 
carbonaceous liquid or vapor and an electric 
current, the strength of which is gradually 
increasing, sent through it. By this means 
the points of highest resistance of the filament 
are first raised to incandescence. These 
points receive a coating of electrically de- 
posited carbon due to the decomposition of 
the carbonaceous liquid or vapor and thereby 
have their electric resistance lowered. The 
current is then increased, so that the next 
highest resistance portions of the filament 
begin to glow, and these in turn have carbon 
deposited on them. The consequence is 
that if the current is properly increased in 
strength, in a very short time all parts of 
the filament are thus automatically brought 



to the same resistance per unit of length 
and the filament glows uniformly. 

Improvements in the manufacture of a 
variety of carbon filaments known as squirted 
filaments have rendered it possible to make 
them of a small diameter and of fairly con- 
siderable length so electrically uniform 
throughout that the flashing process can be 
dispensed with. 

(To be Continued.) 



New Type of Transmission Tower 



An entirely new idea in the support of 
high voltage line wires, is shown in the cut, 
the idea being not to bring the tension of 
the line on any one of the supports but 
rather to support the weight of the conductors 
on each one of the steel transmission towers. 
It will be noticed that this type of trans- 
mission tower differs widely from any cf 




TRANSMISSION TOWER 

the steel towers used at the present time, in 
that the supporting insulator chains allow 
a considerable amount of freedom to the 
swinging of the wires and at the same time 
act as a very reliable support. No trans- 
mission towers of this type have been put 
in actual use as yet and the photographs 
shown were taken of the experimental line 
which was erected by the General Electric 
Company on their farm at Schenectady for 
experimental purposes. The insulators are 
novel, being composed of alternate concave 
disks of porcelain and galvanized links. 



The Light and Power of Brooklyn 

By W. W. FREEMAN, Vice-President and General Manager of the Edison Electric 
Illuminating Company of Brooklyn 



Less than a quarter of a century ago 
ground was broken in Pearl Street for the 
first electric .light plant in Brooklyn. This 
was in 1889. Imagine a little plant con- 
sisting of two, 250 horse-power engines 
belted to two of the old Edison dynamos 
each with its pair of grotesquely tall fields 
— this was the start. As "charter" con- 
sumers there were a theatre, a barber shop 
and an ice cream parlor. 

Coming forward to the present we find 



Four months after the original station 
commenced operation the company had con- 
nected to its system the equivalent of 6600 
16-candle power lamps, and there was great 
enthusiasm at the progress made. But 
measured by the standards of the present 
this was insignificant. Only a short time 
ago the Sales Department called my atten- 
tion to the fact that the new business signed 
during a recent month exceeded the aggre- 
gate business connected to the system of 




GOLD STREET POWER HOUSE OF THE EDISON ILLUMINATING COMPANY OF BROOKLYN 



that the largest power house of the com- 
pany is equipped with the latest type of 
steam-turbine driven dynamos, turbo-gen- 
erators as they are called, each one of which 
has a capacity of fifty times that of the origi- 
nal engines. 

In the beginning the capital invested was 
$500,000. Today it is $25,000,000. 



the company at the close of its first four 
years of operation. 

These comparisons may serve to illus- 
trate to some extent the rapid development 
of the business, and it is my opinion that 
this development, notwithstanding its rapid- 
ity, is but prophetic of an even more rapid 
and successful development to come. 



90 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The Borough of Brooklyn has an area of 
77 square miles with a present population of 
1,500,000 and room for several millions 
more. The Borough is certain to become 
the controlling Borough of the Greater New 
York through its voting power. 

The electric franchises of the compary are 



The property of all of the above companies, 
excepting the Kings County Electric Light 
& Power Company, is owned by the Edison 
Company, the capital stock of which is in 
turn owned by the Kings County Company, 
and, through lease agreement, the net profits 
from the operation of the combined systems 




STEAM TURBO-GENERATORS IN THE GOLD STREET POWER HOUSE 



all perpetual and cover the entire Borough. 
There are no other electric fran- 
chises in existence, except one that is con- 
fined to a single ward, namely, Flatbush, 
and which is owned by the Brooklyn Union 
Gas Company. Under the present charter 
of New York future franchises must be 
limited to twenty-five-year terms. 

To those who care to understand the 
financial phases of the subject the following 
will be of interest. The system now oper- 
ated by the Edison Electric Illuminating 
Company of Brooklyn is a combination of 
systems of the Citizens' Electric Illuminating 
Company of Brooklyn, Municipal Electric 
Light Company of Brooklyn, Amsterdam 
Electric Light, Heat & Power Company, 
the Bergen Beach Light & Power Company 
and the Kings County Electric Light &: 
Power Company. 



are paid to the Kings County Company, 
which is the financing company, whose 
securities are held by the public. 

The outstanding securities are as follows: 

$10,000,000 Kings County Capital stock. 

2,500,000 Kings County first mortgage 5 per 
cent Gold bonds, due 1937 

5,176,000 Kings County 6 per cent gold bonds 
due 1997, additionally secured by 
purchase money mortgage on 
Edison stock, and interest pay- 
ments secured by $1,000,000, 
guarantee fund deposited with 
trustee. 

2,500,000 Kings County 6 per cent convertible 
debenture bonds, due 1922, and 
convertible into stock at par after 

1913 
4,275,000 Edison first mortgage 4 per cent 
bonds due 1939; issue limited to 
$10,000,000. 



t> 24, 45 1,000 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



91 



The merit of these securities is evident 
to any one who will examine the company's 
record. 

The Edison 4 per cent bonds are secured 
by first mortgage on. the plant and property 
costing and worth four times the bond issue, 
and the earnings for 1909 applicable to the 
bonds were more than eleven times the in- 
terest. 

The Kings County 5 per cent bonds are 
secured by first mortgage on the plant and 
property costing and worth several times 
the bond issue, and the earnings for 1909 
were more than thirteen times the interest. 

The Kings County 6 per cent bonds are 
also more than adequately secured, and the 
earnings for 1909, after payment of prior 
bond interest, were more than five times the 
interest. 

The convertible debenture bonds paying 
6 per cent interest and the capital stock, 
paying 8 per cent dividends, represent real 
money put into plant and property, without 
capitalization of franchises or earning power. 

The present organization of the company 
has been built up with extreme care, and is 
composed of men who have grown up in the 
business, or have been selected because of 
special qualifications for specific work. 
The officers and the departmental heads are 
organized into a staff council, which meets 
at luncheon one day of each week, at which 
meeting matters of general interest are dis- 
cussed and inter-departmental affairs deter- 
mined. There are sixteen members of the 
staff council. 

The Sales Department of the company is 
thoroughly organized and aggressively con- 
ducted. At the present time 68 men are 
employed in getting business. 



Perhaps nothing shows more plainly the 
rapid advance in the use of electricity than 
a record, year by year, of the connected load 
of the light and power company in almost 
any city where aggressive methods have been 
pursued. The-following table is the record 
of the Brooklyn Edison company from 1890 
to 1 9 10, everything, power and light, being 
reduced to the equivalent of 50 watt units, 
or in other words to a unit represented by 
the ordinary 16 candle-power, carbon-fila- 
ment lamp. 

Connected to System in Equivalent to 50 
Watt Units 

January 1st 1890 6,060 

" 1891 25,170 

' l8 92 4i,379 

' l8 93 -- 75,45° 

' 1894 100,533 

" " 1895 128,189 

' l8 9 6 154,523 

' l8 97 i99, 5 2 

" 1898 227,095 

" 1899 267,193 

" 1900 310,943 

" 1901 37 6 , 2 43 

" 1902 465,041 

' !9°3 537,352 

" 1904 637,083 

" " 1905 808,189 

" " 1906 932,715 

" i9°7 1,167,595 

" i9° 8 1, 345, 2 33 

" " 1909 1,546,498 

" 19" !, 772,357 

Glancing down this row of figures you 
will see a constantly and rapidly rising trend. 
Where will it end? I venture to say that 
in Brooklyn — in any large city — the end will 
not come until electricity produced at large 
central power plants will meet every require- 
ment for light and power and heat of that 
city. 



The Meditations of a Science Man 



How doth the busy little volt 
Improve each shining hour? 

He travels on the D. C. line 
And gives the people power. 

And when he meets the little ohm, 

It standing in his way, 
He sends an ampere in his place 

And stays and wins the day. 

And when he's done his daily task 
And made the motor go, 

Like chickens home to roost he hikes, 
Back to the dynamo. 



Or perhaps he takes the A. C. 

Because he thinks it pays, 
And takes his family along 

And then we have a phase. 



line, 



And if they meet along the line 

A henry or a farad, 
They'll treat him as they did the ohm, 

For which we should be glad. 

For if the busy little volt 

Did not work both day and night 
Where would we get our kilowatts 
And our electric light? 
D. Y. Namo, in the Queen's University Bulletin 






Current From — Where? 



BY EDGAR FRANKLIN 



CHAPTER III 



ACCIDENTS 



The entire platform of the Brontoii rail- 
way station was a decidedly lengthy affair. 

Wholly level with the road-bed at the 
station end, matters were radically different 
down by the distant freight shed. Here, 
with the track side at loading height above 
the rails, the off side of the platform pre- 
sented a good ten-foot drop to jagged rocks. 

Half way down the platform, Race waited 
in the sunshine as Dunbar hurried toward 
him from the station. 

"It's our stuff all right," announced the 
latter, as Race fell into quick step beside 
him. "The actual generators are here 
anyway." 

"All that pile?" Race squinted at the 
heavy crates and cases at the far end. 

Two big generators there, son, when 
they're assembled," Dunbar chuckled ex- 
citedly, as he trotted forward. 

Race followed more slowly. The things 
were there — that was the main considera- 
tion. One item at least was off his mind; 
now he could concentrate on the coal ques- 
tion and start a new bombardment of the 
railroad, as concerned their Avandering 
engines. 

Yes, their luck had turned. Race felt it, 
as his optimism began to surge back. This 
was the first really encouraging event since 
the arrival of their boilers — it was an omen of 
better things to come. The outrageous coal 
letter of a week ago remained unanswered; 
maybe the Stelton people were repenting 
now. And as* for the engines — why, they 

might turn up at any minute and 

."Bob!" 

Race, startled out of his pleasant revery, 
all but jumped to his partner's side. 

"Wnat in thunder's this?" that gentleman 
demanded forcefully. "One whole arma- 
ture's missing here!" 

"Missing?" queried Race. 

"Yes! Core — shaft — commutator — every- 
thing! They " 

He stopped short. Race was at the rear 
end of the platform and just now, staring 
downward with open mouth, he was not 



listening. Hastily, Dunbar followed his 
^;aze. 

And with a wild little cry he ran to the 
end of the platform, jumped to the ground 
and went clambering down the shallow gully 
behind. Race, following, was at his side 
a moment later, swearing fervidly. 

Here, there and everywhere, torn, splin- 
tered and broken, were bits of thick board. 
In the center, tilting on the edge of a rock, 
rested a big. wheel-like, oily complication of 
windings and loose wire ends, of steel and 
copper — wrecked ! 

"Is that — it?" Race choked at last. 

"Yes! Look!" Dunbar squatted beside 
it and almost wept. "Look at that shaft! 
It's bent at both ends and all strained out 
of shape in the middle and — look at that 
commutator! It's smashed to bits! And 
see this winding — it's bruised in a full inch! 
The wire's cut in a dozen places!" 

"It hit that rock — right there — and 
smashed it!" Race snarled. "And — psst!" 

Together, they looked up. Overhead, at 
the edge of the platform, stood Baker, 
freight agent, stupid of countenance and 
sluggish of movement. 

"Say! Ain't that a darned shame!" he 
demanded. 

For the moment, Race's vocabulary failed 
him. 

"I left her jest as she was, fer you to see — 
so's you couldn't blame it on me," pursued 
Mr. Baker. "They come in late last night 
and I had ter git 'em unloaded— had t' 
send the car back on the early freight. 
Some o' the boys must 'a' left her too near 
the edge — an' she jest toppled over some- 
time during the night." 

"Which one of the boys, and how the 
devil could she topple over?" the president 
demanded in a roar, as he gripped the 
trestle under the platform and climbed 
straight up, eyes blazing. 

Baker backed away. 

"It — it must 'a' been some o' the train 
crew." he protested. "They slept in the 
station last night — I couldn't stay there all 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



93 



night — they got the stuff off early this morn- 
ing, before I came." 

"That's all a string of lies!" thundered 
Race, as his partner, less excited, sadder of 
expression, reached his side. 

"That ain't no lie," said the freight man, 
as he continued a highly judicious backward 
course toward shelter. "I tell ye " 

"And I tell you that the responsibility is 
right on you! I know you're an ass, Baker, 
but there's more in this than plain imbecil- 
ity. Who knocked that thing over the 
edge?" 

"Now, lookahere! I — tell yer I found it 
like that," sputtered the agent. "Maybe 
you kin claim damages, but you gotter 
claim 'em from the railroad. I gotter put 
in my report, that's all. I ain't got no re- 
sponsibility. I ain't got no re " 

"You haven't, eh?" shouted Race. "Well, 
by the time I've kicked the truth out of 
you, you'll find how much " 

He darted toward Baker — and Dunbar 
caught him as Mr. Baker's steps pattered 
down the platform at something like twenty 
patters per second. 

"It's done now, Bob. If killing that 
little cur would do any good, I'd advocate it, 
but it won't. The thing's hopeless " 

Mr. Race pulled himself together. For a 
moment his teeth gritted; then he said: 

"No way of fixing it up here?" 

"We have no facilities in town yet. We — " 

"All right!" Race interrupted again. "You 
go over to our hoodoo powerhouse, nestling 
there in the pretty pines. Tell 'em to get 
that mess together and ship it straight back 
to the builders. You can walk back to the 
office," he added, as he stepped into the 
dusty machine. "I'm in a hurry." 

"What are you going to do?" 

"Write to the manufacturers, order a new 
armature and stick a special delivery stamp 
on the letter," responded the president, 
as the little car departed with its customary 
suddenness. 

It was at no particularly brisk rate that 
he returned to the "Bronton Electric Light 
& Power Company" sign, however; and 
his low speed was just as well, for Race 
happened to be staring at the vibrating 
bonnet and not at the landscape ahead; 
dogs, humans and other movable things had 
time to dodge as he pondered. 

This last calamity dispelled whatever 
lingering notion he might have of blaming 
their series of misfortunes upon mere coin- 



cidence. The wanderings of the engines 
might be well enough laid to error; it was 
possible, at least, for an isolated building 
to catch fire three successive times without 
crime having been committed : but the price 
of coal looked daily more and more like a 
hold-up with a definite purpose behind, and 
this thing of having an entire armature in- 
advertently step backward of its own accord 
and commit suicide on the rocks was too 
great a strain on credulity. 

Mr. Race decided as he stopped before the 
office that he would write one letter instead 
of two, and if the second didn't result in 
damages and the removal of Mr. Baker's 
official scalp, it would be because the gentle 
art of flavoring his ink with sulphuric acid 
had suddenly left Race. 

Carey was at his desk when the president 
entered; and, curiously, Mr. Bowers stood 
there, too, apparently on the verge of leav- 
ing. He saluted Race with a nod and a 
grin that, to the latter's irritated nerves, held 
a queer quality of tolerant pity. 

"Just been chatting with the treasurer 
of the company," he observed, indicating 
Mr. Carey with his thumb. 

"I didn't suppose you were boxing with 
him," said Mr. Race, briefly, as he took his 
seat. 

Bowers stared for a second and chuckled. 

"Sore over your busted machinery, hey?" 
he asked. 

"What the dickens do you know about 
that?" came from Race as he faced about. 

"Why— I heard about it. That's all." 

"How? You haven't been near the sta- 
tion, because it's early morning still and 
you've got a spotless new shine and there's 
no dust around your legs — and the dirt 
down there's a foot deep," Mr. Race fired 
at him, surprisingly. 

Mr. Bowers went into a series of guffaws. 
At the end, he laid an unwelcome hand 
on Race's shoulder and puffed: 

"It's wonderful the way you reason out 
them things, Sherlock. The fact is, I sent 
a man down to cart up a keg o' bolts to my 
place, and he said somebody's electric motor 
or something was all smashed to smith- 
ereens." 

"Well, it's not yours and you won't worry 
about it, will you, Bowers?" snapped Race. 

The brilliantly-clad man chuckled again; 
he dragged a chair beside the desk and, seat- 
ing himself heavily, he faced Race with a 
look of hearty, honest pity in his eyes 



94 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



"Don't get mad, boy," he said, quietly. 
"Them things'll happen t' beat the devil, 
sometimes. This is one o' the cases — that's 
all. You got to give up now, hey?" 

"You stay up late on the last night in 
June and watch us giving up," replied the 
president, viciously. 

Bowers' smile was very tolerant. 

"That's all right, boy, but you know, 
down in your heart, that your whole 
blamed plant's down and out now. That's 
what brought me over when I heard the 
bad news." 

"What?" 

"Yes!" Bowers leaned forward earnestly. 
"I've watched you two young fellers. I 
know you've sunk your last cent in this; 
I know what you're up against and I know 
the way you feel about it — sorer 'n blazes." 
He took the cigar from his mouth. "Now, 
I'm darned sorry for both o' you. I went 
up against it twenty years ago, and there 
was nobody to be sorry for me. Therefore, 
while I ain't no multimillionaire, I'm ready 
to buy out this whole joint cheap — and you'll 
save something instead o' nothing." 

"Buy us?" came from between Race's 
teeth, when breath returned. 

"For cash, to hold on to against the day 
when conditions are fitter." 

"How much cash?" 

"I should say, about fifteen thousand 
dollars," said Bowers calmly. 

"Including the charter?" said Race, out 
of the fog of emotions that seemed to have 
enveloped his brain. 

"I wouldn't give three cents for your 
charter. You can have it." 

"But you would be willing to pay fifteen 
thousand for everything we have and expect 
— boilers, engines, generators, transformers, 
exciters, switchboard, lines, poles, lamps — 
everything else?" 

"That's the idea." 

Race drew a long, quivering breath. 

"Bowers," he said, with a mighty effort 
at self-control, "I will assume that you don't 
know what you're talking about — because 
if I assumed anything else I'd pitch you out 
that window if I broke my neck doing it!" 
He swallowed hard. 

"I'll say right here that the best piece of 
advice this firm can give you, is to get an esti- 
mate on what it costs to trim up a town of 
over five thousand people with electricity 
even on the small scale we're using for a 
starter. If it's ignorance, it's putting you in 



line for a coroner's verdict of deliberate 
suicide." 

"It's 'way below cost — but it's more'n 
you'll get in July. My idea's to call that 
investment dead money till the time comes to 
start up and make real money. You can't 
swing it." 

"Pardon me^ Mr. Bowers, but you're 
not quite certain of that!" Carey broke in 
abruptly. 

Bowers eyed him with an insolent smile. 

"You're Bronton's rich man, but you're 
no wizard. You couldn't have no plant 
running on time now — you wouldn't start 
her on a sure dead loss, anyway. If ycu 
were that kind o' guy, you wouldn't be 
rich now." He turned to Race. "Well, 
does it go?" 

"Get out of here," snarled the president. 

Mr. Bowers laughed shortly as he strolled 
to the door and opened it. 

"Race, I'd hate to call you a " he 

began. 

"You'd hate it a lot worse after you'd 
done it!" yelled the president as he gripped 
the arms of his chair and glared r.iidly at 
the caller. 

The door closed. Race, with a jerk, 
brought up the typewriter and hammered 
hard for some minutes. With a swish, two 
sheets were signed and folded and addressed. 
And with hard-set jaws, the president arose 
quickly and snatched his hat. 

"I'm going to mail these and telephone 
to Wilkes, the freight agent at Kane Junc- 
tion, and see if those engines are in sight," 
he said abruptly. 

""Why not telephone now?" 

"Because I'm going over to use the 'phone 
in Carroll's drug-store," said Race, excitedly. 
"I'm getting superstitious about this whole 
business. I don't want the call to come from 
here. It's beginning to seem as if everyone 
in town knew more about our affairs than 
we do — I don't know why." 

"Robert, do you know, I'm beginning to 
have that same sensation," exclaimed Carey, 
with some amazement in his eyes. 

He stared after the younger man, as the 
latter hurried out and turned toward the 
post-office. 

A minute or two later, Mr. Race brushed 
by a heavily-built man in the doorway of 
Carroll's store; and in the mood of the 
moment, he was tempted to deliver a brief 
talk on the comparative space occupied by 
door and by fat people, when: 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



95 



"Don't get hot, boy. You think it over," 
said Mr. Bowers, as he stepped to the street, 
and strolled away, puffing calmly. 

Race's teeth bared as he looked after him, 
and his fists clenched. And then, with 
commendable self-control, he - relaxed and 
stepped into the telephone booth and called 
for Kane Junction and the freight office. 
That call usually meant a long wait, and, 
receiver still at his ear, the president of the 
electric company was about to make a final 
request for speed, when faintly over the 
line came: 

"Yes. This is Kane Junction. What'd 
you cut me off for?" And then, loudly. 
'"Hello, Bowers!" 

Race's breath fairly exploded into the 
transmitter. Then: 

"What'n blazes you doin'?" reached him 
"Is that you, Bowers?" 

"Yes." Race contrived, with admirable 
gruffness. 

"What? This is Wilkes." 

For the second time, Race all but tottered 
from his little stool. 

"They cut me off," pursued the slightly 
familiar voice of the freight agent. "Say! 
What I wanted t' ask you, Bowers. Did 
they put them electric motor things on the 
blink?" 

"Knocked 'em to smithereens," Race 
risked, in a gruff imitation of Bowers that 
was heightened by the sudden dryness in 
his own throat. 

"All t' the good," responded the freight 
agent, happily. "Well — don't you worry 
none. Them engines don't stand no more 
chance o' getting there alive than " 

The circuit was broken again, and the 
wire merely buzzed. 

But it was all, all sufficient. Race rose 
like a man in a trance and walked straight 
across to the office. 

Certainly, if luck had deserted him in every 
other direction, Fate this time had handed 
him the very quintessence of explanation, 
in a very neat, compact and unexpected 
package. 

He looked up and down the street for 
Bowers. That gentleman was laughing 
heartily as he chatted with the cigar man a 
block below — and for the moment the presi- 
dent was tempted to rush at him and de- 
nounce him publicly. 

And sense returning in a second or two he 
laid his hand on the knob and entered his 
own domain. 



CHAPTER IV 

AN EVENING CALL 

Dunbar, rather dusty, had just arrived. 

"She's shipped," he said, tersely. 

"What?" 

"To be more exact, I set three of our men 
to crating her. She'll be ready to pull out 
of the gully and put on the eleven o'clock 
train. Then I left money to prepay the 
thing by express. It cost like fury, but it 
was worth it — getting Merrivale's straight 
express receipt." 

"Hum!" 

Mr. Race settled down in his chair. 

"It may have been worth it. I don't 
know." 

"Why?" 

"Because I have had positive assurance 
from the railroad company that when our 
engines do get here, they'll be smashed." 

"What?" 

Briefly, Race related his telephone ex- 
perience. Alike agape, Carey and Dunbar 
stared at him; and at the end they looked 
at one another for a moment and then back 
at Race. 

"Are you sure the man said Bowers?" 

"Bill, have you ever seen me answering 
advertisements for patent eardrums?" the 
president demanded. 

"But it seems " Mr. Carey hazarded. 

"It isn't what it seems — it's what it is," 
said Race. "That was Wilkes' voice and 
Bowers must just have left the telephone. 
Bowers is at the bottom of all our troubles!" 

There followed a silent minute or two. 

"Bowers has always seemed really friend- 
ly," Dunbar murmured. 

"Bowers is a good actor." 

"And frankly, I should say, too, that 
Bowers, despite his roughness, has always 
appeared honest and pleasant enough, until 
this morning," contributed Carey. "There 
was too much assurance in him when he 
made that offer." 

Race scowled at them. 

"Gentlemen," he said, "I'll admit that, 
up to this morning, I, too, took Bowers at his 
face value — kind of a bore, but a reasonably 
decent citizen with some money, starting in 
business in a growing town that's going 
to be a big city some day. Now I know 
otherwise. Now I know that he's back of the 
coal proposition — back of smashing our 
dynamo — back of the delay in our engines — " 

Carey shook his head. 



96 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



"Admitting that he has a motive," he 
interrupted, "assuming that he has managed 
to convince the Stelton people that, for some 
reason we don't know, they will profit by 
the hold-up; assuming, too, that he paid 
Baker or someone about the depot to smash 
the generator, Bowers is certainly not con- 
trolling the freight manipulation of a trans- 
continental railroad." 

Mr. Race's eyes opened wide suddenly. 

"No! He's not,!' he shouted. "And he 
doesn't have to! D'ye remember that letter 
six or seven weeks ago — the one from the 
railroad that said they'd traced the car 
half way from Chicago to the Junction, and 
that it was headed straight for the Junction 
and had never arrived there?" 

"Yes." 

"Well, Bowers slid down and corrupted 
Wilkes. And Wilkes sent that car kiting 
for the Coast — and he may have opened it 
before it went, and God only knows what 
shape our engines are in at this minute!" 

"That — that might account for it," Carey 
muttered, as he regarded Race with narrowed 
eyes. 

"That does account for it, and now " 

"Now, what are we going to do about it?" 
Dunbar asked blankly. 

"Do?" yelled Mr. Race. "Arrest the 
whole blooming bunch. Get warrants for 
them all and " 

"Perhaps Keller, our lawyer " said 

Carey. 

"I'll go and see him." Race was on his 
feet in an instant. "I'll — there he goes 
now!" He hurried to the door and jerked 
it open and called. 

Mr. Keller pulled up his buggy and 
stared. 

"Come in! Come right in! It's im- 
portant!" 

The lawyer obeyed. And Race, hands in 
his pockets, eyes blazing, hurled at him 
without preliminary: 

"See here, Mr. Keller " 

"Mr. Race, I'm in a great hurry just at 
the moment. Mr. " 

"He can wait. Listen. Suppose we'd 
discovered unexpectedly that someone in 
this town had managed to cut off our coal 
supply altogether, had bribed people right 
and left to smash our machinery and burn 
our power-house, and generally do every- 
thing to put us out of business and make us 
lose our charter, what's the quickest way of 
getting a warrant or warrants?" 



"Yes. Quite so," said Keller, with his 
unruffled smile. "When did you make this 
remarkable discovery?" 

"This morning?" 

"How?" 

"I overheard a telephone conversation 
that wasn't meant for me." 

"Did anyone else overhear it with you?" 

"Certainly not." 

"Then I take it that this — er — telephone 
conversation merely confirms matters of 
which you alread* ^ave proof positive?" 

"We haven't -oofs of any sort, but 

this " 

"Then if you are depending on something 
that you, personally and alone, heard over 
a wire, I should hesitate at swearing to a 
complaint," smiled Mr. Keller, as he stepped 
to the door. "Courts have a way of de- 
manding evidence, and people one arrests 
have a way of getting back at "he fellow who 
arrests them without making a case." 

He stepped calmly into his buggy and 
gathered up the reins, while Race stood on 
the top step and glowered at him. 

"We'll talk this over later, Mr. Race," 
he called. "Don't do anything hasty, for 
it's dangerous. Giddap, Sam!" 

Whereat the buggy rattled swiftly away and 
Mr. Race slouched back indoors. 

"I think that was the shortest, sweet- 
est consultation with a lawyer I ever knew," 
he said dazedly. 

"Keller can put a good deal into a few 
words. He's right," sighed Carey. 

"Keller could copy the Bible on a postage 
stamp," muttered the president. 

"And the safest thing for the moment, is 
to sit back and smile mysteriously," added 
Dunbar, in bewilderment. 

For a full quarter hour, Race sat staring 
at the ceiling. Then: 

"It's Bowers, and — he's got his own 
motive. Eh ?" 

"Everything points that way." 

"Then we'll find out the motive and act 
accordingly." 

"How?" 

Mr. Race grinned. 

"Bill," he said, "I love to make money 
and fight the other fellow for it in the open 
and I hate this meet-me-by-the-old-mill- 
at-midnight business, but " 

"Well?" 

"I have one fixed idea in mind. Why the 
dickens it hasn't occurred before I don't 
know. Probably because Bowers never 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



97 





THEIR EYES FITTED TO THE CRACK THEY STARED, RIGID 



9S 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



laid himself open to suspicion before today." 
He leaned forward. "Tonight, William," 
he said with a faint grin, "you will eschew 
your early-to-bed, early-to-rise nonsense 
and be ready for a long walk, about half past 
twelve. Meanwhile," he ended, "I'm going 
down to the depot and watch that armature 
go aboard, for I told 'em to fix that one if 
they could and send us a new one of they 
couldn't, inside of six minutes after it 
reached them. As for you," he grinned, 
'.'you get the wagon and two or three men 
and begin putting arc-lamps where they'll 
attract attention. Get up three or four and 
make a fuss about it. Go over to Berg's 
first and stick 'em in the show windows. 
There is nothing," concluded Mr. Race, 
"nothing on earth like keeping up the bluff." 

It was nearing one o'clock when they 
started from the comforts of Carey's home 
and headed for the new section of Bronton. 

The two pairs of long legs swung steadily. 
The more thickly populated part of Bronton 
passed to the rear. The newer, bigger 
suburban places, still as death itself, pitch- 
black save for a lone light in an upper win- 
dow here and there, followed. Then even 
they emerged into small places, far apart 
— and at last the pair were hurrying along 
in the new section of Bronton, where "For 
Sale" signs were the sole tenants of newly 
graded lots. 

Ahead, red lanterns marked the little dip 
in the road, through the new railway cut. 
They passed through swiftly, under the 
unfinished steel work which would be the 
carriage road a little later; and very cau- 
tiously indeed they struck off on a rough 
wagon track, hedged with thick bushes on 
either side. 

It was an ideal night for inconspicuous 
traveling — clouded heavily with no moon be- 
hind the clouds, hazed with a light, murky 
spring mist. 

Slowly now and carefully, picking their 
footsteps very daintily, lest a stumble should 
bring a cry from one of them, Race and 
Dunbar avoided even brushing the bushes. 
They struck a heavy, barbed wire gate and a 
silent gasp escaped them. 

"We can vault it. Go easy!" Mr. Race 
commanded. 

The wire was behind and now, rather 
suddenly, a big brick building was looming 
blackly just ahead — and Race stopped. 

"Someone else walking around," he 
commented. 



They listened long. The noise was not 
repeated, but Dunbar was making queer 
little noises of his own. 

"Bob!" he breathed. "Hear that— that 
little, tiny humming?" 

"I hear it. Come on. Crouch low, Bill." 

Stealthily, they crept on and on. And 
Race's hand met the cold brick wall and 
he breathed: 

"He's got all his iron shutters closed, eh? 
Bowers must be particular about draughts. 
Come around here — away from the door." 

A dozen soundless paces and both men 
straightened up as if jerked to their feet 
by a single wire. They had passed half 
a dozen shutters, to be sure — shutters which 
revealed tiny lines of light around the edge; 
but here was a shutter open a full inch and 
sending forth a stream of yellow radiance. 
And quite as mechanically as they had risen, 
their eyes fitted to the crack — and they 
stared, rigid. 

And they found good cause for rigidity in 
that brief inspection of Mr. Bowers' new 
"factory." 

Their eyes fell first upon the gentleman 
himself, sitting in a far corner and talking 
to a man in overalls. Another person, 
similarly clad, was shuffling calmly aroimd 
the big machine near the center of the room 
— an electric generating unit, engine and 
generator directly connected, so large, so 
beautiful in its newness, emanating the 
word "P-O-W-E-R" so clearly from every 
line, that even Race guessed correctly at its 
ability to supply ever}' fixture that stood 
ready for the Bronton Electric Light and 
Power Company. 

Mr. Bowers was going to manufacture 
electricity. Indeed, so fond did he seem of 
electricity that he must use it even now — for 
the little gas-engine generator beside him 
was whizzing merrily for the sole purpose of 
lighting his plant. 

An involuntary croak escaped Dunbar. 
It found almost instant echo a dozen yards 
away, in: 

"Who's there?" 

"Duck!" breathed the president. 

"Answer, or I'll shoot!" the voice said 
very distinctly, as bushes began to crumh. 

"Sneak! Bill!" hissed Race. "Wake up!" 

And as they took the first step into further 
blackness, there came a red flash and a 
report — and a bullet flattened on the brick 
wall above them! 

(To be continued). 



The New Edison Storage Battery 



Years ago Thomas A. Edison set out to 
build a storage battery which would eliminate 
the serious faults of the lead type, chief of 
which is the great weight in proportion to 
the power obtainable. After making nine 
thousand experiments he thought he had it, 
and the original Edison battery was launched 
six years ago. It was a radical departure 
from the working principles of all former 
batteries. He had started fresh, forgetting 
everything 
that had been 
done before. 

As the or- 
dinary man 
would look at 
it the original 
battery was 
a success. It 
proved light- 
er, cheaper 
and cleaner. 
It gave more 
output for 
equal weight 
than any 
other battery. 
Its greater 
initial cost 
was offset by 
lower cost of 
upkeep and 
operation. It 

did not deteriorate when left uncharged and 
was not injured by over charging. 

They equipped 250 automobiles with this 
first battery, known as the E type. These 
batteries, some of them in operation from 
two to five years, proved superior to lead 
batteries and more economical than horses. 

But Edison had other ideas. He had 
not reached the results he had anticipated; 
so he did a characteristic Edison thing. He 
closed the factory, scrapped the machinery, 
withdrew the Type E battery from the mar- 
ket and started out afresh after the perfect 
storage battery. What cared he that the 
Type E battery was a commercial success? 
It wasn't the battery to go down in history 
bearing his name. So after six years more 
of persistent toil he brought out the new 
Edison battery which is said to be as much 
better than the original as the original was 




GARAGE OF THOMAS A. EDISON AT LLEWELLYN PARK, N. J 



better than the lead plate type. The new 
battery is called the Type A. It is made in 
two sizes, the Type A-4 containing four 
plates and the Type A-6 six plates. 

The active materials are oxides of nickel 
and of iron, respectively, in the positive and 
negative electrodes, the electrolyte being a 
solution of caustic potash in water. 

The retaining cans are made of sheet steel, 
welded at the seams by the autogenous 

method, mak- 
ing leakage 
or breakage 
from severe 
vibration im- 
possible. The 
walls of the 
can are cor- 
rugated so as 
to give the 
greates t 
amount of 
strength with 
a minimum 
weight. The 
can is elec- 
troplated 
with nickel, 
and a close 
union of the 
steel and 
nickel is ob- 
tained by fus- 
ing them together so that they are practi- 
cally one metal. This coating of nickel pro- 
tects the steel from rust, and also gives to 
each cell an attractive and highly finished 
appearance. 

Each cell of the A-4 type contains four 
positive and five negative plates. 

Each positive plate consists of a grid of 
nickel-plated steel, holding 30 tubes filled 
with the active material, in two rows of 
fifteen each. 

The tubes are made of very thin sheet 
steel, perforated and nickel-plated. Each 
tube is reinforced and protected by small 
ferrules, eight in number. These prevent 
expansion, thereby retaining perfect internal 
contact at all times. 

The active material in the tubes is inter- 
spersed with thin layers of pure metallic 
nickel in the form of leaves or flakes. The 



100 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




PLATES OF THE EDISON BATTERY 



PLATES ASSEMBLED 



CELL COMPLETE 



pure nickel flake is manufactured by an 
electrochemical process. 

Each negative plate comprises 24 flat 
rectangular pockets supported in three 
horizontal rows in a nickel-plated steel grid. 

The pockets are made of thin nickel- 
plated steel, perforated with fine holes, each 
pocket being filled with an oxide of iron very 
similar to what is commonly called iron 
rust. In the negative plate each pocket is 
subjected to very heavy pressure, so that 
it becomes practically integral with the sup- 
porting grid. 

In a cell the positive and negative plates 
are assembled alternately, the positive plates 
connecting with the positive pole, and the 
negative plates with the negative pole. They 
are correctly distanced on this rod by nickel- 
plated steel spacing- washers, and held firmly 
in contact by nuts screwed on both ends. 

If this description has been followed closely 
it will be seen that in an assembled cell 
nickel plates are alternated with iron plates, 
and that the two outside plates are both 
iron or negative plates. The outer surfaces 
of the outside plates are insulated from the re- 
taining can by hard rubber sheets. Specially 
designed hard rubber pieces are fixed between 
the can and the side and bottom edges of 
the plates; and these, together with hard 



rubber rods inserted between the plates, 
maintain correct spacing of the plates at all 
points and insure permanent insulation. 

Each cell has a cover which is welded in 
place by the same autogenous process used 
for the side and bottom seams. 

On the cover are four mountings. Two 
of these are the stuffing boxes through which 
the positive and the negative poles extend. 

One of the other two is the "separator," 
so called because it separates spray from the 
escaping gas while the battery is charging. 
This prevents loss of electrocute and renders 
the gases inodorous. 

The fourth mounting is an opening for 
filling the cell with electrolyte and for the 
adding of distilled water to take the place 
of that which evaporates. This opening 
has a water-tight cap which is held in place 
by a strong catch. Fastened to this cap is 
a small spring, so arranged that the cap 
will fly open unless properly fastened. This 
reduces the possibility of leaving the cap 
open accidentally, thereby causing the elec- 
trolyte to spill out should the cells be vio- 
lently agitated by vibration of the automo- 
bile. 

The electrolyte consists of a twenty-one 
per cent solution of caustic potash in dis- 
tilled water. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



101 



In order to fill the cells and to add water 
conveniently a special filling apparatus was 
devised. It consists of a nickel-plated, 
copper tank, rubber tube, filling nozzle and 
electric bell and batteries to indicate when 
the can has been filled to the proper level, 
as it is impossible to see into it. To fill a 
cell the nozzle is placed in the filling aper- 
ture and the valve released — the proper 



German Wireless vs. British Cable 




ELECTRIC FILLING APPARATUS FOR THE 
EDISON STORAGE BATTERY 

height of solutioD being indicated by the 
ringing of the bell. 

The Edison Storage Battery Company of 
Orange, N. J., manufacturer of the battery, 
has this to say concerning its advantages: 

"An Edison battery weighs about half as 
much as a lead battery for the same output ; 
but in addition to this it saves about fifty 
percent of its weight in the construction of 
the truck itself. That is, a truck built to 
carry an Edison sixty-cell battery would 
save not only 500 pounds in battery weight, 
but about 250 pounds in the weight of the 
truck built to carry lead cells." 



Magnetic Pull and Temperature 



Experiments have been made to show 
that the temperature of a magnet has some- 
thing to do with its power to attract and 
hold. By placing a magnet in alcohol Mr. 
Pictet found that if the unit 57 measured 
the pull at +3o c C, the attraction when the 
temperature was at -io3°C was 76, thus 
showing a decided in crease in power at a 
low temperature. 



The Germans have long been nettled at 
the British monopoly of ocean telegraph 
cables which, more than any other single 
factor, is held responsible for the present 
supremacy of Great Britain over Germany 
in foreign markets. With most of the cables 
under its control, England can obtain news 
of foreign market changes or of any events 
likely to influence the same much more 
quickly than Germany, and its representa- 
tives can color the cabled news in harmony 
with the plans of the British. This was 
clearly demonstrated by the effect that the 
opening of a direct cable between America 
and Germany had on the German bond 
markets which formerly had only received 
the belated information long after the English 
traders had been able to protect their inter- 
ests. 

Owing to the tremendous investment re- 
quired and the poor prospects of adequate 
returns for lines competing with the present 
British cables, the laying of new cables under 
German control to other parts of the globe 
has been out of the question and Britannia 
has continued to rule both the seas and the 
world markets. Now the wireless telegraph 
promises a competing means of communica- 
tion and Germany has already begun to 
erect wireless signal stations for this special 
purpose. 

Recent tests have shown that the vessels 
regularly plying between Germany and its 
African colonies, if properly equipped, repeat 
messages between the two, and the various 
colonies are therefore to have wireless sta- 
tions. 

Then the financiers of Berlin hope 
to see the circuit extended to Japan, to offset 
what they consider a pernicious activity of 
the British in coloring the news cabled from 
the island of Nippon. 



To Test Current Polarity 



A testing paper for finding the polarity of 
weak currents may be made by saturating 
a piece of blotting paper with potassium 
iodide and a little starch paste. With the 
paper slightly damp, place the terminals of 
the battery so that they are separated by 
the testing paper. A blue stain will appear 
at the anode or wire connected to the posi- 
tive pole. 



The Ghost Electricians 



By FRED R. FURNAS 



The spirits of Watt, Coulomb, Ampere, 
Dr. G. S. Ohm and Alexander Volta, re- 
spectively, were strolling around Chicago, 
taking in the sights. At the corner of Van 
Buren and Dearborn streets they came sud- 
denly upon the wraith of Ben Franklin. 

Ben was gazing in hypnotic fascination at 
the trolley of a North State Street car. The 
conductor of the car was endeavoring to get 
the trolley wheel back on the wire and being 
too lazy to get off the car, was leaning from 
the rear vestibule and sawing the cord up 
and down in his efforts to replace the wheel 
on the wire. Naturally, he created a minia- 



pectedness, caused him to start violently. 
In fact, in his agitation, he stepped right 
through a steel "elevated" post. 

"Fellow," he exclaimed, "know you not 
even the rudiments of gentlemanly conduct ? 
But, hold! whom have we here? Watt! 
Ohm! Volta! Coulomb! Verily, birds of a 
feather — and did I not meet you, too, at 
the last convention of the Scientific Souls?" 

"That you did," replied Ampere, "and 
my jocular greeting was based on the strength 
of our brief acquaintance. We, too, took 
advantage of the centurial solar storm, en- 
abling us to come from Mars back to Earth. 




STEPPED RIGHT THROUGH A STEEL 'ELEVATED POST 



ture fireworks display, as the motorman, 
being engaged in a discussion of city hall 
graft when the trolley had "jumped," had 
left his controller one or two points "on." 
"Hello, Ben," called out Ampere, "come 
out of the trance!" Now Franklin's sense 
of dignity had in no wise been abated by 
his transition from the mundane to the 
spiritual world, consequently the familiarity 
of Ampere's address, together with its unex- 



We had best be quick to see what changes 
we can, that have taken place on our old 
home, the Earth, ere the etheric disturbance 
subsides, blocking our return to Mars. 

"But these strange conveyances!" ex- 
claimed Franklin; "I can in no wise account 
for the propulsive power in them. I have 
deduced, from the sparks given out by yon 
metallic cord, that it is undoubtedly elec- 
trical, but further than this I am lost. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



103 



"Evidently, my electrophorus and pith 
ball experiments are no clue to this mysteri- 
ous force. Even should the coach be 
pushed forward by the repulsion of static or 
frictional electricity, one can easily compre- 
hend that the compressional strain on the 
little iron rod would be sufficient to bend it. 
Verily, it savours strongly of the infernal." 

"Away with conjecture!" cried Volta, 
"let us all ride upon it, the better to study 
its mechanism. Mayhap its mystery will 
be self -explained." Ignoring the "pay-as- 
you-enter" sign, the six spirits walked 
bodily through the side of the car and looked 
around for seats. Each of the party, with 
the exception of Dr. Ohm, found one, and 
after some hesitation, the Doctor sat boldly 
down in an old lady, causing her no in- 
convenience whatever by so doing. 

Nothing could be ascertained by the de- 
funct scientists, however, in regard to the 
car's power, although they enjoyed the 
ride immensely. For several hours they 
rode around the city, boarding this car and 
that. Watt and Volta were considerably 
diverted by the corset, pickle and bean ad- 
vertisements in the car; Coulomb and 
Ampere found the view from the car win- 
dows very interesting; while Franklin, al- 
ways of an investigating turn of mind, had 
soon studied out the system by which fares 
were collected and sometimes registered. 
Presently he nudged Ohm, surreptitiously. 

"Note the proclamation at the forward 
end of the vehicle, Doc," he remarked. 

"THE CITY GETS 55 PER CENT," 
read Ohm. "Well, what of it?" 

"That means that the coach line gets 25 
per cent," said Franklin. 

"Odds Zounds, Ben," exclaimed Ohm, 
" thou wert a better kite flyer than a mathe- 
matician. Who gets the other 20 per cent ?" 

Franklin grinned slyly and jerked a 
ghostly thumb in the direction of the rear 
platform. "Foorsooth, the coachman," he 
replied. 

* Two electricians had entered the car and 
taken a seat near the ghostly passengers. 
Something in their conversation caused the 
spooky sextet suddenly to sit up and listen. 

"Yes," one of the men said, "the fuses 
were blown out. That was all, for a wonder. 
You see, they've got a kid down there that's 
always experimentin' with this wireless 
dope; got a wagon load of apparatus laying 
around, such as tuning coils, transformers, 
detectors, etc., and he's got the roof of the 



house lookin' like the back yard of a woman 
who takes in washing. Wires strung all 
over. Y'see, the kid claps a transformer, 
takin' about 10 amperes at 104 volts on the 
primary, across mains that was only plugged 
with six ampere fuses. 

" Naturally, them fuses goes, the minute he 
connects up. So, bein' a foxy kid, he takes 
and wires his fuse plugs with No. 16 copper 
wire, so's he won't be bothered by fuses 
blowing all the time. 

" Of course, since the kid's been monkeyin' 
at this, the meter hasn't done no loafing, 
either, and the way the old lady kicks on 
the bills for juice is something awful, I 
guess. 

" You see, she don't know that a watt 
is a current of one ampere at a pressure of 
one volt, flowing through one ohm's re- 
sist " But Messrs. Watt, Coulomb, 

Volta, Ampere, Ohm and Franklin, de- 
ceased and in the spirit, waited to hear no 
more, but drifted collectively through the 
roof of the car and back to the planet Mars, 
mystified by the complexity of the wheels 
of an industry which their historical experi- 
ments had set in motion. 



Three Illustrious Wrights 



In our admiration for the great ad- 
vances in aviation due to the ability, daring 
and persistence of Orville and Wilbur 
Wright, we should not forget that there is 
at least one other of the same name whose 
pioneer work has gone down in history. It 
was John Wright, the English physician and 
surgeon, whose finding of a suitable working 
solution made electroplating practical. 

Back in 1840, while his fellow countryman 
Elkington was working hard to develop a 
successful method of plating baser metals 
with gold or silver, John Wright of Birming- 
ham hit upon the use of a cyanide solution 
of the metal that is to be deposited upon 
the other. So wise was this choice of a 
plating solution by Wright that today after 
just seventy years it still remains the accepted 
standard. Fortunately for him, the credi 
for it was not delayed till after his death, bui 
as in the case of our winged countrymen 
came to him in his prime. Elkington, who 
proceeded to exploit the sale and use of 
apparatus for electroplating objects hung 
in a cyanide solution, paid a royalty to 
Wright and after Wright's death to his 
widow. 



The First Carbonless Arc Lamp 



By WARREN H. MILLER 



An arc lamp without carbons! Incredible! 
Ever since Sir Humphrey Davy first ex- 
bited the beauties of the carbon arc the idea 
of an electric arc has been always associated 
with carbons — an intensely luminous vapor 
of carbon, under terrific temperatures, due 
to the electric current and the resistance of 
the vapor. To get the vapor, you volatilize 
the carbon into infinitesimal particles, and, 
to get a continued supply of particles, you 
must have a convenient stick of carbon and 
means to feed it properly into the crater of 
the arc. That's all there is to the arc lamp. 
Even the flaming arc is simply the same 
old carbon supply, with the addition of 
coloring mineral salts. 

But, hold! Suppose we enclose this arc 
in a tube, and let the vapor be some sort of 
a condensible material, and at the same time 
a conductor of elec tricity, of high resistance. 
Then we get the arc as before, but the vapor, 
after passing along the tube, can be con- 
densed in a suitable chamber at the ends, 
and is then ready for another trip. It is 
a curious thing, but the particles of carbon 
in the arc lamp are not necessarily burnt — 
for the most part they merely are heated 
to incandescence and fly off into the at- 
mosphere. 

In the same way, a metal may be found, 
that will not burn or oxidize, and yet be 
heated to incandescence by the current, and 
give out light but not burn. If such a metal 
can be found, that will not condense later 
into solid and unmanagable form, we 
have an arc without carbons, non-renewable, 
continuous. 

The regenerative flame arc is one answer 
to this idea, using the vapor over again be- 
fore it gets a chance to solidify. It is used 
somewhat in Europe and is now exploited 
by one company at home, on European 
patent licenses. But, among the very few 
metals that will condense into liquid form 
and thus answer our proposition of a car- 
bonless arc, mercury is the only one in com- 
mon use, and easily obtainable. And it 
gives the other answer for a continuous 
arc, for it will vaporize under the heat of 
an electric current, and will readily con- 
dense back into a liquid, once out of the 
region of the arc. The familiar green 



Cooper-Hewitt mercury lamp is an example 
of this metal, used to make light. 

Now, as glass is the material for the tube, 
and as it melts at the comparatively low- 
temperature of about i5oo°F. you cannot 
get the mercury arc very hot, and so there 
are two unfortunate results from this limita- 
tion — the tube must be long and unwieldy 
to get enough resistance at that temperature, 
and the color will be a pale nauseating green, 
turning everybody's complexion to a sea- 
sick, lemon-rind appearance, falsifying all 
color values and robbing the lamp of many 
fields of usefulness. 

But, if the temperature be carried on up, 
say, a thousand degrees higher, not only may 
the tube be shortened to a few inches, making 
it compact and in manageable form, but 
also the luminous intensity will increase 
enormously, and the green be almost en- 
tirely replaced by white and yellow rays — 
the nearest light to daylight yet produced. 
This new material for the tube must be 
transparent, and capable of being manipu- 
lated into suitable shape, and must also be 
able to stand about 2500 of heat, which 
no glass possibly can. 

To find and applv this material to prac- 
tical use, took years of the best labors of 
the scientists of Germany and France. It 
meant years of discouragement against the 
well-nigh impossible problems of fusing and 
working the mineral quartz, of getting afflux 
that would weld it to glass without melting 
the latter; but it was finally accomplished, 
and our illustration shows the first of fifty 
of the Silica- Westinghouse lamps, often 
called quartz lamps, installed here and 
there, about the city of Paris, France. Only 
the tube which holds the arc is quartz, the 
condenser bulb and trunnions are of blown 
glass, welded to the quartz tube, for the 
latter will not blow and shape, even at high 
temperatures, as will glass. 

The mechanical construction is the same 
as the ordinary mercury vapor lamp. The 
current passes first through a central selenoid 
which it energizes, tipping up the bulb so 
that the mercury flows across the bottom 
of the tube, thus establishing a path for the 
main current. This at once boils the mer- 
cury and the current flows both through 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



105 



the boiling mercury in the 
bottom of the tube and 
the vapor above it. 

In a few seconds the 
whole tube is one arc of 
vapor, and the resistance 
has risen to such a point 
that it cuts out the solen- 
oid by the little trip- 
hammer magnet shown 
on the right of the opened 
lamp in the illustration. 
The bulb at once drops, 
so no more mercury can 
get across, but the vapor 
arc is now established, and 
feeds along the tube with 
the current, continually 
condensing in the bulb at 
the negative end, while 
more from the puddle of 
mercury just over . the 
cathode, is continually be- 
ing vaporized. In this 
way the arc keeps up 
indefinitely, condensing 
and vaporizing over and 
over again. 

The light is a beautiful whitish yellow, 
faintly tinged with green, very brilliant and 
powerful, giving about the same illumina- 
tion as a flaming arc, but a splendid soft 
color with no sharp inky shadows. Its 
economy is \ watt per candle; voltages no 
and 220; amperage, three amperes for 
both sizes; rated candle powers, 1000 and 
2000. The lamp is mounted in multiple, 
that is to say, direct across any no volt or 
220 volt line, without any resistance, or hav- 
ing to put two or more of them in series, so 
it can be installed anywhere without work- 
ing up any special lighting scheme. They 
cost in Paris, about $40 for the 1000 c. p. 
and $47 for the 2000, with a charge of $6 
for replacing any burner that gives out after 
1000 hours service. Before that time they 
are replaced free of charge, but the usual 
life has been found to be about 2000 hours. 

With such a lamp, having no renewals 
of carbons and no cleaning of globes to look 
after, the ideal arc seems at hand. One 
curious fact about the lamp nearly upset 
the whole thing, after all the years of labor 
of the scientists and engineers who developed 
it. They found after at last getting the 
quartz and glass blown together so as to 
get an arc out of it, that the ultra-violet rays 




THE QUARTZ LAMP 

of the spectrum went right through quartz, 
while they are arrested by ordinary lead 
glass. This sounds only scientific and of 
no great practical importance, but when you 
reflect that these rays are dangerous to eye- 
sight, it must have caused considerable con- 
sternation to make the discovery. But in 
actual practice, these rays are not harmful 
beyond nine feet from the lamp, and the 
outer lead glass globe protects one abso- 
lutely, no matter how close he gets. In 
case of breakage of the outer globe, the lamp 
would be of no practical danger to the 
public, being hung anywhere from fifteen 
to twenty-five feet above the ground to get 
good distribution. But when working on 
it to make adjustments or the like, one would 
have to wear glass goggles. The matter 
will make no difference whatever in the 
practical use of the lamp. All electrical 
apparatus is "dangerous" if you neglect 
simple precautions, and the only man whom 
it affects is the expert who may have to ad- 
just a broken resistance or some such acci- 
dent. He will put on glasses, just as an 
electrician working around a switchboard 
puts on rubber gloves. 

At present there is but one of these lamps 
in America. 



Talks With the Judge 

He Wonders About the Storage Battery 



"What is the principle of the storage 
battery?" asked the Judge one day as we 
were strolling down Michigan Avenue. His 
inquiring mind had been turned in that 
direction by an easy running, quiet electric 
brougham which sped down the smooth 
asphalt with a lady at the steering bar. 

"You have told me that electricity can- 
not be seen or tasted or smelled," he con- 
tinued, " Yet you say it can be stored up in 
a battery. I'd like to know how you can 
make that statement?" 

"I don't believe I ever did make it in 
those words," I replied. "If I did I was 
in a great hurry. As a matter of fact, the 
storage battery does not store electricity, or 
bottle it up in other words. It simply 
brings about chemical changes in the battery 
plates which puts them in a state so that 
they can produce electric current by them- 
selves, as in the case of the ordinary primary 
battery as it is called which rings your 
door bell. 

"The common storage battery consists of 
two lead plates or two sets of plates, cor- 
rugated or in the form of perforated grids. 
The plates of each set are connected together 
and when placed in the cell the plates of 
each set alternate with each other but do 
not touch. The cell is then filled up with 
a dilute solution of sulphuric acid and water, 
called the electrolyte. In this state, how- 
ever, the cell will not generate an electric 
current. It must be charged. 

"To charge the cell the two sets of plates 
are connected to the two terminals of a di- 
rect-current circuit and current sent through 
it. The set of plates through which the 
current enters the cell is called the anode. 
The other set is called the cathode. When 
the current starts to flow through the cell 
a very lively chemical action takes place. 
The anode at once begins to receive a coat- 
ing of lead peroxide (red lead) while the 



cathode turns gray and spongy .although it 
still remains metallic lead. As soon as the 
anode becomes completely covered with the 
peroxide of lead, which takes quite a long 
time, the cell is charged and must be taken 
out of the circuit. 

"Now we have an altogether different 
cell from the one with which we started out. 
Before the cell was charged we did not have 
a battery in any sense of the word because 
we did not have two different metals for 
the plates, which is necessary for a battery. 
After the charging, however, we have one 
plate of metallic lead and one of peroxide 
of lead, and the charged cell is capable of 
delivering current in a manner similar to 
any primary battery. Connect its ter- 
minals to a circuit and you can run motors 
or burn lamps the same as if you had a 
dynamo connected. 

From the moment the cell begins to fur- 
nish current, or discharge, it begins to run 
down. Current begins to flow from the 
gray plates through the electrolyte to the 
red plates; that is, in a direction opposite to 
that during charging, and the chemical 
action is also opposite, undoing the work of 
the charging process. The oxide of lead 
changes to sulphate of lead, and the spongy 
lead on the other plates also to sulphate of 
lead. The current continues to flow until 
both sets of plates are changed to sulphate 
of lead and then it ceases, because the plates 
are then alike, and as I have said, no battery 
will operate unless the plates are of different 
metals or compounds. 

"The discharge being complete the cell 
must be charged over again before it will 
give current. You will now understand, 
however, that the electricity is not stored. 
The nature of the plates is simply changed 
by the charging current, then they are 
ready, with their electrolyte to act as a com- 
mon battery." 



Where Electricity Stands in the Practice 

of Medicine 

By NOBLE M. EBERHART, A. M., M. S., M. D. 



CHAPTER VI. — THE APPLICATION OF HIGH FREQUENCY CURRENTS BY MEANS OF 

VACUUM TUBES 



We have considered the application, of 
high frequency currents by means of auto- 
condensation and their use in the generation 
of ozone, and it seems fitting at this time, to 
devote a chapter to the numerous uses to 
which high frequency currents may be put 
by means of the glass vacuum tubes so 
commonly in use. This is especially im- 
portant at this time because the manufacture 
of portable and low-priced instruments for 
generating high frequency currents makes 
them as accessible as a faradic battery and 



FIG. I. BODY TUBE 




I venture to assert that within a few years, 
they will be as generally in use. 

The principal value of the high frequency 
currents as applied with the vacuum tubes 
is in skin diseases, chronic ulcers, headaches, 

neuralgias, and 
other painful 
conditions and 
for the relief 
of all diseases 
of a catarrhal 
nature, no mat- 
ter what organ 
or part of the 
body may be 
affected, if ac- 
cessible. 

The glass 
vacuum tubes 
employed are 
of a number 
of different 
shapes suited 
to their special use. For instance, as shown in 
Fig. i, we have one with a large bulb on the 
end which is suitable for applying these cur- 
rents to the body or to the face; any place 




FIG. 2. EYE TUBE 



where the flat surface of the tube may simul- 
taneously give the current to a considerable 
area at one time. In Fig. 2 we have a form 
used in treating the eyes. The tube branches 



^ 



~> 



FIG. 3. EAR TUBE 



so there is a bulb to come in contact with 
each eye; another form, Fig. 3, shows a 
small. tube which may be used in the ear; 
another, Fig. 4, in the throat, etc. 

All these tubes are made to fit into the 
socket of a common handle. For body work 

— — - - e zzz> 




FIG. 4. THROAT TUBE 

I prefer a handle with a fixed socket, Fig. 5, 
but for other purposes I employ one where 
the socket holding the tube may be placed 
at any angle, Fig. 6. 

When the high frequency current passes 



FIG. 5. HANDLE WITH FIXED SOCKET 

through the vacuum tube the latter lights 
up usually with a blue or blue-violet color; 
sometimes with a white light, according to 
the vacuum of the tube. 




FIG. 6. HANDLE WITH MOVABLE SOCKET 

On account of the violet color this form 
of electricity sometimes, though incorrectly, 
has been called the "violet ray." 

When the hand is in Contact with the ex- 
cited tube there is no sensation from the 
current, but when the hand is withdrawn 
a little way from the electrode, fine sparks 



108 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



jump across in accordance with the strength 
of the current. I have said that no sensation 
is noticed when the hand is in contact with 
the tube; this applies to the higher fre- 
quencies and in some forms where the fre- 
quency of the current is comparatively low 
there will be communicated the sensation 
that is felt when holding the electrode of a 
faradic battery. 

At this point it might be well to define what 
we mean by a high frequency current. The 
term frequency has the same application 
that it has with the commercial alternating 
current. Here we understand the current 
to be constantly changing its polarity, with 
a complete reversal of the current constitu- 
ting an alternation. Two alternations make 
a cycle and the number of complete cycles 
occurring in one second of time constitutes 
the frequency of the current. Thus, with 
the ordinary current, we find that the aver- 
age number of cycles per second is 60, vary- 
ing from this up to 133, all of which repre- 
sent low frequency currents. 

As we increase the frequency the rapidity 
becomes such that the cycles really are oscil- 
lations, but the analogy is preserved, and so 
in genuine high frequency currents the 
number of cycles or oscillations may be 
from 100,000 to several millions per second. 
The dividing line between medium and high 
frequency is' placed at various points by 
different authorities. Many call all cur- 
rents with a frequency of 10,000 or more, high 
frequency currents, while I personally pre- 
fer to place the dividing line at 100,000 as 
seeming to be more nearly in proportion. 
Therefore, a high frequency current means 
one in which the number of cycles has been 
increased to an extraordinary degree. Now, 
a current of 10,000 cycles would probably 
yield some faradic sensation through the 
glass vacuum tube, but one with a million 
cycles per second would give absolutely no 
sensation whatever when there is perfect 
electrical contact. With this word of ex- 
planation let us again take up the matter of 
applying the vacuum tubes. How shall we 
know what amount of current to use in ex- 
citing the vacuum tubes? How may it be 
measured ? 

As the hand is brought near the excited 
tube it will be found that there is a definite 
point where a spark is capable of jumping 
across the intervening distance between the 
hand and the tube; this distance will re- 
main the same while the same amount of 



current is passing through the tube. De- 
creasing the amount of current shortens 
the spark and increasing the current length- 
ens it. The spark or fine spray that comes 
from the tube is spoken of as the effleuve. 

I have employed the length of spark that 
may be drawn from the vacuum tube as a 
rough method of standardizing its dosage. 

This method is crude and open to some 
serious objections, but it is the only method 
that I have been able to devise which will 
apply to all forms of apparatus. If I say 
that I employ a tube capable of emitting 
a one-half inch spark, it gives to rhe physi- 
cian some definite idea of the amount of 
current employed. It does not take into 
consideration the sharpness- of the spark 
which must be regulated according to indi- 
vidual sensibility. 

In treating skin diseases, such as pimples, 
eczema, psoriasis, etc., I use the tube shown 
in Fig. 1, and pass enough current through 
the tube to enable me to draw from it a 
spark of from one-half to three-quarters of 
an inch. In applying the tube, however, 
I do not hold it away from the skin, so that 
the full-strength spark has a chance to pass, 
but keep it in light contact with the skin so 
that there is only a slight stinging sensation. 

The reason why I wish to have a current 
sufficiently strong to give the specified length 
of spark is that this insures a certain in- 
tensity of current. Occasionally as patients 
become accustomed to the use of the high 
frequency I raise the tube from the surface 
slightly, thus giving a spark as sharp as they 
will tolerate. This, however, is only done 
where we wish to produce a quick reaction, 
as the application of the spark is followed by 
an increased amount of blood and a conse- 
quent reddening of the surface treated. 

In treating pimples tending to form small 
pustules, I find that a few seconds' applica- 
tion of as sharp a spark as the patient will 
permit is often capable of preventing their 
further development. 

Generally, however, the application is 
made by a to-and-fro motion of the tube, 
so that it does not remain steadily in contact 
with any one spot, but by reason of passing 
back and forth over the skin avoids too in- 
tense an irritation in any one portion. The 
length of time for making the application 
averages from three or four up to ten minutes. 
In many of these cases the high frequency 
is employed in connection with the X-ray, 
in which case the high frequency is given 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



109 



for from three to five minutes only, but 
where it is the sole treatment employed, twice 
that time will be satisfactory. In this con- 
nection it is worth while to mention that I 
believe the use of the high frequency current 
in connection with the X-ray enables us to 
give more X-ray with less danger of a " burn" 
than is the case when the X-ray is employed 
without the high frequency current. 

My theory in accounting for this is that 
the X-ray has the effect of gradually decreas- 
ing the amount of blood supplied to a given 
part by reason of increasing the layer of 
cells lining the small arteries, which finally 
become smaller and smaller in size until with 
a serious X-ray burn we have death of 
tissue, necrosis or gangrene 
produced by starvation 
from insufficient blood 
supply. On this account 
the tendency of the high 
frequency current to in- 
crease the determination 
of blood to a particular 
area, and its generally 
stimulating effect upon the 
circulation, tends to offset 
this particular action of 
the X-ray and thus en- 
ables us to give safely a 
somewhat longer or more 
frequent X-ray exposure. 

In treating pimples and 
other skin diseases daily 
applications of the high 
frequency currents are ad- 
vised. In Fig. 7 the ap- 
plication of the current to 
the face is illustrated. In 
this instance the tube is 
inserted in the handle with 
the fixed socket. 

In treating eczema, 
psoriasis and other con- 
ditions where itching is 
a prominent symptom, 
it frequently will be found 
raise the tube slightly from 
so that the patient receives 
would use a tube of about the same strength 
used in acne, but the spark gives great re- 
lief in itching and the patients appreciate 
the treatment where they get more of the 
spark than occurs with the tube in actual 
contact with the skin. In both eczema and 
psoriasis, however, the reaction from the 
treatment occurs quickly and therefore the 



application should not, as a rule, last more 
than from four to seven or eight minutes; 
occasionally two or three minutes will be 
ample. 

In treating skin cancer, lupus and also 
in chronic ulcers or old sores I use a spark 
as sharp as the patient will allow, which is 
usually one of about one-fourth to one-half 
inch, and keep the tube raised about that dis- 
tance above the surface treated, so that the 
full effect of the spark is obtained. This 
gives a very strong, stimulating and at the 
same time germicidal effect from the spark. 

When headaches, neuralgias, and other 
painful conditions are being treated, a spark 
of one-half to one inch is the guide for the 




fig. 7. 



APPLYING HIGH FREQUENCY DISCHARGES 
TO THE FOREHEAD 



desirable to 
the surface 
a spark. 



amount of current to be passed through 
the tube. In most of these cases the tube 
must be kept pretty close to the surface 
treated and the application must continue 
until the pain is relieved which will be all 
the way from five to ten minutes, occasionally 
longer. Where congestion is responsible 
the drawing of a considerable amount of 
blood to the surface gives relief of pain in 
much the same way that counter-irritation 
from a mustard plaster would act. 



110 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




FIG. 8. SCALP TREATMENT 

In lumbago and other forms of muscular 
rheumatism this same method should be used. 

I accidentally discovered a few years ago 
that the high frequency current was not 
only useful in stimulating the nutrition of the 
hair roots and thereby increasing the growth 
of hair and preventing it from falling out; 
but also that applying it for a sufficient period 
of time will restore the color to the hair in 
premature grayness, and in one case a result 
was obtained where the grayness was not 
premature. The length of time required 
to produce this result is so long that few 



FIG. 9. NASAL TUBE 

people have the patience and perseverance to 
carry out the treatment; many, however, 
will employ the current for the purpose of 
preventing falling of the hair. In these 
cases I recommend the combination of 
vibration with high frequency. The appli- 
cation of the current to the scalp is illustra- 
ted in Fig. 8. I use a spark of one-fourth to 
one inch. Too sharp a spark will not only 
be painful, but will produce liny sores from 
the caustic effect of the current. 



In catarrhal conditions the treatment con- 
sists in applying a suitable tube to the sur- 
face from which the catarrhal secretion is 
coming, or as near thereto as possible. For 
instance, in nasal catarrh a small vacuum 
tube (Fig. 9) is slipped into the nostril. 
Another form of tube is suitable to pass 
back into the throat. In Fig. 10 is shown a 
small vacuum tube passing into the ear, as 
used in the treatment of catarrhal deafness. 
Here the advantage of the handle with the 
movable socket is apparent, as it enables the 
patient to hold the tube in place comfort- 
ably and easily and also keeps the wire con- 
necting the tube to the apparatus away from 
contact with the hand. 

Catarrhal conditions hi any of the ori- 
fices of the body are similarly treated and 
physicians will understand the scope of this 
treatment. 




FIG. IO. APPLYING THE EAR TUBE 

In all applications of this nature where the 
tube comes in contact with a mucous mem- 
brane the tube is adjusted before the current is 
turned on and in this way, since there is perfect 
contact between the tube and the body, there 
is no painfulness whatever in the treatment. 

The current is allowed to pass for an aver- 
age of seven minutes, when it is turned off 
before the tube is removed. 

High frequency currents are capable of 
producing annoying, though superficial burns 
if left too Ions* in contact with a mucous 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



111 



membrane, such as the red skin lining the 
mouth, nose, etc. On this account I make 
it a rule never to leave a vacuum tube in 
contact with a mucous membrane for more 
than seven minutes at any one treatment. 

Another way in which high frequency cur- 
rents have a burning or cauterizing effect 
upon the skin is where a sharp spark is 
allowed to play steadily on one point. This 
has been taken advantage of in the destruc- 
tion of warts, callouses, corns, etc., by using as 
sharp a spark as possible and keeping it 




FIG. II. FULGURATION TUBE 

steadily over the spot for one, two or 
three minutes. 

If an electrode with a metal point is 
V used the effect is still more pro- 
nounced. 

This method as applied with a tube, such 
as the one illustrated in Fig. n, is known as 
fulguration, and is a method much in vogue 
at the present time, especially in Europe, for 
the destruction of malignant growths. 
In this tube the spark is emitted from a 




FIG. 12. TREATING THE EYES 

platinum point and the outer tube or jacket 
around it enables it to be kept from sur- 
rounding tissues, as the spark can only pass 



out through the tiny opening in the end of 
the jacket. This can be pushed up or down, 
thus accommodating the distance to the 
length of spark desired. 

Whether this treatment will prove of 
lasting value, remains to be seen. 

In treating the eyes the tube is used most 
conveniently with the handle with the mov- 
able socket as illustrated in Fig. 12. The 
eye electrode may be held lightly but firmly 
against the closed lids; the patient holding 
the handle easily and comfortably. 

Although the spark from the tube has been 
proved to be germicidal, it seems scarcely 
necessary to suggest to the physician the 
necessity and importance of carefully cleans- 
ing and sterilizing the vacuum tubes in 
order that no disease may be carried from 
one patient to another. 

This is easily accomplished by either of 
two methods. The first is to keep the tubes 
immersed in jars of antiseptic solutions when 
not in use; and the other is to sterilize them 
in such solutions both before and after using. 
(To be continued.) 



Drawn Tungsten Filaments 



Simultaneous announcement of great in- 
ventions and discoveries of the same nature 
from widely different places has been com- 
mon in the history of the world. An example 
of this is the case of Hittorf and Crookes 
who, working independently, found that 
when air in a tube (Crookes) was gradually 
reduced to one one-millionth of its original 
volume, the red rays give way to blue as the 
vacuum is increased. 

Up to the present time tungsten lamp fila- 
ments have been made by mixing powdered 
tungsten and a binding paste, and then 
squirting this under pressure through a small 
die. Drying, cutting and finally purifying 
by an electric current completes the process 
of making the filament. 

England and America are said to have 
just found another way of producing tung- 
sten filaments. Dr. Whitney of the General 
Electric Company by means of an especially 
designed furnace produces pure metallic 
tungsten of such ductility that it can be 
drawn into fine wire of great strength. At 
the same time Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works 
of England announce the production of a 
tungsten drawn filament lamp under the 
name of "one-watt," indicating a high 
efficiency. 



Electrical Securities 



By "CONTANGO* 



THE LARGE PLANT — THE GRADUAL LINKING UP OF PLANTS IN SYSTEMS — THEIR INCREASED 
FINANCIAL STRENGTH — THE ECONOMIC REASONS FOR SUCH ABSORPTIONS 



In the last issue the general financial 
arrangements of the small plant were con- 
sidered and the general outline of pro- 
cedure in such cases outlined. Now as to 
the financing of large plants: 

There is first to be taken up the formation 
of the large central station company, then its 
relation to the individual concerns which it, 
in so many cases, gradually absorbs, and 
then the means by which these consolida- 
tions admit of the parent plant strengthen- 
ing and protecting the securities of the smal- 
ler plants. Thus, for example, we have a 
company with bonds and stock amounting 
to a certain amount and it is found that back 
of this there is the greater security of a 
parent company. A small plant in a small 
town has been brought into existence by the 
issuing of bonds to the extent of, say, $50,- 
000, and there is in the hands of the owners, 
common shares to the amount of $25,000 — 
this, we will say, has all been paid for by 
the capital subscribed by local men and all 
of it is absolutely paid up. The bonds are 
issued to the public, and very naturally the 
question is asked — What security is there 
behind the investment other than a project ? 
This question may be followed up to the 
ultimate absorption in the big central station 
system. 

In such case these bonds, that is the money 
derived from their sale, is generally appor- 
tioned to the equipment, building up and 
developing of the plant. In some cases 
such bonds are issued under the special 
designation of equipment bonds. It is not 
necessary here to complicate matters by the 
consideration of this form of security. The 
point is: What are the tangible assets of an 
enterprise of which bonds to the extent of 
$50,000 are offered to the public? One 
hears a good deal of companies with patents, 
patent rights and problematical good-will 
all set out as representing assets, sometimes 
for almost the Avhole amount of the capital 
stock outstanding, but it may be at once 
stated that as far as electrical securities are 
concerned this peculiar feature will scarcely 



ever be found. And this fact in itself marks 
their difference from, and advantage over 
many other forms of quasi-industrial securi- 
ties. In electrical securities at all worthy 
of consideration in any way, the visible 
assets are speedily recognized. The good- 
will which is so often spoken of in other lines 
of business is in this case fortified by the 
public need, and this should never be lost 
sight of. Assuming then that bonds issued 
to the public are general bonds, a part and 
parcel of the enterprise, they form an abso- 
lute guaranteed mortgage on the property 
and title of the shareholders. 

The shareholders have secured the origi- 
nal rights to ti..^ property with franchises, 
and the actual property on which such a 
plant is to be built and in the developing 
and organizing of which they have used their 
initiative and enterprise. The public has 
all this, and, as well, an absolute security 
in the plant which their money builds. The 
profits of the business over and above the 
fixed interest on the bonds belong to the 
owners of the shares of common stock — 
to the men, indeed, who started the enter- 
prise, and the greater the amount they can 
. earn on that common stock the greater the 
security of the bondholders. 

But, on the other hand, the amount 
earned on the common stock or shares of the 
company is no concern of the outside public, 
any more than it is if Tom, Dick or Harry 
should build up a private business and make 
therefrom a large fortune, except in this 
one particular, that being what is termed a 
public service or utility corporation and 
thereby serving the public, the shareholders 
or owners of the stock are bound more or 
less by law and courtesy to give the public 
a good service at lowest possible rates com- 
mensurate with a fair return on the money 
invested in the enterprise after allowing 
for proper expenditures. This is practically 
the crux of the situation in so far as it may 
relate to the regulation of a public service 
corporation or the establishment of any light- 
ing plant or trolley line. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



113 



Now as to the "enterprise necessary to con- 
trol, in the sense of ownership, and start the 
big concerns in the large cities where all 
manner of watchdogs, in behalf of divers 
interests are ever on the lookout to herald 
or note a false step. 

It is clear that the financing of a large 
plant must be hedged around with many 
perplexities and complexities altogether for- 
eign to the establishment of a small plant 
in the average small town. 

To start with there are the franchise to 
be obtained, the different political factions 
to be considered, and to put it bluntly, the 
omni-present publicity organs to be more or 
less humored. Not necessarily as regards 
the latter because of any special temper, 
just the reverse, but because of political 
leanings or affiliations which to a degree 
affect the public service corporation at its 
start. The satisfaction of all these divers 
critics only makes the position of the securi- 
ties of a great central station plant, once 
established, doubly secure. For then the 
co-operation of the average banker or 
broker is certain. Thus one gets down 
to the meat of the financing of a big pub- 
lic utility corporation, or big plant in a 
big city, to put it in plain English. And 
on the successful establishment of such a 
central station plant always depends the 
future and welfare of the many small plants 
that will sooner or later be controlled by 
or linked up to it. That means of course 
plants in the same city or vicinity. 

One will suppose that it is a large town and 
that many people have to be served, involv- 
ing an outlay of much capital to equip the 
central station and obtain entrance overhead 
and underneath to the principal streets of the 
city. It is possibly easy to imagine what 
it means, for it is and has been one of the 
livest issues of the day. 

Thus, once the work arranged for and 
the cost apportioned, it may readily be seen 
that in such an enterprise, after the initial 
difficulties of starting, the later difficulties 
of effecting co-operation with the public and 
the physical difficulties of actual completion 
have been figured out and overcome, there 
has been created a most solid and concrete 
tangible asset. 

The satisfactory position of the central 
station plant in a large center when properly 
managed and financed is thus attained 
largely through the certainty of the integrity 
of the work to be done and being done and 



the permanent character of the investment. 

This of itself is making the electrical se- 
curity of today the best and safest known, 
for the very simple reason that it is created 
out of the necessities of the public, by the 
good-will of the public and has the backing 
and countenance of the public, as forming an 
integral part of their daily well-being and 
one which is acknowledged to be permanent 
— in the vernacular, to stay. 

Having thus established these fundamental 
conditions of tangible assets, real property 
and stability, the value of the securities 
created out of such an undertaking may be 
considered more in detail together witl 
their relation to the securities of the small 
plants. Suppose a large company with out- 
standing capital stock amounting to $25,000,- 
000 has been formed, this capital belonging 
to private owners and such part of the pub- 
lic as has been brought into the undertaking 
by public subscription to the capital stock — 
the chances are that an immediate bond 
issue will be made to pay for the large cen- 
tral station plants and the transmission sys- 
tem necessary to serve and cover the wide 
territory in which the company operates. 
These bonds will be the first issue, then 
unquestionably they will be made a first 
lien on the whole property and title of the 
undertaking. Five per cent is probably the 
fixed rate of interest payable on them and 
they are offered for sale to the public at that 
figure. This interest is absolute and final. 
It must be paid out of earnings after 
current expenses have been met and before 
anything else. 

Then follows the further developing of 
this central station plant or system whereby 
other and smaller plants are acquired. 
Possibly these already have a bonded in- 
debtedness, the bonds of the parent plant 
are therefore further enlarged to acquire 
these smaller properties or for the purpose 
of retiring the outstanding bonds of the 
concerns taken over. In this way it is 
really a case of going on from strength to 
strength if conservative and judicious finan- 
cial methods are observed. But the mere 
fact of a big company guaranteeing the 
securities of a smaller concern, unless they 
are taken in as a direct part of the new se- 
curities created must not in any way inter- 
fere with investors looking closely into the 
value of the issues of the original plants. 
The actual assets of the smaller concerns 
must be ascertained at all times. 



114 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The new bonds of the big company pay 
for the whole property of the little ones 
as far as fixed and outstanding indebtedness 
is concerned — a general issue of the stock 
or shares in the parent company takes care 
of the ownership in the same way, usually by 
exchange of existing stock certificates for 
certificates of shares of stock in the new 
company. The new general bonds of the 
big company are not only a charge on the 
small plants even where there are outstand- 
ing bonds on the small plants, but they act 
as a direct lien on the whole property. Thus 
the interest on them must be paid before 
anything else except the interest on the 
original bonds of the small companies left 
outstanding. These have the right of prior 
mortgages as to the property out of which they 
have been created, and they also have the 
further guarantee of the securities of the 
parent or holding company. 

The large company usually makes ar- 
rangement to take up the bonds of the smal- 
ler plants and substitute therefor from 
time to time, issues on the property as a 
whole. Thus holders of securities based on 
concerns which have been absorbed are 
protected at every stage of the development. 
And this concentration of small plants in a 
large central station system is now recog- 
nized as an economic necessity. 

There is the old axiom that the greater 
the demand the greater the production, and 
the greater the production the lower the 
cost; for where things are produced in great 
quantity they are able to be made and sold 
at much smaller cost. In no product is 
this more true than with electricity. The 
very essence of its cheap production lies 
in its production in quantity on a large 
scale, in a large central station plant. And 
in the case of the production of electricity, 
this is carried to a still further and still 
more logical conclusion by the selling and 



distributing of the current in bulk, that is 
wholesale and at a wholesale price to the 
very large manufacturing concerns and 
street railway and other such companies, 
which in the ordinary course might otherwise 
have their own big stations and supply their 
own power. 

It is the absolute necessity for ultimate 
consolidation, a condition well recognized by 
the general public, that brings about the 
great financial transactions and absorptions 
to which allusion has been made. When a 
great central station system with a capital, 
say, of $30,000,000 and bonded indebted- 
ness of perhaps $25,000,000 decides on a 
further increase of its capital stock, it is 
quite safe to assume that it is filling its 
destiny in the community which it serves 
and is making great and profitable strides 
in the way of development and growth. It 
secures more cash to provide for the needs of 
the very near future and therefore those 
who have the good judgment and sense to 
invest in the securities of such a concern are 
certain, ultimately, of larger dividends on 
their shares of stock, not to mention owner- 
ship in a property always enhancing in 
value year by year. And should a bond 
issue for equipment and further additions 
be decided on in the case of a company not 
overburdened with such fixed charges, then, 
too, the buyer of these bonds is getting an 
ever increasing security for his five per cent 
income and one that may be described as 
gilt edged. There is nothing like the secur- 
ities of a company whose business consists 
in supplying something needed and used by 
the public in daily life, and that is why the 
issues of well managed and carefully financed 
public service corporations are always 
eagerly taken up by the well posted and 
are prime favorites with successful bond 
houses. 

(To be continued.) 




POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Hi 



Getting Out an "Extra" 

Getting out an "Extra" in any big news- 
paper plant depends a great deal upon 
electricity. It is electricity that makes it 
possible for you to read all about the base- 
ball game in the base-ball extras right after 
the game ends. If it were not for electri- 
city shortening every step in modern news- 



through the telegraph instrument near him, 
typewriting it as it is clicked off by the in- 
strument. A copy reader sits at the table 
with him and corrects the "copy" as it 
comes from the typewriter and he in turn 
passes the "copy" along to the linotype 
operator seated at the linotype machine 
which runs by electricity. The linotype 
operator casts the story into metal, line by 




THE EMERGENCY CORNER IN A NEWSPAPER COMPOSING ROOM 



paper publication, the quick extras telling 
you all about the accident almost as soon 
as it happens would not be on the streets 
until many, many minutes after. All modern 
newspapers are depending upon electricity 
for their power. The big triple-deck presses 
are run by electric current, and clear through 
the plant to the telegraph department elec- 
tricity controls the situation. 

Here is a scene in the "composing room" 
of a big afternoon newspaper when the 
forces are concentrated into the "emergency 
corner" getting out a "hot" news story for 
an extra. The telegraph operator seated 
at the table in the left hand corner depends 
upon electricity to carry the news to him 



line, which is assembled in the "form" by 
the four men who are at work just beyond 
the linotype operator. These men are the 
"composers" and make up the page in metal 
in duplicate of the printed page. 

As soon as the story is "all in," the metal 
form is locked and sent hurrying to the stereo- 
typers who, with their electrically controlled 
and heated machines are able to reduce their 
time to seconds instead of minutes. 

In less than two minutes the big plates 
are cast and are being locked into the 
presses and in another minute the current 
of electricity is turned on and the presses 
are stacking up the extras faster than any- 
one has ever been able to count them. 



116 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Arc Light Bath 

It is a well known fact among 
physicians that the blue, violet 
and ultra violet rays of light 
have decided curative properties 
when applied to the surface of 
the body. The illustration shows 
a bath cabinet built with the 
idea of providing a means of 
giving such treatments. At the 
left is an arc lamp so enclosed 
and situated as to throw its 
rays through the glass front of 
the cabinet and upon the body 
of the patient within. The 
color of the rays are controlled by a glass 
slide holder on the front of the lamp in 
which glasses of different colors may be 
placed in changing the treatment to meet 
the requirements of individual patients. 




ARC LIGHT BATH 



The interior of the cabinet is white and 
at each corner, as shown, is placed an arc 
lamp and reflecter. Rows of incandescent 
lamps are also arranged in the interior of 
the cabinet. 



How to Calculate Illumination 



How to go about locating and finding 
how many and what candle-power lamps 
to provide to light any given room is a 
problem usually given over to the illuminat- 
ting engineer. 

A booklet "How to Figure Illumination," 
to be had for the asking by any one in- 
terested, has just been published by the 
Sunbeam Incandescent Lamp Company, 
Chicago and New York. The Western 
Electric Company of Chicago also sends 
out copies. 

The table oppositeis based on data obtained 
from experience. In order to use this table 
intelligently we should know the meaning 
of two or three terms. In England and 
America the sperm candle is the -standard 
for measuring candle-power, and the light 
which this will give at any point one foot 
away is called a foot candle. If a standard 
sixteen candle-power incandescent lamp be 
suspended vertically, the light which it will 
give at a point one foot away from the lamp 
and in a horizontal plane passing through 
the filament will be sixteen foot candles. 
Since the intensity of light varies inversely 
as the square of the distance, at a point two 
feet away four foot candles will be given, 
and at a distance of four feet from the lamp 
one foot candle of light would be the in- 
tensity, thus the unit "foot candle" is de- 
rived. 



Foot Candles Constant 

Required Dark Light 

Bookkeeping 3 to 5 4 5 

Corridor, Halls 5 to 4 5 

Depots, Assembly Halls 

and Churches 75 to 1.5 4 5 

Drafting Rooms 5 to 10 4 5 

Desk Lighting 2 to 5 4 5 

Factory, fgeneral, where 4 5 

individual drops are 

used 2 to 3 4 5 

Factory 4. to 5 4 5 

Hotel Halls 1 to 1.5 4 5 

Hotel Rooms 2 to 3 4 5 

Offices (waiting rooms) 1.25 to 2.5 4 5 

Offices (private) 2. to 3 4 5 

Offices (general) 3 to 4 4 5 

Offices (where desk lights 

are used) 1.5 to 2.5 4 5 

Reading 1 to 3 4 5 

Residence 1 to 3 4 5 

Stores (light goods) ... 2 to 3.5 4 5 

Stores (dry goods) .... 4 to 6 4 5 

Stores (clothing) 4 to 7 4 5 

Store Windows 5 to 20 4 5 

School Rooms 2 to 3 45 

Rooms to be lighted are classified as dark 
or light according to walls and furnishings, 
and in each case the table provides a con- 
stant to use in figuring, this constant rep- 
resenting the average foot candle intensity 
produced by one watt per square foot, 
using the tungsten filament lamp. 

The formula below used with the table 
is based on the light given by the tungsten 
filament Mazda lamp, which is rated at 1^ 
watts per candle-power. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



117 



No. of sq. ft. in room x foot candles required 



Wattage required 



Constant 

Assuming a dark school room 40 by 50 
feet to be lighted, substitution from the 
table gives: 
2000x3 
= 1500 watts required at i| watts 

4 
per candle power, or a total of 1200 candle 
power. The type and number of lamps 
may now be easily found, remembering that 
a large number of small lights give better 
distribution than a few large ones. 



wooden cover resting on felt he enters by 
the ladder. All around him the walls are 
coated with asphaltum which keeps out 
dampness, but in addition to this, just back 
of the asphaltum are air channels in a 
bituminous fibre structure, these dead air 
chambers affording an insulation against 
heat and cold. 



Magnet Coils as Heaters 



Protecting Signaling Batteries 

How batteries may be protected on rail- 
road, fire and other alarm systems is shown 
in the accompanying illustration of the 




SIGNAL BATTERY VAULT OF CONCRETE 



Potter-Winslow concrete battery vault. The 
battery man enters the vault by first lifting 
a heavy cast iron cover which has below it 
an air chamber. After lifting a second 



The so-called "Lifting Magnets" as now 
used in large steel plants and foundries for 
loading and unloading pig iron or scrap, 
usually have the magnet coils surrounded 
by a massive steel casing which protects 
the coils from injury. On some makes the 
coils are impregnated with a high insulation 
compound before they are slipped into the 
casing. In others, the core and 
windings are first inserted into 
the case and this is then filled 
with the insulating compound 
which is forced in while hot and 
which cools into a solid mass 
that both increases the insulation 
and keeps out all moisture. 

The one great drawback to 
such a solid filling lies in its 
binding the magnet tightly in the 
casing so that it cannot be with- 
drawn for repairs. If the de- 
vice never needed overhauling, 
that would not matter, but an 
apparatus that is used around 
railway cars where it can acci- 
dentally be jammed between 
two cars, may in time need at- 
tention. When this happens, the 
repair man does not try to pry 
the magnet out, for he might 
damage the insulation on some 
of the coil windings in doing 
so. He simply connects the ter- 
minals of the magnet coils to a 
convenient circuit and turns on 
enough current to overheat the 
windings. Thus the magnet 
coils become heaters, melting the 
insulating wax or compound so 
that it can be poured off. Inci- 
dentally, this method shows how 
well such lifting magnets are 
able to stand Excessive heat, for no manu- 
facturer would deliberately instruct his repair 
crew to overload any device unless he knew 
that the insulation was perfect. 



118 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Ice Handling by Electricity 



Plant Growth and Electricity 



In an artificial ice-making plant, large 
heavy blocks of ice have to be lifted from 
the freezing tanks or cans and removed to 
other parts of the plant. The accompany- 
ing illustration shows an electrically driven 
crane carrying a cake of ice 20 feet wide 
and 12 feet high. The supporting rods, 



The farmer must depend for his crops 
upon the warm weather, right amount of 
moisture, and good soil. By throwing a 
switch it is possible that in the future elec- 
tricity may be a means of growing plants 
in a shorter time even, than under normal 
conditions. 




ELECTRIC CRANE CARRYING ICE SHEET 



which can be seen, are frozen into the ice 
while in the cans, the latter being just 
visible at the openings in the floor. The 
transportation of such a weight of ice 
to cutting tables or to shipping platforms 
by hand labor would increase considerably 
the cost of production. 



Holding Court by Telephone 



The fact that contageous diseases cannot 
be transmitted over the telephone wires 
enabled Judge F. E. Bowser of Warsaw, 
Indiana, to try a case at home while quar- 
antined because his children had scarlet 
fever. The Judge heard the evidence by 
telephone and imposed a fine and a 60-day 
sentence upon a young man for stealing. 



Metal plates have been placed in the soil 
and charged wdth current by connecting to 
wires. Beets with which the ground was 
planted yielded two and one-half times as 
much sugar from one acre as where elec- 
tricity was not used. 

A galvanized iron wire network charged 
with from 70,000 to 100,000 volts from an 
induction coil and dynamo has been experi- 
mented with. This network, supported on 
posts, about eighteen feet above the ground, 
is said to increase the yield per acre by one- 
third, through the effect of the static dis- 
charges from the wires to the plants. This 
effect may be easily felt when walking under 
the wires as a prickling sensation similar 
to that felt when walking under a rapidly 
moving belt charged with "static". 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



119 



Electric Diving Sign 

Following the popularity of the moving- 
picture show, electric sign men are using 
the idea of motion to attract attention. 

The illustration shows a sign erected at 
Euclid Beach, a lakeside resort of Cleveland. 
The "act" is as follows: The girl first 
appears on the platform, poised for a dive. 
She then disappears for a few seconds, and 
is next seen just as she enters the water, 




ELECTRIC DIVING SIGN 

which splashes and ripples as she disappears. 
The following legend then appears in letters 
of light: " Come in, the water's fine. " 

A motor driven sign flasher throws rapidly 
on and off the lights of one position after 
another and then the invitation which with- 
out doubt attracts many a bather. 



Automobile Battery Exchange 

The best way to light an automobile is 
a question which according to Motor Age 
requires some thought at the present time. 

The generator built either .on the plan of 
a dynamo or a magneto adds a good deal 
to the mechanism of the car besides making 
it cost more. One novel solution offered is 
that of using small storage batteries based 
on some sort of an exchange system similar to 
that employed by lighting companies in 
providing new lamps to their customers, the 
old ones being received in part or full pay- 
ment for the new. If such a plan could be 
arranged the annoyance and trouble of 
waiting for a battery to charge would be 
done away with. 



Collapsible Signs 

Those who enjoy an occasional bit of 
word play — and who among us does not? — 
will appreciate the wording on the two views 
of a "knock- 



down" electric 

sign. It consists 

of a triangular 

base to which 

both the lamp 

and the flasher 

are fastened, a 

front with the 

removable glass 

sign, a pair of 

folding metal sides 

and a triangular 

top. The parts ^ 

hook into each 

other so that they 

can be assembled 

without the use 

of tools. When separated, they are easily 

transported as a whole dozen of them would 

hardly take up more room than a single 

pair of similar but non-collapsible signs. 




COLLAPSIBLE SIGN 



Bare Wires of Unseen Metal 

It is possible to have exposed wires with- 
out an insulating covering and yet not have 
the metal itself visible. That may sound 
like a paradox, yet it is practically true in 
the case of aluminum wires of which over 
half a million dollars worth were recently 
ordered by a single company for its trans- 
mission lines. For while aluminum does 
not seem to be tarnish able, it really becomes 
coated with a thin film of an oxide of alumi- 
num on continued exposure to the air. 
This coating closely resembles the metal 
itself in color, so that what we commonly 
see is a coat of oxide of aluminum .and net 
the metal itself. It is probably this oxide 
which makes it so difficult to solder alumi- 
num, so that wires of this material have to 
be actually fused to the contact terminals. 



Resistance 



For a given length and weight aluminum 
has the least electrical resistance and mer- 
cury has the greatest. For a given length 
and cross-section annealed silver has the 
least resistance and bismuth the greatest. 



Some Odd Electric Lamps 




Above are some of the many shapes in which miniature incandescent lamps are made 
for battery, surgical, dental and decorative purposes: (i) Large dental, (2) gun night 
sight, (3) grain of wheat, (4) scarf pin, (5) range finder, (6) round, (7) candle, (8) tubular, 
(9) Flat end round, (10) round 1 c. p., (11) round, (12) surgical, (13) Fisk instrument, (14) 
candelabra, (15) series and multiple candelabra, (16) series candelabra, (17), (18), (19) 
candelabra, series and multiple, (20) festoon, (21) torpedo. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



121 



The Newspaper Cause 

The current that leaves the motor of the 
street car and seeks to make its way back 
to the powerhouse along the track, often 
comes to a place in the rails where it is 
much easier traveling to jump off the rail 
to adjoining moist soil and then to a nearby 
water or gas pipe. All is well until this 
current leaves the pipe for some better path, 
when it takes with it bits of the pipe, finally 
producing a leak. This destruction of the 
pipe is called electrolysis. 

As is too often the case a newspaper re- 
porter not versed in things electrical having 
to tell the readers of his paper why a certain 
telephone line was to be changed from an 
overhead to an underground line did the 
best he could by asking the lineman about 
it, and was jokingly told that there was trouble 
on the overhead wires caused by the " electric 
currents known as electrolis." The next 
morning the newspaper account read: 

" The electric currents, known as electrolis, 
in the air have become so strong that it is 
impossible to run a wire more than fifty 
miles without grounding, even at ten miles 
the currents gathered from the air will 
almost tear their arms from the sockets and 
they have frequently been against it where 
at ten miles the current was strong enough 
to burn off a wire or furnish power for a 
low resistance electric bulb." 

This is somewhat in line with a recent 
newspaper report of the cause of a fire, 
reading: 

"As no other cause could be found, it is 
probable that the fire was started by crossed 
electric wires." 



Telephone in the School Room 

The telephone is still further extending 
its already wide use as a convenience and 
time saver by being of service in the schools. 
Any one associated with central or even 
ward schools will know of the numerous 
things that require the attention of an asso- 
ciate teacher or the principal. 

What are called "interphone systems" 
are now made, consisting of a wall transmit- 
ter and receiver in each room, and a main 
station small enough to be placed on one 
side of the principal's desk with a few 
batteries on the floor. Labeled push but- 
tons designate the circuits to the rooms. 
When one of these is pushed the bell rings 



in the room called, and talking may begin 
by merely taking the receiver off the hook. 
At the main station any room may also be 
connected to any other. 



Para Rubber 



This picture shows half a "biscuit" of 
pure Para rubber, just as it was received 
from South America. There are many dif- 
ferent kinds and grades of rubber, but the 
best rubber comes from the country around 
the upper part of the Amazon River and is 
generally referred to as Up-River Para. 







A BISCUIT OF PARA RUBBER 

For use in compounds for insulated wires 
and cables, as described by the Hazard 
Manufacturing Company of Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa., the biscuit is ground between rollers 
covered with small teeth while a stream of 
water is played on it. This breaks up the 
rubber and takes out the dirt which has 
accumulated during the process of curing. 

The ground rubber is then thoroughly 
dried and put through a further curing pro- 
cess when it is ready to be mixed with other 
ingredients. This mixing is done by tak- 
ing the various ingredients and the rubber 
and rolling them between two smooth 
rollers. This compound is folded on itself 
and run through the rollers many times until 
it is thoroughly mixed. 

The compound is now in a plastic state 
and ready to be put on the wire. Next 
comes the vulcanizing or hardening which 
is the finishing process. The compound is 
then ready for covering the wires. 



122 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Lightning and the Ancients 



The study of atmospheric electricity, as 
noted by Killingworth Hedges in his book 
"Modern Lightning Conductors," dates 
from very early times. It is doubtful 
whether the supposition that the art of pro- 




Museum where the bronze is now placed. 
The picture herewith, selected from Phil- 
bert de l'Orme's work dated 1560, entitled 
L'Instruction, shows that architects at that 
period had to contend with thunderstorms. 
De l'Orme was the architect" of the Tuileries 
and died in 1570. 

It is generally supposed that 
Divisch, a learned priest, erec- 
ted the first lightning conduc- 
tor in Europe at Prendiz, Bohe- 
mia, in 1754; the rod was said 
to have been 130 feet high, and 
although he was patronized by 
the Emperor and Empress 
Stephen and Maria Theresa, it 
had to be taken down a year 
later, as it was said to have 
occasioned a terrible drought. 
It is not likely that Franklin 
had heard of Divisch. 



Exhibit Hall for Accident 
Prevention 



THE BAD ARCHITECT 

tection from lightning was known to the 
Egyptians but the Greeks and Romans 
are reported to have drawn fire from the 
sky. And Tullus. Hostilius is said to 
have perished in a sacred experiment of 
this kind. Cicero, in his. ode against 
Catiline, drew attention to the bad omen to 
Rome that was caused by the gilded figure 
of Romulus being destroyed by lightning. 
The same stroke mentioned by Virgil, 
/Eneid VIII, burnt the hind legs of the well- 
known bronze Capitoline Wolf, probably by 
a side flash. The damage can still be seen 
by the tourist who visits the Capitoline 



An exhibit hall for devices 
to prevent accidents has just 
been engaged in the Engineer- 
ing Societies' Building, by the 
American Museum of Safety. 
This will constitute a permanent 
exhibition, free to the public, 
of safeguarded machines in 
operation, models, charts and 
photographs. 

No exhibit will be displayed 
that has not been approved by 
the Board of Approval of Ex- 
hibits. There will be no charge 
for space, but a plan of each 
installation must be submitted 
in advance to the Director of 
the Museum. Each exhibit will 
be accepted as a loan for one year, then to 
be replaced by others if substantial im- 
provements have been made. The Museum 
assumes no responsibility for any damage 
by fire, or loss by theft, and exhibitors 
showing non-patented devices or processes, 
do so at their own risk. 

The Board of Approval consists of Pro- 
fessor F. R. Hutton, Philip T. Dodge, 
Charles Kirchhoff, T. C. Martin, and W. 
H. Tolman. 

All makers and inventors of safety de- 
vices, in the threefold aspect of safety for 
the worker, the public and the machine, 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



123 



are invited to exhibit. All applications for 
space should be sent to the Director, at the 
Museum, 29 West 39th street, New York 
City. 

The Eskimo and the Telephone 



Cutting Lamp Filaments on a Planer 



Prof. D. B. McMillan, of the Peary North 
Pole expedition, relates an amusing story 
regarding the efforts of an Eskimo to con- 
struct a telephone line. 

The Eskimo came into possession of apiece 
of wire of considerable length and never 
having seen wire before he asked Professor 
McMillan what it was and what it was for. 
He was told that the white man strung it 
on poles stuck in the ground and by talking 




to an instrument at one end the voice could 
he heard at the other end. After some 
search the next morning, the Eskimo was 
found to be engaged in telephone con- 
struction work of his own. He stuck some 
sticks in the ground and hung his wire on 
them. He held one end of the wire to his 
mouth and talked to it at the top of his 
voice. Then he ran as fast as he could to 
the other end and held the wire to his ear 
with the expectation of hearing his own 
words repeated. 

When he failed to hear any sounds the ex- 
pression on his face revealed his opinion 
of his white friend. 



Before baking or "carbonizing" the almost 
threadlike part which forms the filament 
in the ordinary incandescent lamp, this has 
to be cut or otherwise trimmed to the re- 
quired slender shape. Can this be done 
by cutting the material on an ordinary 
machine shop planer? Our machinist read- 
ers will probably smile at the seemingly rash 
suggestion, yet this is neither a wild specula- 
tion nor a mere laboratory possibility, for 
it has been a commercial success. Indeed 
there was one season within the memory 
of most of our readers when all the filaments 
used by two of the smaller lamp factories in 
this country were made by this process in a 
little shop hardly a block away from the 
recently outgrown headquarters of Popular 
Electricity. And thereby hangs this bit of 
history: 

When the Thomson-Houston Electric Co., 
which is one of the constituents of the Gen- 
eral Electric Co., first introduced its dynamos 
on the Continent, its European representa- 
tive was instructed to study the incandescent 
lamp situation there so as to see what Euro- 
pean make of lamp could wisely be offered 
in connection with their apparatus. That 
was over twenty years ago, long before the 
methods of making the present high effi- 
ciency filaments had been evolved, and yet 
there were already a variety of lamps on the 
European market for which the filaments 
were roughed out in different ways. Some 
makers started with threads or fibres of 
bamboo, wool or cotton; others stamped 
the shape out of a thin cardboard or celluloid 
sheet. But the man whose filaments at 
that time were reported as showing the best 
test records did none of these in the lamp 
factory which he, though himself a Russian, 
was operating at Rotterdam in Holland. 
Being an able chemist, he had worked out 
a mixture which could easily be carbonized 
into a hard, fairly tough and uniform prod- 
uct. Carefully mixing the ingredients in 
the right proportions into a solution, he 
poured a thin layer of the liquid mixture 
into a shallow pan with a heavy bottom which 
had been planed perfectly level. Then he 
let it stand until the more volatile parts of 
the, mixture evaporated, leaving in the pan 
a thin coat of jelly which gradually hardened 
to the consistency of a stiff glue. Then be- 
fore it reached the brittle stage, he would 
clamp the pan on an ordinary metal working 



124 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



planer and with a fine tool would cut the 
thin mass into narrow strips about as wide 
as they were thick. The stroke of the planer 
was adjusted so that the cutting tool would 
not quite reach either end of the pan, but 
would leave a connecting strip across the 
end of all the strips, which was cut off after 
the strips were tied on the carbonizing 
block. 

By this seemingly crude method he 
secured filament strips or threads that 
were unusually uniform and homogeneous 
throughout their length, having no hard 
spots or knotty places such as were frequently 
found in filament threads or fibres prepared 
by other methods. Moreover he avoided 
the patents covering these other processes 
of filament making. 

Of course his filament threads shrank 
considerably in size while being carbonized 
in this manner, so that the actual cutting 
was to a much larger section than that of 
the finished filament. Many years later, 
the same uniformity of structure in fila- 
ments, together with still higher efficiency, 
was obtained by other methods. But that 
is another story. 

Lamp Flasher 

Here is a simple scheme for making a 
lamp flasher or "winker" for advertising 
purposes, etc. The lamp can be made to 
burn for about five to 10 seconds and remain 
dark the same length of time. 

Take a small glass tube four inches long 
and J inch in diameter open at both ends 
and place a plug of sealing wax in the lower 
end through which is passed the end of a 
piece of No. 40 S. C. C. copper magnet wire. 
The remainder of the wire, about 20 feet 
in all, is wound in a single layer on the 
tube and finally carried down to binding 
post (A). 

The tube is nearly filled with mercury, 
carrying on its surface a float of sealing wax. 
Through the float is passed a small piece 
of an old lamp filament, the hooked portion 
at the top being the platinum leading-in 
wire. A twisted strip of metal is fastened 
to the upright support so that the hook just 
touches its outer end. You can make a. 
little adjusting screw to regulate the posi- 
tion if you desire. This metal strip is 
attached to binding post B. From one side 
of the source of current a wire connects to the 
amo and post (A). From the other wire 



of the source connection is made to the 
post (B). 

In operation, current flows through the 
lamp, around the coil of wire on the tube, 
up through the mercury and hook to the 
spring and then back to binding post (B) 
and out. 

In passing around the fine wire coil the 
current heats the latter and causes the mercury 
to expand, raise the float and break tbe cir- 
cuit at the contact of the wire hook and 




SIMPLE LAMP FLASHER 

metal strip. The tube then cools down, the 
float falls with the mercury and the circuit 
is closed again. This keeps up indefinitely 
and causes the lamp to wink with pleasing 
regularity. 



Using Sawdust Electrically 



Every now and then the daily papers 
bring in an item about some one who is trying 
to utilize the sawdust which accumulates 
all too rapidly at some sawmills and 
woodworking establishments. Meanwhile 
some of our electric furnace pioneers have 
quietly gone ahead and have already been 
using sawdust for years as one of the in- 
gredients for making that exceedingly hard 
grinding material, carborundum. To pro- 
duce this, a heavy current is passed through 
a core of coke surrounded by a mixture of 
carbon, sand, salt and sawdust. Which 
again goes to show what marvelous results 
can be obtained from the most commonplace 
ingredients when the magic of the electric 
current is available. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



125 



What Weight Can a Dry Battery Lift? 



Storage batteries have many uses where 
the relation of their weight to their normal 
output in electrical energy is quite important. 
For instance, any vehicles propelled by stor- 
age batteries must carry the dead weight of 
these batteries, and the less this weight is 
in proportion to their output, the less energy 
will be spent in moving the batteries them- 




EXPERIMENT WITH A DRY BATTERY 

selves. The last two decades have shown 
decided decreases in the weights of such bat- 
teries, but how about the so-called dry bat- 
teries? What improvement has there been 
in the dry cells most of which have carbon 
and zinc elements with a pasty sal-am- 
moniac solution? 

Some years ago one experimenter found 
that with a carefully proportioned electro- 
magnet he could get a single dry cell to hut 
almost its own volume of iron. Has this 
record been surpassed, so that we can now 
get a dry battery with a lifting power fully 
equal to its bulk in iron? It is so easy to 
modify the contents of so-called dry cells 
by pouring in different solutions, that many 
of our readers have undoubtedly tried it. 
Now who can show the best record with 
such a battery for holding up its own volume 
of iron, and for how long a time? 



Displaying Lamp Shades 

The customer who is buying globes or 
shades always likes to see the effect on the 
shade with the light inside. 

The accompanying illustration shows how 
one fixture house does this. A table is 




LAMP DISPLAY TABLE 

fitted with three lamp sockets already wired. 
Into these sockets may be screwed any size 
or type of lamp the customer contemplates 
using. Then the shade is set over the lamp 
and the switch snapped on. In this way 
several shades may be tried out at once 
and the effects compared. 



Telephone Coil Carrier 



A writer in Telephony describes a con- 
trivance for carrying induction and ringer 
coils so as not to have them injured by tools 
in the bag. Take a piece of 2 x 4 inch pine 




TELEPHONE COIL CARRIER 

of any desired length and, by using an ex- 
pansion bit, drill holes just the size of each 
coil, so as to prevent rattling around. An 
additional coil may be carried by drilling 
a hole in the end of the block and plugging 
with a cork. A strip secured by two screws 
serves as a cover. 



126 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Lifting Magnet Recovers Cargoes 

Giant lifting magnets made by the Cutler- 
Hammer Clutch Company of Milwaukee are 
being employed to recover steel cargoes from 
barges that have sunk in the Mississippi 
River. The first experiment was made 
recently near New Orleans, where a barge 
load of kegged nails was raised successfully. 



The magnet was brought from Milwaukee 
by express and the Carnegie Steel Company 
promptly dispatched C. S. Proudfoot, an 
expert electrician, from their Homestead 
Steel Works to install the magnet and over- 
see its workings. 

The work of recovering ' the cargo was 
then taken over by the American Steel and 
Wire Company, another subsidiary of the 




RECOVERING A CARGO OF NAIL KEGS WITH A LIFTING MAGNET 



The barge, which sank on Feb. 9 had 
been towed from Pittsburg to New Orleans 
laden with 1500 tons of wire nails in kegs, 
steel barrel hoops, staples and barbed wire. 
It broke loose from the tug when landing, 
struck the wharf and sank within thirty 
feet of the docks at Lafayette Street in 
fifty-five feet of water. Almost instantly, 
however, as was developed by divers, the 
barge began slipping into deeper water. 

Even the manufacturers of magnets were 
sceptical as to their efficiency for this pur- 
pose, as a magnet had never been used for 
such purposes under water. But this New 
Orleans loss was a good chance to make a 
trial. 



Steel Corporation, which owned the larger 
portion of the sunken material. It, through 
L. H. Korndorff , division freight agent, con- 
cluded a contract with C. W. Wood of New 
Orleans, who with an associated firm of 
divers, has recovered the steel and thoroughly 
demonstrated the success of the magnet. 

The largest haul made with this magnet, 
consisted of five kegs of nails weighing 100 
pounds each; one bundle of hoops weighing 
seventy-nine pounds; one bundle of fence 
wire weighing 155 pounds; thus aggregating 
somewhat over 700 pounds. When the 
magnet was working in a well-supplied part 
of the barge an average haul was about four 
kegs of nails. A particularly attractive 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



127 



feature of the work was the appearance of 
a bunch of nails in the exact shape of the 
keg stuck to the magnet. In being pulled 
up the keg had been broken off, and stick- 
ing to the magnet these nails held in the 
shape of the keg. 

In order to drop the load immediately 
when desired, because the effect of the 
magnetism on the nails had a tendency to 
make them stick even after the current was 
turned off, the current in the magnet was 
reversed. 



Across the Atlantic with a Thimble 
Battery 



In no other respect is the contrast between 
wireless and submarine telegraphy more 
striking than in the amount of electrical 
energy required for transmitting messages 
over the same distance. Being so con- 
structed as to send out the waves in almost 
all directions besides the particular one for 
which the message is intended, an ordinary 
wireless outfit must imply a tremendous 
waste of energy as compared with the ocean 
cable in which the current is all concentrated 
in one delicate receiving mechanism. So 
delicate is the latter that messages have 
been sent not only across the Atlantic but 
for double the length of the oldest Atlantic 
cable with the current from a silver thimble 
battery. 

This is what the famous electrical en- 
gineer of the Atlantic Telegraph Com- 
pany, the late Latimer Clark, described 
briefly in a letter dated at Valentia in Sep- 
tember, 1866: "With a single galvanic 
cell composed of a few drops of acid in a 
silver thimble and a fragment of zinc weigh- 
ing a grain or two, conversation may easily, 
though slowly, be carried on through one 
of the cables or through the two joined 
together at Newfoundland to form a loop. 
And, although in the latter case the spark, 
twice traversing the breadth of the Atlantic, 
had to pass through 3700 miles of cable, its 
effects at the receiving end are visible in 
the galvanometer in a little more than a 
second after contact is made with the bat- 
tery. The deflections are not of a dubious 
character, but full and long, the spot of light 
freely traversing a space of 12 to 18 inches 
on the scale; and it is manifest that a battery 
many times smaller would suffice to pro- 
duce similar effects." 



Of course every forward step towards 
concentrating or directioning the wireless 
waves will reduce the energy required for 
transmitting messages by the same, but we 
evidently have a long way to advance before 
our wireless methods can be at all compared 
in efficiency with the submarine telegraph 
of even 45 years ago. 



Curing the Sleeping Sickness 



Not being satisfied with the slow rate at 
which drugs act upon the so-called "sleep- 
ing sickness" so common in Africa, a young 
mine owner who contracted the disease in 
Rhodesia is also being treated by a re- 
frigeration method in the tropical hospital 
at Liverpool. The method used requires 
him to spend a number of hours daily in a 
room kept at a uniform temperature some- 
•what below the freezing point. How was 
this to be obtained independent of the 
weather? 

The answer was soon found: simply 
by installing a small refrigerating plant 
run by the ever convenient electric motor. 

At last reports the patient had in- 
creased the time during which he could 
stay awake in the cooled room from two to 
about six hours and was suffering much less 
from the usual pains in the joints. Thus 
another method seems to be added to the 
many ways in which electricity is vanquish- 
ing ailments that have long baffled the medi- 
cal profession. 



Electrocuted Eggs 



The peculiar taste of a cold storage egg 
is something not easy to mistake. It is 
possible that this taste may be removed if 
the experiments now being made by the 
Rochester Railway and Light Company are 
successful. It is claimed that when fresh 
eggs are placed in cold storage the eggs are 
alive, and that they are slowly frozen to 
death and in spite of the preservative qual- 
ities of the ice the eggs do not taste good 
when cooked. 

It is now believed that by " electrocuting" 
the eggs the natural fresh taste may be 
retained and not removed when the eggs 
are placed in cold storage. The eggs are 
"killed" by placing a metal cap on each 
end of the egg and then throwing on a 
pressure of 500 volts. 



128 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Indoor Lighting from Outdoor Lamps Making Battery Porous Cups 



Is it practical to do indoor lighting with 
outdoor lamps? The suggestion sounds 
almost like a paradox and yet is not that 
what we universally do in the daytime when 
we get our indoor illumination from the out- 
door sun ? Were we not spoiled by the ad- 
vances made in 
artificial lighting 
by means of 
lamps placed in 
all sorts of indoor 
locations, the idea 
of leaving the 
lamps out of 
doors might not 
seem so prepos- 
terous. 

It is unusual, 
to be sure, and 
yet there are oc- 
casions where this 
is not only prac- 
tical but advis- 
able. One of 
these was found 
some years ago in 
connection with a 
powder magazine 
located on the 
outskirts of an 
Iowa town, where 
the only avail- 
able current was 
that of a direct 
current arc circuit. 

An incandescent circuit might safely have 
been carried right into the structure, and an 
alternating current might have been trans- 
formed to a suitably low voltage for this 
purpose, but to bring the high voltage arc 
circuit into the powder magazine seemed 
risky. So the lamps were hung out of doors 
close to thick glass windows, but instead of 
the usual glass globe each was fitted with a 
reflector which threw the light inside. 




CONSTRUCTED TO THROW 
LIGHT THROUGH A 
WINDOW 



Navigating in Lake Ice 



The high power electric search lights with 
which vessels on the Great Lakes are now 
equipped prove most useful in the early 
spring nights when the water is covered with 
a partially broken ice field. By means of 
the light, openings are located, thus often 
saving many hours of delay. 



The porous cup of a battery is a familiar 
object to electricians but only now and then 
will you find any one able to tell you 
how it is made. The first porous cups to 
hold the carbon of a battery were used by 
Leclanche in France. The materials, which 
must be pulverized and mixed to make the 
cup, are feldspar, eight parts; ball clay, six 
parts; kaolin, nine parts; quartz, two parts. 
The last gives the mixture strength. Kaolin 
is a china clay imported from England, and 
feldspar is a mineral common in Vermont. 
The whole mass in pulverized form is mixed 
while water is poured upon it until thin, 
about like common paint. In this shape 
it is run through a fine screen into a tank 
having a floor of tiling through which heat 
from a coal fire at one end passes, boiling 
the liquid for about 25 or 30 hours. By 
this time the water is about all evaporated. 
Pieces of the cooled mixture are placed in 
cups or moulds of plaster Paris. A disk is 
then forced down into the cup pressing the 
clay into shape along the sides. After the 
clay in the plaster Paris cups is partially 
dry, the formed cups are taken out and 
placed in clay boxes which hold several, 
and moved in this way into a drying kiln, 
where after twenty hours of burning at a 
temperature of about i8oo°F. the cups are 
taken out, cooled and packed for ship- 
ment. 



All in Thirty Years 



Mr. Samuel Insull, president of the Com- 
monwealth Edison Company of Chicago, 
in a recent address before the Electrical 
Trades Association gave some interesting 
statistics concerning electrical development 
in this country. There are in the United 
States, he says, 5,500,000 telephones in use, 
representing $550,000,000 capital, or about 
$100 for every telephone. There are in this 
country 40,247 miles of electric railways 
using 89,216 cars and capitalized at $4,557,- 
000,000. There are 6,000 central stations, 
costing $1,250,000,000, earning $250,000,- 
000 a year and developing 2,500,000 horse- 
power. In all about $6,000,000,000, Insull 
says, is invested in the electrical business 
in the United States. This is equal to about 
$75 for every man, woman and child in 
the country — and all in 30 years. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



129 



Telling Temperature in Bins of Grain 

Grain stored in one large bin will often 
heat. A good many dollars would be saved 
if the temperature down in the grain could 
be known at any time. This has been made 
possible by the Zeleny thermometer. About 
ninety years ago it was found that two 
metals, such as bismuth and antimony, if 
heated while in contact would generate an 




APPARATUS FOR TESTING GRAIN TEMPERATURE 



electromotive force and this principle, that 
of the thermo-electric pile, is used in this 
device. 

In the illustration one wire of nickel- 
copper is run in a conduit for protection down 
into a bin represented at the left At 
various points taps are taken off with 
copper wire. An ordinary galvanometer 
and scale is placed on the wall near 
a contact board on which the wires 
terminate. When the lever is in the 
position shown, all the circuits are open 
and the scale (S) is moved so that on look- 
ing through the telescope the scale is shown, 
by reflection from the little mirror in the 
galvanometer. Then the lever is moved over 
to point (i), for instance, this places the gal- 
vanometer in circuit with one of the thermo- 
electric junctions down in the bin. A 
slight current will then flow through the 
galvanometer due to the heating of the 
junction and will deflect the galvanometer 
mirror so that the scale as you look through 
the telescope will appear to move over. 
The distance which it moves indicates the 
temperature of the junction, as the scale 
is calibrated to read in temperatures. 



Demagnetizing Watches 

Very often an electrician or an engineer 
or even a visitor to an electric light plant 
discovers after a few days that his watch is 
losing a half hour a day, or more, from be- 
coming magnetized by the dynamos. In 
the newer stations where the most modern 
machines are used there is not so much danger 
from these "stray" magnetic fields as there 
is around older types of ma- 
chines. 

The apparatus used by 
jewelers for correcting this 
trouble consists of an ellipti- 
cal piece of soft iron with a 
hole in the center large 
enough to permit the watch 
to be inserted. Over the iron 
are wound a number of lay- 
ers of fine insulated wire 
Alternating current is sent 
through the wire and if there 
is none handy an additional 
device known as a polarity 
changer must be used with 
direct current. 

With very little trouble and 
no expense anyone may de- 
magnetize his own watch by 
a simpler method. Take a heavy thread 
or a light string about two feet long and tie 
the ring of the watch to it. Hold the string 
by one end and turn the watch around until 
the string is twisted about fifty turns. Allow 
the string to unwind and as the watch re- 
volves pass it slowly back and forth about 
two inches above the fields of a motor or 
dynamo, not smaller than a quarter horse 
power, while the machine is running. Great 
care must be taken to keep the watch re- 
volving constantly while it is over the 
motor. 



Sharpening Files 



One of the tools often of service to the 
worker in the electrical line is a file. A 
very satisfactory though odd way to sharpen 
these tools is to clean them of all grease and 
suspend them from a metal plate in a bath 
of three parts of sulphuric acid, six parts of 
nitric acid and ioo parts of water. In the 
bath are also immersed several carbons con- 
nected to the metal plate. The file cavities 
only are eaten deeper so that the edges are 
made as sharp as if worked by a file cutter. 



130 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Submarine Telegraph Cable 



Electric Steels as Money Savers 



This sketch of a telegraph cable, which is 
one-half the actual size, gives some idea of 
the care taken in the building of such 
cables. Jute, which forms some part of 
the insulation, is made from the fibre of 
an East Indian plant. The twenty-three 
No. 4 wires serve for mechanical protection 
and strength. When we consider that this 

■25Pa/r>s, A/a f4 Bands < Coppep&fpe 
Spec/a/ fnsu fating Paper* 

t/eauy Paper* 

% fnch Lead. 
Soft Jute Si Tar> Compound 




23 A/o.4- Ga/c/anized 
Steel Urines 



Tar/sted Jutej/apn 
Si Compound 



SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLE 

cable is made in mile lengths weighing 
twenty-six tons, it is surprising to know 
that the soft jute, the No. 4 wires and 
the twisted jute yarn are all put on at 
the same time. One test given this cable 
was that of applying 2000 volts electrical 
pressure between each current carrying 
copper wire of the core and all the others, 
and between all the conductors and the 
ground. 



Heating Pad as an Incubator 



As at present planned and conducted, 
electric smelting furnaces do not promise to 
reduce the general cost of steel. What they 
are doing, and will continue to do at an in- 
creasing rate, is this: they will produce a 
uniform product of much higher grades of 
steel at only slight advances in cost over 
the ordinary grades. Such high strength 
steels can be made and indeed have already 
been made by non-electric processes, but 
the electric furnace simplifies their manu- 
facture and makes it much easier to obtain 
a uniform product. Then while the result 
may seem considerably higher in price per 
pound than ordinary grades of steel, it will 
prove cheaper for the same service wherever 
both strength and the cost of transportation 
are important items. 

Thus, suppose you needed some steel 
wire strand to stand a steady pull of a 
thousand pounds. For quantity orders, 
you would find on the Chicago market four 
grades of galvanized steel strand on which 
the breaking strains and the costs per 100 
feet (at this writing) are as follows: 

Common Steel 1-2 inch 85001b. 

Siemens-Martin.-. 7-16 inch 9000 lb. 

High Strength 5-16 inch 8100 lb. 

Extra High Strength. . 9-32 inch 109001b. 

The last of these would weigh only a 
third as much as the first, hence for distant 
points the saving in freight would more than 
offset the difference in cost. Besides, the 
fittings used with it can all be smaller and 
the labor of installing it would undoubtedly 
be less. Wherever transportation is an 
important factor, the higher grade steels 
can easily mean a saving and the electric fur- 
nace will speed their economical production. 



1.77 
1.62 
1.62 



An interesting experiment in the use of 
electricity to hatch eggs was recently made 
by the Cleveland Electric Illuminating 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio, the apparatus 
being placed in its display window. 

The " incubator" was very simple, con- 
sisting of an ordinary electric heating pad 
upon which were placed one dozen eggs, 
a small dish of water and a thermometer. 
A large glass dome was used to cover the 
"nest." In twenty-one days and a few 
hours eight little chicks were running around 
in a pen previously provided, and hundreds 
of people stopped at the window long enough 
to look and exclaim, "What do you think 
of that!" . 



The Telephone's Alertness 

With the great strides in things scientific 
and their application to every day life, we 
become blind to some of the really man- elous 
properties of devices with which we are ap- 
parently familiar. Consider the small bar 
magnet, the little coil of wire, and the disk 
iron hi the telephone. The delicacy of 
this little instrument is well shown by 
Preece who calculates that an audible sound 
is produced in the receiver by a current cf 
.000,000,000,000,6 ampere, while Pellet finds 
that a sound is produced by a difference of 
potential between the terminals of the re- 
ceiver of 1-2000 of a volt. 



ELECTRIC CURRENT ATWORK 

NEW DEVICES FOR. APPLYING ELECTRICITY 



E 



vwMJU\nFJ\i\rw\i\rjwx.njww\i\Tvu^ 



Cutting Metals by Electric Arc 

The use of the storage battery to run 
motors and supply current for lights is 
common, but to apply its energy, as was 
recently done with success, to cutting up 
sheets of metal where great heat is needed 
is quite unusual. 

On the fourteenth floor of the Auditorium 
Building, Chicago, were some large wrought 
iron tanks 24 feet in circumference and 12 
feet high. These tanks were a part of the 




MAKING THE FIRST CUT ON THE TANK 

hydraulic elevator system for which steam 
was substituted. The tanks occupied so 
much space that it was decided to remove 



them. To dissemble them by removing 
rivets, would have caused too much noise, 
and also would have left the sections in too 
large pieces to go through the door of the 
passenger elevator. 




FINISHING THE CUT FROM THE INSIDE 

It was finally decided to cut each tank into 
ten sections by using a carbon point electrode. 
This point was connected by a heavy copper 
cable to one terminal of a 40-cell, 150 am- 
pere-hour, Jewell storage battery, of the 
Haschke type, so named after the inventor; 
the other terminal of the battery, which was 
temporarily removed from an automobile 
for the purpose, was connected to the tank 
itself. Then, when the carbon point was 
held to the iron of the tank, a fierce arc was 
formed which cut through the metal like 
a hot knife through wax. 

The resistance of the circuit being very 
low the battery discharged at an enormous 
rate, 500 to 700 amperes, almost, in fact as 
if there had been a dead short circuit. 



132 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The arc was so extremely bright that it 
was necessary for the operator to wear 
colored glasses to keep from being blinded. 
One of the illustrations shows the first cut 
being made from the outside. A hole was 
bored straight through thk f-inch wrought 
iron shell in four and one-half seconds. 
The second illustration shows the work 
being continued from the inside. Alto- 
gether, 465 running feet of cut was made in 
this way. 

This method has also been used to cut 
I-beams in buildings where alterations were 
to be made and to open safes where the only 
one knowing the combination had died 
suddenly. 



Electric Crane to Carry Locomotives 



One of the most thrilling sights to the 
visitor in a locomotive works is to see the 
electric crane come spinning down the ways, 
pause for a moment over a giant locomotive 
weighing perhaps a hundred tons, lower 
away the grappling hooks and chains, lay 
hold of the monster and raise it as if it were 
a billet of wood, and hurry off with it to 
some other part of the shop. 

The illustration is a view in the shops of 
the Southern Pacific Railway in Bakers- 




SAFE DOOR PUNCTURED BY ELECTRIC ARC 

field, Cal. The crane is of the Whiting type, 
with a capacity of 120 tons. In this case 
it is working in the boiler shop, but it would 
be capable of lifting the completed locomo- 
tive just as easily as it does the boilers. 

The span of the crane is 57 feet 4% inches, 
with a lift of 23 feet 7 inches. It is driven 
by two 60 horse power motors. 




ELECTRIC CRANE CARRYING LOCOMOTIVE BOILER 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



133 



Portable Power Elevator 



Piling heavy bales and boxes in ware- 
houses requires hard manual labor, espe- 
cially where the ceilings are high, and it 
is not an unusual thing to find stock roughly 
handled or poorly piled. The Economy 
electric tiering machine consists of a plat- 
form raised and lowered along metal posts 




PORTABLE POWER ELEVATOR 

by a motor. The machine on wheels is 
pulled along to the place needed and stock 
is placed on the table and lifted to the top 
of the pile, 2000 pounds being a load. A 
heavy cable and plug connect the motor 
to the power circuit. The machine in the 
picture is being used to pile large bales of 
waste paper. 



The Storing of Electric Heat 

In the April, 19 10, issue of Popular 
Electricity brief mention was made of 
the device of G. G. Bell, a London engineer, 
to store up the energy of electric current so 
that it might be available for use at any 
time. By its use it would be possible for 
the electric 'power companies to furnish 




FIG. I. BELLS HEAT STORING DEVICE 

current to residence consumers on a more 
economical basis, owing to the fact that the 
current could be supplied at a constant rate 
during the 24 hours or else, if desired, at 
low load periods of the day. As it is now, 
the householder is likely to demand current 
at the very busiest part of the day and ag- 
gravate that troublesome factor known as 
the "peak load." Thus the central sta- 
tion must charge the consumer a little 
more for current to make up for this " readi- 
ness to serve" feature of its service. You 
say you do not exactly understand why this 
is. Well suppose you and one thousand 
other householders begin using your electric 
cooking apparatus at six o'clock on a winter's 
day. This is the time when lights are going 
full blast all over the^city, the central station 
machinery is taxed to its utmost at that 
time. In order to get you and your neigh- 
bors for customers the company had to in- 
stall more machinery in order to be ready 
to serve you when everyone else was being 
served. It could have taken care of you 
nicely without additional expense if it could 



134 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



have known that you would not take any 
current during the peak load. 

It is just here that the advantage of a 
heat storing device would lie and Mr. Bell's 
invention, of which we are now able to show 
some illustrations, contemplates such a sys- 
tem, Fig. i being an external view. 

It will be noted by the drawing, Fig. 2, 
that the apparatus consists of a central 







•'.N 



^y^gyf 



'.:'/•'.'.": Magnesia.;; 



Water 
Tank 



Case 




FIG. 2. 



SECTIONAL VIEW OF HEAT STORING 
DEVICE 



block of iron with a coil of pipe cast within 
and an electric heating unit located in an 
opening in the center. The cast iron block 
is embedded in a covering of magnesia two 
inches in thickness, a water reservoir being 
located between the latter insulating cover- 
ing and the outside shell or casing of the 
device. The water is passed through the 
coil of pipe in the cast iron block absorbing 
the heat from the latter when hot water is 
desired for domestic uses. The block of 
iron absorbs the heat from the electric cur- 
rent which is flowing continuously in the 
heater elements. 

If a consumer desires to use the electric 
current for other purposes than producing 
hot water for cooking, etc., he can switch 
on his electric light or a motor in the ordi- 



nary manner, and, by means of a simple ar- 
rangement, a proportionate amount of elec- 
tric current would be automatically cut out 
of the electric heater retaining the total load 
at 200 watts, say, if adjusted for that amount. 
Thus the consumer may use 200 watts con- 
tinuously throughout the day instead of, 
say, nothing for several hours in the day and 
then five or six hundred watts for short 
periods at other times in the day, in the 
latter case very probably, when every one 
lse on the system is using a large amount 
also. 



Electricity Produces Mountain Air 



Nature constantly vitalizes out-door air 
oy sunshine, winds, rain, snow and electrical 
discharges. The peculiarly fresh, invigora- 
ting, pure, sweet and wholesome air after a 
thunderstorm is due to the ozone produced 
by the electrical discharges. 

Ozone, from the scientific standpoint, is 
considered as an alotropic form of oxygen, 
"condensed oxygen" if you please. The 
ordinary form of oxygen contains two atoms 




OZONE GENERATOR 

to the molecule. The chemist represents it 
by the symbol O2. Ozone, on the other 
hand, which is made out of oxygen by elec- 
trical processes, contains three atoms to the 
molecule, O3. Ozone molecules, however, 
are very unstable. They want to get back 
to the oxygen form as soon as possible, and 
that third atom of oxygen in the ozone mole- 
cule, which feels it doesn't belong there, is 
on the lookout to combine with something 
else. Sometimes it combines with another 
restless atom in another ozone molecule, or 
else it seizes upon and oxidizes (burns) the 
carbon of which bacteria are known to be 
largely composed. 

Knowing these things the scientist said: 
"Ozone must be a powerful germicide." 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



135 



And sure enough experiment proved that it 
was. Then inventors set about devising 
ways to produce ozone for this specific pur- 
pose and one of the results is an electrical 
machine known as the Ozone Pure Airifier 
which is made by the Ozone Pure Airifier 
Company, 307 Rand-McNally Building, 
Chicago. 

The small generator here illustrated, 
which is only 11 by 8 by 8 inches, when at- 
tached to an electric light socket, furnishes 
a sufficient supply of ozone properly to 
ozonize a bedroom or sick room, practi- 




cally insuring the occupants of the room a 
refreshing night's sleep; in fact, no better 
condition of ozonized air can be procured 
at the seashore, pine woods, in Colorado or 
at the Adirondack mountains. 

It practically imitates the action of a 
thunderstorm on the outside, right in the 
bedroom, home, office, store or factory, at 
an expense of only a fraction of a cent per 
hour. The revitalizing . principle of the 
ozone makes it a preventative as well as 
a corrective of such conditions as hay-fever, 
asthma, catarrh, insomnia, nervousness, 
tuberculosis, fevers, etc. 

While the small size or bedroom ma- 
chine, only, is illustrated, the generator is 
made in various capacities up to that re- 
quired for the very largest buildings. 



A Ton at a Time or One 



A TON AT A TIME 
OR ONE 



Nothing could show much more forcibly 
than this illustration the difference between 
old methods and new. 
Pig iron is pretty 
heavy stuff and it 
takes a lot of tedious, 
back-aching labor to 
unload a car of it in 
the old way, by hand. 
The modern method 
is by the use of the 
electro-magnet attached 
to a crane, which will 
pick up a ton of the 
heavy pieces as easily 
as a man could one. 

It is said that the or- 
dinary cost of handling 
a ton of pig iron by 
hand labor is from five 
to eight cents, depend- 
ing upon the "carry." 
The lifting magnet will 
do the work for half 
a cent per ton and isn't 
half as apt to go on a 
strike. 

When current is 
turned on the magnet 
literally grabs a mouth- 
ful of the iron chunks. 
The instant the cur- 
rent is switched off the 
magnetism departs 
and the magnet drops 
its load. 



136 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Simplicity the Keynote 

One hears on all sides these days of the 
wonderful strides that have been taken in 
the application of electricity as a means of 
power distribution and of the immense 
business the large electrical factories have 
developed in supplying the demand for 
motors. One glance at the two accompany- 
ing cuts will show a potent reason for this 
development more vividly than reams of 
written matter. 

The views are in the " picker" room of a 
modern cotton mill. The upper view shows 
the old method, transmitting the power by 
many belts and shafts; while the lower one 
shows the new way with a five-horsepower 
motor on each machine. Is it any wonder 



the mills and factories are discarding the 
old for the new ? 



Testing a Cable 



The man with the fishpole in the picture op- 
posite is locating trouble in a lead-covered 
telephone cable. It may be a ground or a 
short circuit, but just where the fault is the 
telephone receiver which the trouble man 
is holding to his ear, will tell by its be- 
havior. 

The outfit consists of a high frequency 
vibrator and battery located at the office or 
at some point on the line where the wires 
in trouble can be reached. The terminals 
of this vibrator are connected to the wires 
to be tested, which must have no current 
on them at the time except that supplied by 
the vibrator and dry cells. On the upper 
end of the fish pole carried by the man who 
goes out along the line is a coil of wire called 
a detector which is connected to the tele- 
phone receiver which he holds at his ear by 
a pair of wires down the pole, this part of 
the outfit working on the principle of the 
secondary of a transformer. As the trouble 
man follows the cable along closely with the 
coil carried by the pole the receiver con- 




PICKER ROOM IN A COTTON MILL BEFORE AND AFTER MOTOR DRIVE 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



137 



tinues to "howl" like the electric auto-horn, 
from the effect of the current, which flows 
from the vibrator along one wire in the 
cable, across the short circuit and back to 
the vibrator. 

When the coil carried by the pole passes 
the short circuit it, of course, then leaves 
behind the two wires in which the vibrator 




CABLE TESTER AND METHOD OF OPERA- 
TION 

current is flowing, and consequently the re- 
ceiver becomes quiet. The tester is thus 
able to tell within a few inches where the 
trouble in the cable lies. 

In testing for grounds in conduits or cables 
one side of the vibrator is connected directly 
to the conduit or to the cable sheath in which 
the trouble exists and the other side to the 



faulty wire. By placing the detector coil 
close to the conduit or sheath and parallel 
to it the tone can be heard, but not loud, 
except at the outlets, where it is very distinct. 



An Electric Pyrometer's Record 

Here is a piece of the "tell-tale" marking 
which is continuously done by an electric 
recording pyrometer. In this case the re- 
cording instrument was in the superinten- 




ELECTRIC PYROMETER 

dent's office, quite a distance from the fur- 
nace to which it was electrically connected. 
This furnace was intended to be kept at an 
even temperature of i44o°F. and the attendant 




PYROMETER RECORD 

did well from midnight until nearly three 
o'clock. Then he seems to have dozed off, 
for the chart shows a decided drop in the 
temperature, followed by some excess over 
the normal. It is such variations that often 
spoil the whole charge and a visual record 



138 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



of this kind not only forms a check on a 
negligent attendant but also gives due credit 
to the watchful one. 



Electrical Anesthesia 



For minor operations, the nerves may be 
made insensible to pain by subjecting them 
to a mild but intermittent, direct current 
— not an alternating current which con- 



Electric Welding Saves Heat 



Compared with the various non-electric 
methods of welding or brazing metals, the 
electric welding process shows a wonderful 
saving in the amount of heat needed, since 
it concentrates the heat right on the spot 
where it is required. All blowpipe or torch 
methods scatter a large share of the available 
heat while incidentally applying some at the 




PERFORMING AN OPERATION UNDER ELECTRICAL ANESTHESIA 



tinually reverses its direction, but a current 
flowing steadily in the same direction and 
interrupted at regular intervals. The action 
is claimed to be strongest with about a 
hundred interruptions of the current per 
second and with the current left on for about 
a tenth of each period, that is for one 
thousandth of a second after each inter- 
ruption. 

In the apparatus as illustrated, the current 
interrupter consists of a small motor driving 
a split ring on which the contacts are ad- 
justable as to their distance and therefore 
as to the length of each current pulsation. 
Adjustable resistances allow the current to 
be varied, its strength being indicated by 
the milliammeter shown just to the left of 
the current interrupter. The strength of 
current needed varies both with the indi- 
vidual and with the extent of the nerve ex- 
posure that is to be deadened. Generally 
two milliamperes (.002 amperes) are suf- 
ficient for producing a concentrated local 
anesthesia. The terminals are applied to 
the nerve which is to be rendered numb, 
the positive electrode being usually ap- 
plied to the corresponding spinal nerve 
center. 



right point, but not so with the electric weld- 
ing process. In many kinds of work the 
man operating the welder can even hold 
the metal pieces right in his hands while 




OPERATING AN ELECTRIC WELDER 

he uses a foot lever to turn the current on 
and off. Of course the metal parts will 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



139 



conduct the heat to his hands if he holds 
them long enough, but before this happens 
he is through with the weld and has passed 
it to a cooling rack. 

Incidentally the greater coolness makes a 
big difference in the rate at which the opera- 
tor can work as compared with the chemical 
or flame methods which waste so much of 
their heat on the adjacent metal parts and 
on the air of the room. This is particularly 
true in summer when the man who welds 
by electricity can profit by the zephyrs from 
an electric fan which would be barred in the 
other cases as the draft might interfere with 
the directing of the flame. 



Before Porcelain Insulation 



Electric Gate Opener 



Besides using electric door openers, much 
as we do in our modern apartment houses 
or even in ordinary flat buildings, our 
British cousins have adapted the same to 
the unlatching of garden gates. These 
gates are often at quite a distance from the 
house, so that it would take too much cur- 
rent to have the battery itself operate the 




ELECTRIC GATE OPENER 

latch. To save the battery power, the locks 
are arranged so that the magnet merely 
moves a pawl or catch, whereupon a strong 
spring moves the latch itself. The screw 
eye shown in the cut is screwed into the 
jamb of the gate so that closing the gate 
pulls the chain taut and rewinds the spring. 
Of course the lock itself is weatherproof and 
the wire is either carried under the walk 
or run inconspicuously along the garden 
wall to the house. 



While porcelain was used in the shape of 
knobs for supporting wires even on the 
earliest electric light installations, the art 
of making porcelain in difficult shapes with 
any uniformity in size had not yet been 
learned by the porcelain makers. The one 
material that at that time could be easily 
worked into any desired shape and that gave 
some insulation, was wood and this was 
promptly utilized on the pioneer work 




EARLY WOOD FIXTURES 

throughout the country. Indeed, instead of 
being confined to crude and homemade 
products for which its use was quite ex- 
cusable, it formed the insulating parts of 
devices made by the tens of thousands in 
nicely finished forms. Thus Keyless Wall 
Sockets (corresponding to what we now 
call receptacles) were made with a short 
wooden shell which was screwed on the base 
part and covered the binding screws to 
which the wires were attached. Ceiling 
rosettes were also made of wood, sometimes 
with metal clips for the wire terminals right 
on them so that the wires could be connected 
to the lamp cord at the rosette. 

The sight of these wooden devices with 
the bare wires right on the inflammable wood 
may make the modern inspector shudder, 
for it meant a steady risk of fire and indeed 
was responsible for many of the fires that 
were actually traceable to electric wiring. 
By the time this serious objection to the use 
of wood as an insulation was clearly proven, 
the porcelain makers had begun to duplicate 
one after another of the wooden shapes in 
a safer material, so that wood played the 
part of both a makeshift and an educator. 
Today wooden sockets or rosettes such as 
we are picturing would be hard to find even 
in towns that have gone backward, but the 
cuts will interest those who like to trace the 
influences that helped in the early stages of 
electric lighting 



140 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




A LONG ROW OF METAL CYLINDERS, DRIVEN BY MOTORS, FINISH THE PAPER 



Paper Making with Electric Power Electric Driving Increases Output 



Many changes in the making of paper 
have taken place since the ancient Moors over 
in Spain first manufactured it from cotton. 
The people across the Mediterranean 
changed the method a little by using rags 
because cotton could not be easily obtained, 
and today although we use rags, too, we 
also grind up wood and run the machines 
by electricity. 

White pine or poplar wood is cut into slabs 
and ground on heavy millstones, then con- 
veyed to tanks where acid and live steam 
reduce it to pulp. Next it is washed, 
screened, worked on by the "beaters," 
mixed with resin, clay and the required 
coloring matter to make the paper desired, 
after which it goes to the wet end of the paper 
machine to be now transferred to the dry- 
ing rolls shown in the illustration. These 
rolls and in fact all of the machines of the 
United Box and Paper Company near 
Lockport, N. Y., are operated by electric 
motors. The long row of metal cylinders 
are heated by steam and gradually dry 
out the paper as it passes from one set to 
the next until finally it emerges finished and 
is wound into rolls for facility of ship- 
ment. 



Actual tests recently made in a cotton 
mill in which electric motors at each loom 
had been substituted for the old rope drive 
showed these results: In all thirty of the 
looms the speed had been increased a little 
over nine per cent, but owing to the freedom 
from the jerking which comes occasionally 
with all belt or rope drives (as when the joint 
passes the pulley of the machine) the in- 
creased speed did not add to the breakage 
of threads. This higher speed in itself 
would increase the output a little over 9 
per cent and the ability to start and stop each 
loom more quickly than before without 
snapping the threads showed a still greater, 
increase in the working capacity per day. 
With the 30 looms tested it was found that 
with the old method of driving them the un- 
productive time (that is, the time during 
which the looms were standing still) plus 
the time consumed in starting- and stopping 
them was 40 per cent of the total working 
hours. The adoption of electric motors as 
individual drivers for each loom reduced 
this to 26.4 per cent. The power consumed 
by the same looms was 4! per cent less than 
before and the output was increased by 15 to 
20 per cent for different classes of work. 



POPYLAR ELECTRICITY 



141 



The Latest Taxicab 



The type of automobile shown in the pho- 
tograph is an electric taxicab which has been 
undergoing exhaustive tests in the taxi 
service of Boston. So far the experiment 
has proved a marked success and it is more 
than probable that Boston will be one of 
the first cities in the United States to have 
electric cab service. 

The taxicab company of Boston after 
considerable investigation picked out a 
type as shown in the picture to suit their 
specifications and decided to test it. This 
was done by giving it the same service as 
the ordinary taxicabs were and comparing 
the results. So far the test has been an 
entire success. The cars are charged at 
night, and while good for 75 to 100 miles on 
a single charge, they are rarely run over 
50 miles a day, so that charging once a day 
is ample. They have required less repairs 
than the gasoline cars and the "mechanical 




ELECTRIC TAXICAB 

care necessary for keeping them in running 
order is greatly reduced," to quote the words 
of the man in charge of the tests. 

Altogether it is probable that the Boston 
company will gradually replace their ma- 
chines with electric taxicabs. 



Getting the Time in Races 



If five or six men with stop watches try 
to get the exact time of a horse race or auto- 
mobile race, it has been found 
that they will vary as to the 
time taken, an average being 
the only way to decide the 
matter. 

After the automobile races 
at Indianapolis last August, 
where various methods were 
tried out, Mr. C. H. Warner, 
Beloit, Wis., set to work to 
devise some better way to 




record time, the results being shown in the 
picture. This instrument is called a horo- 
graph. It consists of a small 
enclosed motor at the left, on 
the shaft of which are four 
wheels containing type which 
at the proper time print upon 
the strip of paper just above, 
and over which runs a type- 
writer ribbon. The first 
wheel indicates hours, the 
next minutes, the third sec- 
onds and the fourth hun- 



THE WARNER TIME RECORDER AND ITS INVENTOR 



142 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



dredths of a second. Between the rib- 
bon wheels are shown a pair of magnets 
which operate the four little hammers that 
crowd the strip of paper against the type 
wheels. When in use the motor is started, 
while the electrically connected clock on the 
right by proper clutches keeps the wheels 
under the paper in position to record the 
hour, minute and second. A wire across the 
track is connected to a trap which is operated 
by the shock of the automobile hitting the 
wire (not by the strain on the wire) so as 
to close the contact in the magnet circuit. 
This causes the magnets to throw down the 
four little hammers, thus printing the time, 
opposite which is written the name of 
the car. A similar operation records the 
finish. 



as shown. The principle is applied with 
equal advantage to various forms of cano- 
pies, bracket lights, etc. 



Candelabra Switch 



The accompanying " phantom" view shows 
the arrangement of the Cutler-Hammer 

candelabr a 
switch designed 
for controlling 
electric candela- 
bra lamps. At 
the bottom is 
seen a porcelain 
body, held in the 
candelabra base 
by prongs, which 
contains the 
switching m e- 
chanism. Pres- 
sure on the little 
push bar shown 
at the side of 
this porcelain 
element turns 
the lamp on. 
Pressure on the 
other end of the 
bar, which pro- 
j e c t s on the 
other side of the 
porcelain, turns 
the lamp off. 
The lamp itself 
is carried on a 
socket stem 
which projects 
up through the 
candle-shaped 
•phantom" view of A body, the wires 
candelabra switch being connected 




Stone and Marble Cutter 



Drilling, cutting and carving of marble 
and stone has heretofore been done by 





pneumatic tools, 
but now electric 
power is largely 
used to do this 
work. 

The illustration 
shows a motor for 
this purpose sus- 
pended from the 
ceiling by means 
of pulleys and a 
counterweight. The 
flexible shaft with 
the tool attached 
hangs within easy 
reach of the work- 
man and the height 
canbe easily varied. 
In a shop equipped 
with pneumatic 
drills and cutters 
a large tank of 
compressed air 
STONE and MARBLE must be kept sup- 
CUTTER plied from a com- 

presser even when 
only one or a few tools are being used, while 
with an electric tool the pendant switch 
hanging alongside the shaft allows the motor 
to be stopped when the tool is not in use. 
Foster & Hosier, Chicago, who make this de- 
vice, state that 5400 blows a minute may 
be struck and that the vibration so common 
in pneumatic tools is greatly reduced. 



Electrical Men of the Times 



H. M. BYLLESBY 



Many men find their hands full in directing 
one public-service utility, but Henry Marison 
Byllesby, whose portrait appears on this 
page, is connected in various responsible 
capacities with no less than thirty-one 
public-utility corporations widely scattered 
throughout the United States. Nearly all of 
these enterprises are large and important, 
and of course Mr. Bylessby does not im- 
mediately supervise the many details in- 
volved in the opera- 
tion of these proper- 
ties. He does the work 
through an engineer- 
ing organization in 
Chicago which he has 
built up, and which, 
in the character of 
men engaged in it, 
in high-class, clear- 
headed work, in esprit 
de corps and effective- 
ness per human unit, 
and in size, is quite 
an unusual aggrega- 
tion of men working 
toward a commonend. 

Mr. Byllesby is a 
clergyman's son and 
was born in Pittsburg 
51 years ago. He was 
educated at the Wes- 
tern University of 
Pennsylvania and at Lehigh University, 
being in the class of 1878 at the latter insti- 
tution and taking the course in mechanical 
engineering. From 1881 until 1885 he was on 
the engineering staff of the old Edison Elec- 
tric Light Company of New York. He is one 
of the group of early associates of Mr. Edison 
who are now directing large affairs. He 
made the drawings for the historic Pearl 
Street electric light station in New York 
city and installed plants and electrical works 
in Canada. During this period also he had 
charge of the notable electric-lighting dis- 
plays at the Louisville, St. Louis and New 
Orleans expositions. These were perhaps 




the largest intallations made up to that time. 
From 1885 until 1890 Mr. Byllesby was 
first vice-president and general manager of 
the Westinghouse Electric Company and 
managing director of the Westinghouse 
Electric Company, Ltd., of London, Eng- 
land. When he went with these companies 
the alternating-current electric system was 
little more than a laboratory experiment. 
Within ten months he had equipped the shops 
in Pittsburg and was 
turning out a full line 
of alternating-current 
apparatus. Next Mr. 
Byllesby turned his at- 
tention to the operating 
field, and early in 189 1 
he became president 
of the Northwest 
General Electric 
Company of St. Paul 
— a central station 
organization. He es- 
tablished the present 
business of H. H. Byl- 
lesby & Company in 
Chicago in 1902. 

The career of Mr. 
Byllesby has been an 
exceptional one; he is 
an all-around electri- 
cal man. Not only 
is he an engineer, 
central station operator, a- business admin- 
istrator and a financier, but he is an in- 
ventor as well. Thirty-six patents re- 
lating to electrical apparatus have been 
issued to him. 

In 1882 Mr. Byllesby was married to 
Margaret Stearns Baldwin, daughter of 
H. B. Baldwin of the New Jersey Central 
Railroad. His residence is in Chicago, 
with a summer home, " Arrowglade, " at 
Lake Geneva, one of the most beau- 
tiful lake resorts in Wisconsin. He is a 
member of many technical societies and 
also president of the Chicago Civic 
Federation. 



ELECTRICITY IN THE 
HOUSEHOLD 




Speaking of Wash Day 



Perhaps you may think you cannot afford 
to buy an electric washing outfit. If you 
are good at figures, however, you may easily 
prove to yourself that the seemingly rather 



large first cost is really an investment which 
pays good dividends. Take a pencil and 
paper and calculate how much the weekly 
wash costs you in a year, figuring in the 




THE ELECTRIC LAUNDRY COMPLETE 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



145 




WORKING THE MANGLE 

wages of the woman who conies in on Mon- 
day and Tuesday to do the washing and 
ironing, or add up the laundry bills for a 
year, if you have all the work done in that 
way. Take into consideration also the 
annoyance of having the help fail you at 
the critical time, the natural depression of 
"Blue Monday," and all the other things 
which have come to make "washday" the 
bugbear of the housewife for so many gen- 
erations. 

Now balance up against these things the 
cost of an electric household laundry out- 
fit and the cost of the current needed, which 
is but a few cents an hour while the machines 
are actually working. The Monday work, 
which with the aid of the electrical apparatus 
becomes insignificant, you are now able to 
perform yourself, thereby saving the wages 
of a laundress. The result of your figuring 
will be all in favor of the electrical method 
and the machines, which will last for years, 
will be found to pay for themselves many 
times over. 

Taking as an example the outfit of the 
American Ironing Machine Company. It 
embodies a motor driven washing machine 
and wringer and an electrically operated 
and electrically heated mangle. One of 
the pictures shows the whole equipment 



as may best 



fitted with overhead drive 
although the machines are 
also made with individual 
motors, which latter are 
perhaps a little more neat 
in appearance. 

Have you ever stopped 
to think what a few cents' 
worth of electric current 
turned into an outfit of 
this kind will do for you ? 
The washing means only 
the work of putting the 
clothes into the machine, 
and then, when they are 
done, of steering them 
through the wringer. The 
ironing consists only of 
handling and folding the 
clothes after they have 
passed through the rolls. 
Washday then becomes 
"wash hour" and ar- 
rangements for the opera- 
tion need not be made 
for any set day in the 
week but for such time 
suit your convenience. 



Electric Traveler's Iron 



Of course, when you have been traveling 
you have at some time been confronted with 
the problem of getting certain articles of 
apparel pressed out into shape to wear 
right away. In a hotel if you ;send these 
things out, even if accompanied by tips 
and many admonitions to hurry them 
through, you are likely to sit and do a lot 
of fidgeting before you see them again. An 
electric flatiron among the things in your 
luggage would then be a welcome friend. 
But perhaps you have neglected to put it 
in because it is a troublesome thing to pack 
and you're afraid it might get to sliding 
around in your trunk and tear things up 
like the old time cannons in a man-o'-war 
when they broke away from their moorings 
and went careening about the decks. 

The American Electric Heater Company 
suggests the idea of furnishing an electric 
iron irt a neat velvet lined leatherette case. 
It is easily packed and at the same time the 
iron is kept away from dirt and moisture 
when not in use. Many women prefer 
to have their regular household irons put 
up in this way. 



At the Chafing Dish Luncheon 



By FLORENCE LATIMER 



Having recently attended a unique little 
luncheon, I am going to tell you about it 
while it is fresh in my mind and because I 
know that for the readers of this depart- 
ment the "magic button" has as much 
charm as for me. 

The hostess had been worrying herself 
almost sick trying to devise some inexpen- 




sive way to entertain a few ladies to whom 
she felt under obligation. I know that 
sounds terrible, for, of course, our friends 
wouldn't want us to feel that way about it, 
but all the same we do have a queer sort of 
feeling about always accepting and never 
entertaining, and that was just the way she 
felt. She was greatly handicapped in the 
beginning by having no maid. But sud- 
denly it dawned upon her that she possessed 
what was infinitely better than any servant 
"an electric chafing dish, percolator and 
toaster." Simultaneously came the thought 
"a chafing dish party." Not the ordinary 
one where spilled alcohol prevails, but an 
electric party. Why not? And then came 
visions of ladies in dainty aprons flitting 



about the dining room helping to prepare 
their own lunch. 

Another thought that beat the other "all 
hollow" was this: — If things aren't good 
I'll never know it, for after preparing them 
they'll declare that they never tasted better, 
and what's better still, they'll really think 
so. Just like a friend of mine who, when she 
was a little girl ate 
a mud pie, just be- 
cause she made it 
and the children 
dared her to. She 
crossed her heart 
and "hoped to die" 
if it wasn't good, 
and do you know, 
to this very day she 
» almost believes it 
M| was good. 
te> So this woman 
lljfelt intuitively that 
an electric chafing 
dish would be her 
salvation. Her invi- 
tations were written 
under her name on 
her regular calling 
cards something like 
this — "Luncheon, 
One o'clock April 
7, iqio — Reply." 
These were fitted to 
tiny envelopes, ad- 
dressed and posted. 

Seven ladies, myself included, accepted 
and were there promptly at one o'clock to 
be welcomed by a smiling hostess, who in- 
vited us into her dainty bedroom and con- 
trary to the prevailing style asked us to 
remove our hats. My but I was glad, for 
I had a splitting headache and, of course, 
forgot and said so. 

"My dear girl," she said, "how does it 
happen that you have a headache?" You 
must know that electricity is a panacea for 
all pain." 

In a moment she brought forth an electric 
vibrator which she quickly adjusted to a 
lamp socket, applied it to my temples and 
then at the back of my head and (whether 



We Were Eager 
to Begin 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



147 



you believe me or not) my head was well in 
five minutes. Think of it. I certainly 
mean to have a vibrator. 

Each of us was provided with the dearest 
little chafing dish apron, made of two 
Japanese napkins — of daff-o-dil design (that 
being the flower she used for decorations, 
etc.). Then we were ushered into the din- 
ing room. 

The table was a round one, and dainty 
doylies took the place of a table cloth, a tall 
vase of daff-o-dils adorned the center and 
two highly polished electric chafing dishes 
(one of them borrowed, of course,) a per- 
colator and a toaster were arranged around 
the table about equal distances apart. 

There was a dish of iced olives and one of 
pickles, besides some dainty peanut-butter 
sandwiches, salt and pepper shakers, forks 
and spoons and all the ingredients with 
which to prepare the following menu: 
Oysters fried, creamed asparagus on toast 
and delicious coffee. 

We laughed and all declared we felt 
as eager to begin as when little girls we 
were allowed to cook "taters" on a brick 
stove in the back yard. 

We chatted as we made good things to 
eat — two ladies to each device — and in a 
few moments everything was ready. Good? 
Well I should say so. No make believe 
about an electric chafing dish. 

We had vanilla ice cream served in tiny, 
new flower pots. On top was a liberal sprink- 
ling of grated chocolate to resemble earth, 
and stuck up in the middle of each flower 
pot was a single daff-o-dil. We certainly 
enjoyed every moment of the time and 
almost before we knew it the afternoon was 
gone. 

We were much interested in all elec- 
trical things, and I have often wondered 
why so few of us, comparatively speaking, 
take advantage of electric current — a power 
that creates neither heat, odor nor dirt. I 
am happy to know, though, that some 
women are making use of its wonderful ad- 
vantage in making housework, if not a real 
pleasure, at least less like the drudgery of 
the past. 

Before the party broke up we all agreed 
to pay a visit in a body to the Electric Shop 
as soon as moving season was over, and 
make a study of all the new types of elec- 
trical cooking utensils that have been de- 
veloped so wonderfully and put upon the 
market of late. 



Connecting Cooking Devices 

There are many women who are very 
cautious about using electric household de- 
vices, and still others who delay buying such 
convenient kitchen appliances as coffee per- 
colators, chafing dishes, bread toasters and 
the like because they have an inexplainable 
feeling that electricity is something to be 
feared. With the present methods of putting 
electric wires, fixtures and sockets in build- 
ings and the care used in constructing house- 




QUICKLY AND SAFELY CONNECTED 

hold devices it is entirely unnecessary to get 
into this state of mind. Even if one were 
to touch the inside of a socket nothing more 
than a sharp tingling sensation would be felt 
and no bodily harm would result. So let 
us get away from the fear of a danger, 
which, after all, is only apparent. Electric 
cooking utensils are provided with means, 
such as the Hubbell attachment plug, for in- 
stance, of connecting them quickly and safely 
to the lamp socket. 



Women Vote for Electricity 



At a recent election in Owosso, Mich., 
where about half the votes were cast by 
women, the proposition to grant a new elec- 
tric light franchise was carried by a large 
majority. Women may not generally view 
the business aspects of franchise grants in 
the same way that men would do, but when 
it comes to any move that will promise them 
more electrical conveniences, you can cou 
on them every time. 



148 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 





Fans and Home Comfort 



What a time you had on cold windy days 
last winter keeping the furnace going so 
that the house would be comfortable. One 
of the Sturtevant ready-to-run ventilating 
fan sets such as is shown at the furnace in 
the illustrations would no doubt have reme- 
died the whole trouble. Placing the fan in 
front of the damper and blowing air into the 
furnace would have roused it up. The 
fan may also be placed in the fresh air duct 
as illustrated in the second picture, thus 
forcing the furnace a little and also fanning 
in some fresh air besides. 

That room which was so hard to keep 
warm when the wind was in a certain di- 
rection might have been made comfortable 
by placing the ventilating fan over the 
register so as to draw the warm air out into 
the room; then again let the fan blow air 
from the warm room into the chilly one. 

The housewife who is shown at work in 
the kitchen is not worrying how she can 
keep the odor of the cooking cabbage and 
other vegetables from the other rooms in 
the house, for the fan is gathering up the 
air and passing it out of the window. On 
Monday she uses the fan in the laundry to 
dry the clothes and to remove the excessively 
moist air while washing. 

In the sick room the ready-to-run fan is 
almost a necessity, giving the needed venti- 
lation at slow speed without draft. 

And, don't forget the boys who drop in 
for a friendly game on a hot summer eve- 
ning. With one of these fans in the window 
you would never know the next morning 
that there had been smoking in the room 
the night before. It all went out of the 
window instead of settling in the curtains 
and rugs. 




JUNIOR SECTION 





An Electrical Laboratory for Twenty-Five 

Dollars 

By DAVID P. MORRISON 



PART VI. 
CONSTRUCTION OF A STORAGE BATTERY 



After you have completed the equipment 
for your laboratory described in the previous 
numbers you will still find yourself badly 
in need of some form of battery that is 
capable of delivering a strong current for 
a considerable time. Such is the secondary 
or storage battery. 

The storage cell, however, must be charged 
from some other source of electrical energy 
by passing a current through the cell for 
several hours in the opposite direction to 
that it would flow in if the cell were supply- 
ing current or discharging. Oftentimes 
storage cells are charged from gravity bat- 
teries by allowing a very small current to 
flow through them for quite a number of 
hours, and the storage cell can then be dis- 
charged at a much greater rate than it would 
be possible to obtain from the gravity battery 
alone. With your transformer and electro- 
lytic rectifier you can charge a storage 
battery direct from an alternating current 
circuit. 

All storage cells might be thought of as 
consisting of three parts, usually, a number 
of lead plates, a solution of sulphuric acid 
into which the plates are placed and a con- 
taining vessel for holding the solution. 
There are three different storage cells de- 
scribed in the following paragraphs, they 
differing more in mechanical construction 
than in any other way, the chemical action 
being practically the same in all of them. 

It might be well at this point to describe 
in a very elementary way just what takes 



place in a storage cell when it is charging 
and discharging. If an electric current is 
passed through a conducting liquid, such 
as sulphuric acid, the liquid will be de- 
composed. This chemical decomposition is 
called electrolysis, and the liquid in which 
electrolysis takes place is called an electro- 
lyte. The current is usually carried into 
and out of the solution by means of large 
plates as the electrolyte has a high resistance. 
These plates are called the electrodes, and 
the one at which the current enters the elec- 
trolyte is called the anode and the electrode 
at which the current leaves the electrolyte 
is called the cathode. The plates in the 
case of a storage cell are usually spoken of 
as grids and the cathode of the cell on dis- 
charge is called the positive grid and the 
anode is called the negative grid. 

The commercial storage cell has a cathode 
of lead peroxide (Pb02), an anode of spongy 
metallic lead, and an electrolyte of dilute 
sulphuric acid. When this cell is discharged 
both the lead peroxide and spongy lead 
are changed into insoluble lead sulphate 
(PbSCH) and when it is again charged by 
forcing a reversed current through the cell 
the lead sulphate is converted back into 
spongy lead and lead peroxide respectively. 
The lead peroxide and spongy lead are 
called the active materials of the cell. 
These active materials are mechanically 
weak, porous, and poor electrical conduc- 
tors, and they are usually supported in 
openings made in large plates of metallic 



150 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



lead. These metallic grids not only serve 
as mechanical supports, but also to conduct 
the current to and from the active material 
which constitutes the real electrode. 

A very simple storage cell may be made 
in the following way: Procure from a 
plumber two pieces of lead pipe. One of 
these pieces should have an internal diameter 
of approximately two inches and be six 
inches long, and the other one should have 
an outside diameter of about one inch and 
be seven inches long. Square off both ends 
of the larger pipe and solder a circular piece 
of lead just inside of one end with a very 
poor quality of solder so as to form a lead 
cup. If you use ordinary solder which con- 
tains a large percentage of tin the cup is 
likely to leak after a short time as the sul- 
phuric acid attacks the tin and "will eat it 
away. This cup is to form the negative 
plate of the cell. A terminal should be pro- 
vided for making your electrical connection. 
Cut from some sheet lead a piece § inch in 
width and about three inches long. Solder 
one end of this piece to the upper end of 
the cup, and a binding post can be attached 
to the other end which will be explained 
later. 

Drill the second piece of lead pipe as 
full of 3-32 inch holes as is possible, except 
for a distance of about f inch from each 
end. Saw six or eight notches in one end 
to a depth of about \ inch, and bend the 
projecting teeth thus formed inward so as 
to close up the end of the pipe. This pipe 
need not be water tight at this point, but 
sufficiently tight to hold a paste that will be 
explained later. This second tube is to 
form the positive terminal of the cell and 
must be supported inside the larger tube in 
such a way that it will not come in contact 
with it. 

Cut from some f inch pine a square piece 
whose edge is equal to the outside diameter 
of the larger pipe. Drill in the center of 
this piece a hole of such a size that the smaller 
lead pipe will fit snugly into it. Saw quite 
a number of slots in the upper end of the 
smaller tube to a depth of § inch. Now 
bend the projecting pieces outward and 
down until they are at right angles to the 
side of the tube. A terminal strip should 
be soldered to the upper end of the smaller 
tube as in the case of the larger tube. You 
should immerse the wooden block in smok- 
ing hot paraffine wax and allow it to remain 
until thoroughly saturated with the wax. 



This will protect the wood from the action 
of the acid. Make sure that you do not get 
any paraffine on the lead tube as it will pre- 
vent the acid coming in contact with it. 

You should now make a box to place your 
cell in to prevent its .being overturned. 
Make the inside dimensions of this box as 
follows: Each side should be equal to the 
outside diameter of the larger pipe, or a 
little greater, and it should have a depth £ 
inch greater than the length of the larger 
pipe. Cut a groove in one of the sides so 
that the piece that was soldered to the out- 
side of the pipe for a terminal will slip into 
it and prevent the pipe from turning around 
inside the box. The base of the box can be 
made considerably larger than the outside 
dimension of the box and this will add greatly 
to the stability of the cell. 

The two terminals of the cell can be at- 
tached to the outside of the containing box 
by means of two screws and back con- 
nected binding posts fastened to their ends 
which will give an easy means of making 
connections to the cell. The containing 
box should be boiled in hot paraffine wax 
until it is thoroughly saturated. The space 
surrounding the tube when it is placed in 
the containing box may be filled with saw- 
dust which will aid in holding the tube in 
place. 

Your cell is now complete except the paste 
in the inner tube. To make this paste pro- 
ceed as follows: Make a weak solution of 
sulphuric acid in an old dish, by pouring 
the acid into the water very slowly. Never 
pour the water into the acid but always pour 
the acid into the water slowly and be very 
careful in handling the acid as it destroys 
everything it may happen to touch. This 
solution should consist of one part acid and 
12 parts water. Procure from a paint shop 
about 1 \ pounds of red lead and mix with 
the sulphuric acid a sufficient amount to fill 
the inner tube. Stir this mixture with a 
stick and make it very stiff. Now ram the 
tube full of this paste to within \\ inches of 
the top. Remove all the paste that may 
have oozed through the holes and put the 
tube aside to dry. 

When the paste is dry place the inner tube 
in place in the wooden block and this block 
should fit into the upper end of the con- 
taining box and rest upon the upper end of 
the larger tube. Fill the larger tube with 
a solution of sulphuric acid to within \ inch 
of the top. This solution should contain 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



i5i 



about 30 parts of acid by weight in 100 parts, 
the acid having a specific gravity of 1.84, or 
it should contain about 33 percent of acid. 
The specific gravity of the resultant solution 
should be about 1.25 which can be deter- 
mined by means of a hydrometer. 

The solution can be poured into the cell 
through the upper end of the inner tube 
after the cell is all assembled. 

This cell can be easily charged with three 
gravity batteries. Connect the three cells 
in series, and the positive terminal of this 
battery must be connected to the inside tube 
and the negative terminal to the outside 
tube of the storage cell. 
The first time the battery 
is charged it should be 
allowed to stand con- 
nected to the gravity bat- 
tery for five or six days. 
Fig. 51 shows a cross 
section through the cell 
just described. The con- 
nections of the gravity 
battery and cell for charging are shown 
in Fig. 52. 

The above cell will give very satisfactory 
results but the capacity no doubt will not be 



The above rate is based on an eight hour 
discharge, meaning that your cell should 
supply about five amperes per squaie foot 
of positive plate for a period of eight hours. 
If this discharge rate is increased the time 
will necessarily be decreased and if the rate 
is decreased the time will be increased. 
The product of the current times the time a 
cell will supply that current is its ampere- 
hour capacity. This ampere-hour capacity 
is usually given for the eight hour rate. It 
is impossible to get as many ampere hours 
out of a storage cell at a high rate of dis- 
charge as you can at a lower rate of dis- 

SIZE OF PLATES 6x6 INCHES 



Number of 


Discharge in 


Discharge in 


Discharge in 


Normal 


Plates 


Amps, for 


Amps, for 


Amps, for 


Charge 




8 hrs 


5 hrs 


3 hrs 


Rate 


3 


2-5 


3-5 


5 


2-5 


5 


5 


7 


10 


5 


7 


7-5 


10.5 


i5 


7-5 


9 


10 


14 


20 


10 


11 


12.5 


17.5 


25 


12.5 


13 


i5 


21 


30 


15 




charge. You can never get as many ampere 
hours out of your battery as you put into it, 
no matter what the rate may be, as its 
efficiency is not 100 per cent. The above table 
gives the data on the type D battery made 
by the Electric Storage Battery Company. 
A much larger capacity cell can be made 




FIG. 51. CROSS SECTION OF THE STORAGE 
BATTERY 

sufficient to meet the general requirements. 
It is customary to allow about five amperes 
per square foot of positive plate on charge. 



CONNECTIONS FOR CHARGING 



as follows, and its capacity can be increased 
indefinitely by increasing the area of the 
plates and the number of plates in each cell. 
Fig. 53 gives the general dimensions of the 
plates which can be made as follows: For 
each plate you must procure a piece of thin 
lead 13 J inches by 5! inches. In each cell 
you will need one more negative grid than 
positive, which prevents their being bent out 
of shape due to unequal chemical action. 
Suppose you select seven grids, four nega- 
tive and three positive Remember that 



152 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



this can be any number as well as seven 
although it is customary to increase the size 
of the plates as you increase the number, 
rather than increasing the number in- 
definitely as the capacity of the cell increases. 



Ur 


e o 


o 


3" 
4 1 


; 1 




g" 


j» 






l" 








1 ^ 


i < 

- , 


\-'< 





Lead 



% 



Pas\e 



Ni 



FIGS. 53 AND 54. CONSTRUQTJON OF 
BATTERY PLATE 

Lay all of the plates in a pile and clamp 
them together. Then bore them full of 
3-32 inch holes inside the squares marked 
on them as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 
53. These pieces should then be bent over 
the rounded edge of a \ inch board, form- 
ing plates 5 \ by 6| L inches. Place an 
oak board \ inch thick and 5 \ inches wide 
between the two sides of the plate and 
hammer the edges together. Cut from some 
\ inch lead seven pieces 7 \ inches long and 
h inch wide. These pieces are to be soldered 
between the upper edges of the plate after 
the active material has been put into place. 
It might be well to use several rivets in hold- 
ing the plates and pieces together. 

Allow the pieces to project f inch 
beyond the plates at one end and 1^ inches 
at the other. A cross section through one 
of the plates is shown in Fig. 54. 

Mix in an old dish a thick paste of dilute 
sulphuric acid and red lead. Make the 
dilute sulphuric acid by adding about one 
part acid to twelve parts of water. Now fill 
three of the plates with this mixture forcing 
it in place with a stick, but be careful not 
to bend the sides of the plates. Fill the 
remaining four plates with a paste of litharge 
or yellow lead and sulphuric acid made in 
a similar manner to that just described. 
All of the paste that may be forced out 
through the holes in the plates should be 
removed and the plates all set aside and 
allowed to dry. 

While your plates are drying you can 
construct the containing vessel for your cell. 
If it is possible for you to obtain a rectangu- 
lar glass jar approximately six inches bro»d. 



six inches wide and seven inches deep, in- 
side dimensions, it will serve admirably as 
a containing vessel. You can, however, 
change the dimensions of the plates given 
in Fig. 53 so that they will correspond per- 
haps to the dimensions of your jars if you 
happen to have any. 

In the event you have no glass jars and 
are unable to procure any, a simple con- 
taining vessel may be made in the follow- 
ing manner: Make a wooden box, whose 
inside dimensions correspond to those given 
above for the glass jar, from some J inch 
material. This box should be well con- 
structed and it would be advisable to put 
it together with screws and glue. When the 
box is complete it should be immersed in 
hot paraffine and allowed to remain for 
several hours until it is thoroughly saturated 
with the wax. If you can procure some 
pitch or asphaltum and line your box with 
it the life of the box will no doubt be greatly 
increased. The best lining of course would 
be one made of sheet lead, but you will have 
to use additional care to prevent your cell 
being short circuited by the projecting lugs 
on the various positive and negative plates 
coming in contact with the lining where it 
bends over the edge of the containing vessel. 
The likelihood of such a short circuit occur- 
ing can be reduced to a minimum by placing 
strips of glass on the upper edge of the vessel 
upon which .the lugs, on the sides of the 
plates, may rest. 

Cut twelve wooden strips 3-16 inch square 
and six inches long that are to be used in 
separating the plates in the cell. These 
pieces should be thoroughly boiled in 
paraffin wax. When the plates are dry 
you will be ready to assemble your cell 
which may be done as follows: Take one 
of the negative plates and lay it on a smooth 
board, then place two of the small strips 
across it about one inch from the edge and 
running parallel to its longer dimension, 
which will make the separators stand on 
end when the elements are placed in the 
containing vessel. Now lay on top of these 
two pieces one of the positive plates with its 
edges parallel to the edges of the first plate, 
and the longer lug projecting in the opposite 
direction to that of the negative or first 
plate. Place the remaining five plates in 
the pile with the separators between them 
and the long lugs of all the negative plates 
projecting in one direction and the long lugs 
of th^ positive plates projecting in the oppo- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



153 




FIG. 55. METHOD OF 

BENDING THE 

LUGS 



site direction. Fasten all of the plates to- 
gether with several very strong rubber 
bands placed around them. Cut from some 
J inch sheet lead two pieces about one inch 
wide and 12 inches long, solder these pieces 
to the ends of the long lugs on the positive 
arid negative plates. Allow all the surplus 
length of the above pieces to project at one 
end which will form the terminals of the 
cell. 

Place the elements in the containing 
vessel, making sure they do not come in 
contact with the 
walls of the vessel 
if it is lead lined. 
Fill the vessel with 
dilute sulphuric acid 
to within about one 
inch of the top. 
This acid should be 
mixed as previously 
described. 

With the above 
arrangement of 
plates there will be 
a considerable por- 
tion of them that 

will not be immersed in the acid. This 
can be prevented by bending the lead strip 
fastened between the upper edges of the 
plates into the form shown in Fig. 55. You 
will of course need a deeper containing vessel 
when this change 
is made, and the 
lead strips will have 
to be longer than 
in the previous case. 
It might be well 
for you to cut some 
pieces of wood of 
such a size that they 
will just slip down 
between the elements 
and the containing 
vessel and prevent 
any movement of 
the elements. These 
pieces must be thor- 
oughly saturated in paraffine wax. 

A second method that has been employed 
by the writer in making the grids is as follows : 
Procure from the plumber a quantity of 1-16 
inch sheet lead and also a small quantity 
of \ inch sheet lead. The size and number 
of plates you expect to build will determine 
the quantity of lead and the dimensions of 
the sheets you must procure. Let us assume 









5 


5 


1* « 

* t. 





FIG. 56. ANOTHER 
TYPE OF BAT- 
TERY GRID 




you expect to build the plates of the same size 

as in the previous case. Cut from a piece 

of one inch oak a block 5 by 5J inches and 

fasten it to a larger board. Now cut from 

the ^ inch lead seven 

strips 5-16 inch wide 

and about 26 inches 

long. Bend these 

strips around the 

block forming seven 

frames as shown in 

Fig. 56 and solder 

the ends together. 

Now cut from the 
1-16 inch lead strips 
5-16 inch wide and 
run part of them 

through the gears of a lathe or crimping 
iron. Place one of your frames on top of a 
smooth surface and fill it full of corrugated 
and plain strips, alternately, until it is like 
Fig. 57. Then take your soldering iron 
and solder the ends of these pieces to 
the frame. 

Four of these plates should now be filled 
with the litharge paste and the other three 
with the red lead paste. After they are 
dry they can be placed in a pile separated 
by small strips of wood and fastened with 



FIG. 57. CORRUGATED 

AND PLAIN STRIPS 

ASSEMBLED 




Lamjis 



666666 



FIG. 58. CONNECTIONS FOR CHARGING 

rubber bands. Solder a strip of lead to the 
projecting lugs, all of those on the positive 
plates being on one side and those on the 
negative plates being on the other side. 
Two pieces of glass tube may be placed in 
the containing vessel to rest the elements 
upon and prevent them coming in contact 
with the walls. When the elements are in 
place the vessel may be filled with acid as 
in the previous case until it covers the plates. 
These cells can be charged from a gravity 
battery just as the first cell, but the time re- 
quired will be considerably longer on account 
of the greater capacity. If you are fortunate 
enough to have a direct current source of 



154 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



power at hand such as a no volt lighting 
circuit you can charge your battery from it. 
The proper connections for charging the 
battery in this way are shown in Fig. 58. 
You should allow, as previously stated, 
about five amperes per square foot of posi- 
tive plate which can be regulated by chang- 
ing the number of incandescent lamps con- 
nected in parallel. 

All of the lead should be as pure as it 
is possible to obtain, a kind known as 
chemical or desilverized lead is the best. 
You should be careful in handling your 
paste and acid not to get any foreign sub- 
stances in them. 

If you have a blow pipe and can use it 
burn or fuse all connections. When solder 
is used make it of four parts lead and one 
part tin and use resin as a flux. 

A storage cell should give about 2.2 volts 
when fully charged and should never be 
discharged below 1.7 volts. It should never 
be allowed to stand in a discharged con- 
dition and should be given a small charge 
every few weeks even though it is not used. 
If it is desired to put the cell out of service 
discharge it to about 1.5 volts, pour off the 
acid, fill the jar with water and completely 
discharge it. The water can then be re- 
moved and the plates thoroughly washed. 
They will then keep almost indefinitely. 
Always use rain water in mixing acid. 
(To be Continued) 



Trapping a Telephone "Josher" 

"We sent for you," began the telephone 
manager as the middle aged man in the grey 
suit was ushered into his office, "to see if 
you could suggest any way for us to stop 
the annoying of our operators by some one 
using your phone. You know our em- 
ployees have strict instructions to talk only 
business, else they would keep other sub- 
scribers waiting, and when we find one of 
the girls holding a long conversation be- 
fore making the connection, she is promptly 
reprimanded. Then if she insists that the 
party on the line would not tell her the num- 
ber wanted, but kept on "jollying" her — 
what are we to do ? 

"Don't ask' me," snapped the man in the 
grey suit indignantly. "That is your look- 
out as to how you handle your help. But 
if they report that any smart young 
men have been entertaining them on the 
wire, they must have told you the wrong 



phone number. It is very rarely that any 
young fellow gets at my phone and my 
stenographer happens to be a woman of 
very few words. You ought to have found 
out the right number instead of getting me 
to come clear over here right in the midst 
of a busy week. Here you are taking up 




my time when I never even heard of such 
a thing as 'jollying' an operator and I" — 

"Oh, if that is the case," interrupted the 
telephone man who had remained calm 
while his visitor's temper was visibly rising, 
"it is only fair that we at least show you 
what we mean. You know we use the 
phonograph a good deal in training new 
operators to speak the set phrases in a low 
and resonant voice. Now here is a record 
that may give you the idea." With that he 
slipped a cylinder on the phonograph beside 
his desk. "Number, please," began a 
gentle voice, followed by a man's voice that 
started: " Good morning, Maud, how are 
you feeling today?" "Number, please." 
"Say, isn't your name Maud ? Didn't I see 
you at the show last night?" Good, was it 
not?" "What number do you want?" 
(This time more emphatically.) " Oh come, 
don't be in such a hurry. You know " 

The manager looked up, then reached 
over and shut off the phonograph, for the 
man in the grey suit had risen, highly flushed. 

"I think, I I ," he stammered. 

"Yes," said the telephone man, I know you 
need to get back to your office. Thank you 
very much for coming in." The middle aged 
man in grey slipped out of the room rather 
sheepishly, for the voice that the phonograph 
had repeated, was unmistakably his own! 



MTMCITYYiELESS OBI 



Membership in Popular Electricity Wireless Club is made up of readers 
of this magazine who have constructed or are operating wireless apparatus 
or systems. Membership blanks will be sent upon request. This depart- 
ment of the magazine will be devoted to the interests of the Club, and 
members are invited to assist in making it as valuable and interesting 
as possible, by sending in descriptions and photographs of their equipments. 

A High Power Wireless Equipment 

By ALFRED P. MORGAN 



PART n. — AERIAL SWITCH AND INDUCTION COIL 



The high-tension cable leads from the 
insulating bushing in the window pane to 




FIG. 14. END VIEW OF SWITCH 



The base is a sheet of hard rubber 7 by 
11 by I inches. The two large knife blades 
are made of hard brass and measure 8 by 
f by 3-32 inches. A small blade measur- 
ing 3 by f by 3-32 inches serves to break 
the primary transmitting current when the 
switch is up, so that in case of an accidental 
touch of the key while receiving, the de- 
tector will not be injured. In a looped 
aerial system the precaution is absolutely 
necessary, for the high voltage currents 
would pass across the anchor gap and into 
the receiving instruments. With an open 
aerial the third knife blade is often used to 
short circuit the detector during each period 
of sending so that it is not made inoperative 
by the heavy discharge of the transmitter. 

Two methods of fastening the knives to 
the yokes are illustrated in Fig. 16. In the 
first method the end of the knife blade is 
bent at right angles and fastened to the yoke 
by means of a short 10-24 brass machine 
screw and nut. The second method is not 



the aerial switch. The 
aerial switch is used for 
quickly changing the aerial 
and the ground from the 
receptor to the transmitter 
or vice versa. 

An ordinary power 
switch may often be 
adapted for this purpose 
but the best plan is to 
construct one according to 
the design indicated in 
Figs. 14 and 15. 



//* 



®, 



L 



3- 



(g>,-^r^/f- ) 

CONTACT 1 ' 
^eCAKINQ 

,Q 1 



.; <n, 



© 



„3; 



lH 






,1; 



w*l 



(!) 



»4© 

* 



33 



FIG. 15. PLAN OF SWITCH 



156 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



quite so simple but offers a better appear- 
ance and is somewhat stronger. The end 
of the blade is cut out in the shape shown. 
A slot 3-32 inch wide and 1-4 inch deep is 
cut in the yoke at the point where it is de- 
sired, to fasten the blade. A hole is bored 
in the center of the yoke and in the same 



YOKE 




SCREW 



.'-//it 

/ / / ' 



NUT 



^YOKE 

FIG. 1 6. METHODS OF FASTENING KNIVES 
TO YOKE 

plane as the slot. A 10-24 machine screw 
passes through the hole and the end of the 
biade is placed under the head of the screw 
so that when a nut is screwed against the 
other side of the yoke the two blades will be 
held firmly in the slot. The "T" which 
serves as a support for the upper contacts 
is made of | inch hard rubber. Two pieces 
of rubber may be used in its construction 
instead of one and in that manner some ma- 
terial economized. 

HOLE BORED IN 
BLARING STANDARD 



L 




V — HOLE 

TAPPED / 0-2.4 
FIG. 17. CONSTRUCTION OF CONTACTS 

The yokes are also of hard rubber. The 
smaller one is fastened to the large blades 
so that it moves up and down with them. 

The construction of the contacts and bear- 
ing standards is shown in Fig. 17. The 
only difference between them is that the 
bearing standards have a hole bored through 
them as indicated by the dotted lines in the 
illustration. They are both formed out of 
a strip of brass. 



Eight binding posts are mounted on the 
base and on the "T". They make con- 
nection to the bearing or contact to which 
they are nearest as indicated by the dotted 
lines. (A) and (D), Fig, 15, connect re- 
spectively to the aerial and the ground; (B) 
and (C) are included in the primary circuit 
of the induction coil or transformer or are 
placed directly across the detector terminals ; 
(E) and (F) lead to the receiving apparatus, 
while (G) and (H) are connected with the 
transmitting instruments. A wiring diagram 
of the complete transmitter showing the 
position of the aerial switch will be given 
later. 

A hard rubber handle four inches long is 
fitted to the switch yoke so that it may be 
thrown up or down. The contacts should 
press against the blades firmly but not so 
hard that they stick. 

A great deal of hard rubber is used in the 
construction of the switch just described 
and since it is rather expensive some may be 
tempted to use fibre. Fibre is all well and 
good for small induction coils and trans- 
formers but when used on a switch in con- 
nection with the powerful coil and trans- 
former to be described later, is worthless. 

The author in his experiments first used 
fibre, and one rainy day when things were 
damp, the fibre yoke became slightly con- 
ductive and a brush discharge between the 
blades of the switch commenced. The 
transmitting was continued but in a short 
time the fibre became so carbonized that 
almost all of the energy passed across. A 
hard rubber yoke was substituted with the 
result that the base began to leak and soon 
burned out and so was discarded in favor of 
the rubber. The conducting layer, spoken 
of in connection with aerial insulators is 
due to smoke and the action of the atmos- 
phere and does not form on the rubber when 
it is used for instrument insulation 
about the operating room. 

INDUCTION COIL 

Reference has been made previously to 
the charging of the aerial but without ex- 
plaining definitely how it is accomplished. 
In small "untuned" outfits, the secondary 
terminals of an induction coil are connected 
one to the antenna and the other to the 
earth. The spark gap is also bridged across 
the secondary terminals. This arrange- 
ment is the one presumed in the explanation 
of the generation of electrical waves, but is 
worthless for long distance work. The usual 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



157 



method is to employ the induction coil to 
charge a condenser. The condenser in dis- 
charging produces an oscillatory discharge 
which passes through a large coil of heavy 
wire called a transmitting helix and acting 
at once as a transformer to impress the 
oscillations on the aerial and also as a vari- 
able inductance to "tune" the circuits 
with. 

Choice lies between the induction coil 
and two types of transformer known re- 
spectively as the "open" and "close" core 
depending on whether or not the magnetic cir- 
cuit is metallically complete. Since the in- 
duction coil may be operated on batteries 
it is more commonly used and will be the 
most suitable in the average station. 

An induction coil in its simplest form con- 
sists of two or three layers of insulated wire 
wound around an iron core and surrounded by 
a winding composed of many thousand turns 
of very carefully insulated fine wire. The 
two windings are known respectively as the 
primary and secondary. When an inter- 
rupted direct current is sent through the 
primary, a magnetic field is established in 
the neighborhood of the coil. The lines of 
force in this magnetic field cut the secondary 
coil, and, being of a constantly changing value 
because of the fluctuations of the primary 
current, they induce a current in the sec- 
ondary. Since the same number of lines of 
force are generated and destroyed with 
every "make" and "break" of the primary 
current, the electromotive impulses in the 
secondary are equal. But by means of a 
"condenser" shunted across the interrupter 
the current at "make" requires more time 
to grow than to die away at "break," which 
latter, in fact, is practically instantaneous. 
The induced electromotive force at "break" 
while not lasting so long as that at "make" 
is much greater in intensity and is sufficient 
to pass through the air as a spark. 

CORE 

The first consideration in building a coil 
is the selection and preparation of the iron 
wire which is to form the core. In order to 
promote rapid changes in the magnetic field 
it is never solid but is built up of a large 
number of soft iron wires. Since a high 
degree of magnetization is to be produced, 
the iron must possess a great degree of per- 
meability and Nonvegian iron will be found 
to be very suitable in this respect. It 
is considerable of a task to cut the wires 
for the core of a large induction coil and so 



if the wires are purchased already cut, 
much labor may be saved. 

The wire is annealed by placing it in an 
iron pipe and plugging the ends with clay. 
The pipe and its contents are then laid in 
a coal fire where the whole mass will come 
to an even red heat slowly. The fire is 
then permitted gradually to die out and the 
pipe and wires left in the ashes until cool. 

When cold the wires are removed from 
the pipe and each one separately rubbed 
with emery paper until bright. After 
brightening they are dipped in hot water, 
wiped dry, and dipped in a thin solution of 
shellac and allowed to dry. 

The wires are brightened in order to re- 
move the rust and scale which adheres to 
them and lowers the proportionate amount 
of iron it is possible to place in a given core. 

The wires may be straightened by rolling 
them one at a time between two boards. 

The core of the coil in question should 
be 25 inches long and three inches in diame- 
ter. The wires are No. 8 B. and S. gauge. 

After forming into a perfect cylinder in 
which all the wires are parallel, the core is 
wrapped with two or three layers of well 
varnished linen. 

The primary is wound over the linen and 
is composed of three layers of No. 10 B. & 
S. gauge, double cotton covered magnet 
wire as indicated in Fig. 18. There is no 
advantage in carrying the primary the full 
length of the core and so it begins and ends 
about i\ inches from the ends. 




FIG 



COMPLETED CORE AND PRIMARY 



An insulating tube is placed over the pri- 
mary to separate it from the secondary. It 
is formed of four layers of hard sheet rubber 
1 -16 of an inch thick and 23 inches long. 
The rubber may be softened by steaming 
and then wrapped directly around the pri- 
mary or around a form of the same 
diameter and slipped over the primary 
afterwards. The overlapping edges, that is 
the beginning and finishing edges should be 
beveled with a file and cemented. 
(To be continued.) 



The Collins Wireless Telephone 



The following descriptic ~\ of the Collins 
wireless telephone system is fairly complete 
with regard to the sending apparatus. 
The receptor comprises a thermo-electric 




FIG. I. COLLINS' REVOLVING OSCILLATION 
ARC LAMP 

detector the full details of which cannot be 
given out at the present time. 

The transmitting apparatus in its entirety 
includes a Collins revolving oscillation arc 
lamp, Fig. i ; a high frequency and high 
potential variable tuning inductance trans- 
former, Fig. 2; an adjustable tuning auto- 
transformer, and the usual revolving variable 




condenser. These separate devices are de- 
signed to withstand potentials of 5,000 
volts or more. Fig. 3 shows the scheme of 
connections, and Fig. 4 is a general view of 
the apparatus in use. 

The initial current is at a pressure of 500 
volts direct. This was raised to 5,000 volts 
in the case of transmission between Newark 
and Philadelphia, though a pressure of 2,500 
volts is generally used, produced by a motor- 
generator set. The latter high-voltage cur- 
rent is used to operate the revolving oscilla- 
tion arc lamp, which is an improvement on 
those previously employed. 

The lamp proper consists of a pair of 
hard carbon disk electrodes, and these are 
mounted on parallel spindles so that they 
are in the same plane, and are connected by 
means of bevel gears secured to an insulated 
shaft. The disks are insulated from each 




FIG. 



2. TUNING INDUCTANCE TRANS- 
FORMER 



FIG. 3. SCHEME OF CONNECTIONS 

other by mica bushings fitted in the gearing, 
the casing forming one of the connections, 
while the insulated bearing in the bottom 
of the casing forms the other. 

The gearing is so arranged that the disk 
electrodes are rotated in opposite directions, 
the power being furnished by a small motor. 
One of the bearings of the shaft is mounted 
in a keyed sleeve, which permits the spindle 
carrying one of the carbon disks to be moved 
toward or away from the opposite disk, so 
that the length of the arc may be varied 
while the lamp is in operation. The carbon 
electrodes are placed in a metal casing, while 
the rotating mechanism is attached to the 
bottom of the casing. In the long-distance 
test between Newark and Philadelphia hy- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



159 




FIG. 4. MR. COLLINS AND HIS WIRELESS TELEPHONE 



drogen was used, but for short distances the 
arc burns in an air blast. 

The rotating oscillation arc obviates the 
disadvantages of the stationary arc, in that 
a constantly fresh, cool surface is presented 
to the arc, preventing uneven burning away 
of the electrodes which gives rise to distur- 
bances in the oscillations. 

As in all arc type telephones the principle 
embodies the burning of a direct current 
arc. There is in addition a secondary cir- 
cuit, including the telephone transmitter, by 
means of which another current, fluctuating 
with the voice waves, is also impressed upon 
the arc, in this case through a trans- 
former. These fluctuations imposed upon 
the arc circuit affect the arc and likewise 
the oscillating circuit which is connected 
across it to send out the oscillatory waves 
from the aerial. 

The chief improvement in the combina- 
tion tuning inductance transformer used by 
Collins is that a new and novel means of 
contact is introduced, whereby any variation 
of the inductance can be had, and in tuning 
a wireless telephone transmitter this is 
vitally necessary. The contact is made by 
a ring provided with three small grooved 
pulleys, which press against the turns of the 
tubing forming the primary. Having a 
spiral form, this coil causes the ring, 



when it is rotated, to travel back and forth. 

The secondary is arranged to slide in or 
out of the primary, making a loose coupling, 
which is another essential in the production 
of high-frequency undamped oscillations. 

The transmitter is of the carbon granule 
type, but of special design. It is formed of 
two oppositely disposed diaphragms with 
the granules between them, so that the voice 
impulses cause them to vibrate against 
each other, thus increasing the amplitude as 
compared with a single diaphragm trans- 
mitter. 

The longest distance covered by the sys- 
tem was 81 miles, between Mr. Collins' lab- 
ratory in Newark, N. J., and the Land Title 
Building in Philadelphia. 



Protective Device for Wireless 
Apparatus 



In the winter the experimenter need have 
little fear of lightning or "static," but as 
summer approaches he begins to think of 
thunderstorms and their effect on his ap- 
paratus. This is especially true of the be- 
ginner in the art, who is often led to abandon 
his hopes of setting up his own station, on 
account of supposed danger from lightning. 
No particular danger should arise, however, 
if the apparatus is suitably protected. 



160 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Lightning in general may be considered 
to be composed of many small charges of 
atmospheric electricity which have been 
united into one large charge. These small 
charges are not in themselves dangerous to 
wireless instruments. Their elimination by 
discharges to trees, clouds, and other ob- 
jects, is never noticed, 
except by wireless opera- 
tors, for the amount of 
energy in each is small 
and the discharges are 
not perceptible either to 
the eye or the ear. The 
wireless operator, however, 
can hear these discharges 
in the summer, and some- 
times in the winter, as 
clicks in his telephone re- 
ceivers, and he calls them 
"static." 

Just before [a thunder- 
storm the air is filled with 
these small charges. They 
gradually unite, forming one large charge. 
When the large charge approaches suffi- 
ciently near to any object, such as a cloud 
having an opposite charge, or a pole or a 
tree on the earth, the energy stored in the 
charge appears as lightning, and if this 
energy should use an aerial system as a 
means of escaping to the earth, it would 
melt the wire and cause considerable dam- 
age, since a large quantity of heat would be 
developed. 

A good solution of the problem is a means 
of eliminating all the small charges near 
the aerial as soon as they are formed, and 
thus to prevent the formation of a large and 
dangerous charge. The device used is a 
single pole double throw porcelain base 
switch, connected as shown in the drawing. 
The switch is perferably mounted outside 
the house on a window sill, or in some con- 
venient dry place. A wire connected to 
one of the spring clips of the switch leads 
to the instruments in the house. The other 
is connected to an outside ground-. The use 
of a gas or water pipe is not recommended 
for this purpose, for the idea is to keep the 
high tension charges wholly outside the 
building. An iron or brass pipe driven six 
or eight feet into the ground will do very- 
well. The wire leading from the switch 
to the ground should not be smaller than 
No. 8. The switch blade is connected to 
the aerial. 



When the apparatus is in use, the aerial is 
connected to the instruments. At all other 
times the aerial should be connected to the 
ground by throwing the blade of the switch 
to the other position. 

As the small charges form, they are con- 
ducted by the aerial to the ground. The 



To Aeri<r/ 



To Outside 



C 
I Bl 



Qrovid 



> 



Itl^trutriefi fe- 



SWITCH TO GROUND AERIAL DURING STORMS 



aerial is then acting as a lightning rod. 
The wireless experimenter should be care- 
ful to always ground the aerial when it is 
not in use, and he will not be troubled by 
lightning. The writer has used this device 
for nearly four years, and lightning has 
never caused him annoyance during this 
time. 



Eiffel Tower Wireless Station 



Everybody knows of the Eiffel tower, the 
ornament of Paris and the pride of the 
Parisian. This tower, iooo feet high, is 
being used for the purpose of supporting 
the largest wireless antennae ever set up, 
the wires being about 1500 feet in length. 
Six aerial wires spread harp-like toward the 
park below. Each antenna is calculated 
to stand a pull of nearly 15,000 pounds at 
the same time being insulated well enough 
to stand a tension of over a million volts. 
To insulate perfectly each aerial wire under 
this enormous mechanical stress and swayed 
by strong winds is a great problem in itself. 

The ground wires are buried under the 
foundations which again are lower than the 
level of the Seine river. These grounds 
cover nearly 2000 square feet. 

All the instruments are underground. 
There is enough space to accommodate all 
the instruments sending and receiving sepa- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



161 



rately. There are also rooms for the offi- 
cers and about 20 soldiers as well. 

The capacity of this station is about 75 
kilowatts. Storage batteries of sufficient ca- 
pacity are always kept charged for times of 
emergency. Transformers are ordinarily 
used, however, capable of stepping up the 
voltage to as high as 110,000 volts. 

There are Leyden jars in the condenser 
equipment, and they constitute the most 




EIFFEL TOWER AND WIRELESS ANTENNAE 

powerful condenser battery ever set up. 
A direct voltage of 110,000 volts maximum 
is introduced. 

The loss of energy in the whole system is 
almost eliminated owing to the perfect in- 
sulation from all ground. The arrangement 
of the anchors of each aerial wire is remark- 
able in this respect. In some places the 
antennae would have needed to be anchored 
right in the streets of traffic. This difficulty 
was overcome by erecting pillars of concrete 
into which the wire ends were fastened in 
such a way as not to form any angle, insuring 
against breakage. Where the wire finds its 
end in the midst of the park it is fastened to 
a concrete foundation. 



Unfortunately the late flood which caused 
millions of dollars of damages in Paris also 
entered into the new underground compart- 
ments, submerging the machinery, and the 
sulphuric acid of the storage battery by no 
means improved the insulation of the ma- 
chines and transformers. But in a few 
months the station will be in complete 
working condition. 

The engineers take it for granted that 
they will be able to control all the French 
colonies in Africa as well as communicate 
with America. At the same time it has been 
asserted that with the Eiffel tower station 
all the steamers will remain in touch with 
Europe until they arrive in the States, and 
those traveling east to China and Japan, 
the Indies, etc., will remain in communica- 
tion until they get the signals from the Cali- 
fornia! 5 ] coast stations. 

Emile Ruegg. 



That Night at Chester 



Editor, Popular Electricity: 

Referring to article, "Suggestions for 
Aerials," by Mr. E. H. Waits, in edition 
April, 1910, I would like to inform him that 
the station he heard at Chester, Pa., one 
night last November was in a sense hardly 
an "amateur" station, as most stations 
operated by other than government or com- 
mercial operators are generally called. It 
was the U. S. Scout Cruiser, "Chester," 
sending, and at the time which the con- 
versation quoted was sent was working 
with the Navy Station at Fire Island, N. Y. 

I remember the night distinctly as I had 
just made some changes in my receiving 
set here and was listening for some of the 
battleships which were to assemble in 
Hampton Roads in a few days. The rea- 
son I am so positive that it was the "Chester" 
we both heard is that I heard her call-letter 
(at that time "C-V") when she signed off, 
very plainly, as well as the sign of the 
operator whom I knew. The "Chester" 
was invited to Chester, Pa., for some cele- 
bration of some kind, I do not know exactly 
what, but the crew of the "Chester" Were 
all "shown a good time" to quote from the 
wireless. 

The "Patuxent" is a large sea-going 
navy tug with a small wireless equipment 
and only one operator, who incidentally 
looks out for all the electrical equipment of 



162 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



the ship. On this particular night we were 
at Norfolk, Va., and all the stations, ship 
and shore, heard the "Chester." There 
was no static and it was a good night for 
wireless. 

The "Chester's" transmitter is a five 
kilowatt, Shoemaker set, and they have done 
good work with it. 

I did not see the February number of 
Popular Electricity, but would be glad 
to correspond with Mr. Waits if he will 
drop a card to J. L. Allen, Elec. ist class 
U. S. S. "Patuxent" care of Postmaster, 
New York. 

Jerome Allen. 

U. S. S. Patuxent, April 9, 1910. 



The "Pyron" Detector 



The "pyron" detector is one of the latest 
of the mineral or crystal type of detector. 
The active material used in this detector 
is iron pyrites, or "fool's gold," as it is some- 
times called. This is a sulphide of iron, 
chemically designated as FeS2, which is 
a natural compound occurring in nature in 



(M) may be made from copper or brass, 
about 1-32 inch thick. A slot £ inch wide 
and f inch long is cut or punched in (M), 
or a hole \ inch in diameter will serve the 
purpose if the slot cannot- be made by the 
builder. (M) passes under a binding post 
formed from battery binding posts as shown. 
This arrangement allows the cup to be 
moved readily, so that different portions of 
the surface of (F) may be brought under the 
point of screw (G). 

The standards (A) and (C) are made from 
square brass rod, \ inch wide. Both these 
standards are drilled and tapped at each 
end for an 8-32 thread, and a hole \ inch 
in diameter is also drilled through (C) at 
(X). A hole is drilled and tapped for the 
8-32 thread of a thumb-screw (T). 

The strip (D) may have a thickness of 
1-16 inch, and may be made of phosphor 
bronze, brass or copper. Of these three 
materials phosphor bronze is the best for 
this purpose. The screw (G) has an 8-32 
thread, and a lock nut as shown. The ver- 
tical movement of (D) is regulated by means 
of the hard rubber disk (S), which moves 
up or down the threaded brass rod (J) as 




CONSTRUCTION OF THE "PYRON DETECTOR 



large quantities, both in the massive con- 
dition, and in bright cubical crystals. Either 
a fragment or a crystal will serve our pur- 
pose. The size of the piece is not impor- 
tant, but may conveniently be about \ inch 
square. 

In the drawings (F) represents the piece 
of iron pyrites, which should be so selected 
and placed in the brass cup (E) that the 
exposed surface is clean and bright. (F) 
is held in (E) by means of solder or some al- 
loy of low melting point. Cup (E) is fastened 
to a metal strip (M) by means of a flat 
headed machine screw or by solder. Strip 



it is revolved. (W) is a metal washer. (J) 
should be soldered into the standard (A). 

It will be found that the iron pyrites has 
a few very sensitive points, and when the 
point of (G) rests on one of these points the 
detector gives very good results in long 
distance work. A certain pressure of (G) 
on (F) gives best results, and this pressure 
is varied by revolving disk (S). Mr. 
Pickard, who developed the Pyron de- 
tector, states that when the detector is 
properly adjusted, it is the most efficient 
of the rectifying type known to him, for 
comparatively short distance work. It is 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



163 



practically unaffected by "static" or at- be short circuited while the operator is 

mospheric discharges, and by the trans- sending. 

mitting apparatus, and therefore it need not A. B. Cole 



Spark Coil Dimensions 

A large part of the questions asked by amateurs relate to the dimensions and windings 
of spark coils. Below is printed a table giving exact information on all the essential parts 
of the coil. It was compiled by an expert in coil construction and represents the best 
practice at present in the construction of coils for wireless work. Those who are building 
coils should study this table carefully. Also those who have built coils which do not give 
the results expected had better see that the dimensions and windings in general correspond 
to those here given. 



Size of 
Coil 


£-inch 


^-inch 


1-inch 


2-inch 


3-inch 


4-inch 


5-inch 


6-inch 


8-inch 


10-inch 


A 


5|-in. 


5£-in. 


5 J -in. 


7-in. 


8-in. 


8|-in. 


94-in. 


10- in. 


14-in. 


24-in. 


B 


i-in. 


i-in. 


i-in. 


i-in. 


f-in. 


1-in. 


1-in. 


lj-in. 


lj-in. 


3-in. 


C 


Cardboard 
Tube 


Cardboard Tube 

and 

Empire Cloth 

Tube 1-16 in. 
2 layers cloth 


Empire Cloth 


D 


1-16 in. 


2 layers 


3 layers 


4 layers 


E 


No. 20 


No. 20 


No. 18 


No. 16 


No. 16 


No. 16 


No. 16 


No. 14 


No. 14 


No. 12 


F 


225 


225 


170 


184 


208 


232 


256 


214 


320 


400 


G 


Empire Cloth 


M i c a n i t e 


H 


4 layers 


6 layers 


8 layers 


i-in. 


i-in. 


i in. 


L 


No. 38 


No. 36 Enameled 


No. 28 
Enamel 


J 


3 oz. 


4 oz. 


I lb. 


1 lb. 


14 lbs 


2 lbs. 


3 lbs. 


5 lbs. 


8 lbs. 


12 lbs. 


K 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


4 


8 


16 


L 


If in. 


If in. 


If in. 


2£ in. 


3 in. 


4 in. 


4J in. 


5 in. 


8 in. 


11 in. 


M 


4J in. 


4} in. 


4i in. 


5| in. 


6 in. 


6 in. 


6 in. 


6J in. 


7 in. 


12 in. 


N 


250 


300 


800 


1400 


2000 


2500 


3800 


G000 


8500 


10,500 



A — Length of Core. 

B — Diameter of Core. 

C — Kind of Insulation on Core. 

D — Thickness of Insulation on Core. 

E— Size (B. & S.) Primary Wire. (D. C. C.) 

F — Number Turns Primary Wire. 

G — Kind of Insulating Tube. 

Note: These coils use a medium speed vibrator. 



H — Thickness Insulating Tube. 

I— Size (B. & S.) Secondary Wire. 

J — No. Pounds Secondary Wire. 
K — No. Sections in Secondary. 

L — Approximate Diameter, Secondary. 

M — Distance between Coil Heads. 

N — Total Number sq. in. of Foil in Condenser. 



164 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



WIRELESS QUERIES 

Answered by A. B. Cole 



Questions sent in to this department must 
comply with the same requirements that are 
specified in the case of the questions and 
answers on general electrical subjects. See 
"Questions and Answers" department. 



Potentiometer and Tuning Coil 
Questions. — (A) Is a core of wood suitable for 
a potentiometer? (B) How much German silver 
wire and what size would I need for a potentiometer 
having a core three inches in diameter and seven 
inches long ? (C) Would a pasteboard roll do for 
the core ? (D) How much No. 28 D. C. C. wire 
would I need for a tuning coil 3x12 inches? — T. 
R. S., Cohasset, Mass. 

Answers. — (A) Yes. 

(B) About four ounces of No. 24 single 
silk covered 18 percent German Silver will 
give you 100 ohms on such a core. 

(C) Yes. 

(D) About 600 feet or six ounces. 



Receiving Radius; Wave Length; Tuning Coil 

Questions. — (A) Over what distance can a 10 
K. W. commercial station be heard by a station 
having an aerial 40 feet long and 50 feet high, a 
single slide tuner, fixed and variable condensers, 
silicon detector and one 1000-ohm receiver? (B) 
What is the wave length of a tuner six inches in 
diameter, 12 inches long wound with No. 24 enam- 
eled wire? (C) Give dimensions of a tuner to 
catch a message of 1800 meters wave length, same 
to have a core six inches in diameter and using No. 
24 enameled wire? — A. H., Lexington, Ky. 

Answers. — (A) About 800 miles under 
ordinary conditions, over water. 

(B) About 8000 meters. 

(C) Length about four inches, other di- 
mensions as you give them. 



Aerial Wires for Two Inch Coil; Relay with 
Precision Coherers 

Questions. — (A) Which is the better for all- 
around work, a two or four wire aerial? (B) 
What length will work best with a two inch coil? 
(C) Should one use a high or low resistance relay 
with precision coherers ? (D) Are relays used on 
telegraph lines simply for resistance or to enable 
one to use fewer batteries? — J. M. S., Rudolph, 
Ohio. 

Answers. — (A) A four wire aerial. 

(B) Four parallel wires, each 50 feet 
long, all connected together at each end, 
give very good results. 

(C) A relay of from 150 to 300 ohms 
works well. 

(D) A relay of high resistance has a 
winding of fine wire on the magnets. By 



using wire of small diameter, and conse- 
quently high resistance, many turns are ob- 
tained on a magnet of given size. For this 
reason a current of less intensity is required 
to operate the relay. Therefore the use of 
a high resistance relay on a telegraph line 
requires less battery than a low resistance 
relay of similar construction. 



Wireless Telephone 

Questions. — (A) In the wireless telephone de- 
scribed in the April issue are the ends of the core 
wires in the impedance coil pushed up to meet each 
other or is a space left, and how much space, if 
any? (B) Could the core be made of one con- 
tinuous wire ? (C) How long should the fiber be 
upon which the wire for the choke coil is wound? 
(D) Will cardboard or rolled asbestos do for a 
substitute for the fiber tube? (E) What kind of 
a condenser is used and please give data for its 
construction? — P. E., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Answers. — (A) The ends of the core 
wires of the impedance coil should meet. 

(B) Yes. 

(C) About four inches. 

(D) Either will do, but asbestos is 
better. 

(E) The condenser should be of the ad- 
justable type, and may consist of 25 glass 
plates, each 5 by 7 inches, coated with tin 
foil sheets 3J by 5I inches. The exact 
capacity used will depend largely on the 
aerial, but the above condenser will have a 
sufficient maximum capacity for most ama- 
teur aerials. 



Wireless Telephone 

Questions. — (A) Give diagram and dimensions 
of choke coil and impedance coil for wireless tele- 
phone. (B) Also specify condenser for above. 
(C) If a key is inserted in the wireless telephone 
circuit will the equipment work as a wireless tele- 
graph for a distance of two miles? (D) Could a 
chemical converter for changing no volts A. C. 
to D. C. be used for the arc of the above appa- 
ratus. — L. F. M., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Answers. — (A) and (B) See answer to 
P. E. in this issue, also article on "A Simple 
Wireless Telephone Set" in the April, 1910, 
issue. 

(C) Yes. 

(D) The rectified current as supplied by 
a chemical converter cannot be used, since 
the action of the arc in producing high fre- 
quency oscillations requires a direct current 
of constant intensity. The chemical con- 
verter produces a direct current which is 
pulsating, that is, varies in intensity many 
times per second. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWEUSI 



Use of this department is free to readers of Popular Electricity, but atten- 
tion will not be given to questions which do not comply with the follow- 
ing rules: All questions must be written in the form of a letter addressed 
to the Questions and Answers Department and containing nothing for 
the other departments of the magazine; two-cent stamp must be enclosed 
for answer by mail, for space will not permit of printing all answers; 
the full name and address of the writer must be given. 



Elevator Signaling System 

Question. — Will you please explain the operation 
of the ordinary elevator signal system using red 
and white lights at the various floors. — A. H., 
Chicago. 

Answer.- — The diagram in general of 
such a system is here given. Current is 
supplied at no or 220 volts to a 1-4 H. P. 
motor-generator (26) on the high voltage 
side (20) of the machine, the mains being 




ELEVATOR SIGNAL SYSTEM 

connected to the switch (22). Current at 
10 volts from the low voltage side (19), is 
used to operate the push buttons and mag- 
nets through one blade of switch (23). By 
closing switch (22), starting the motor 
generator and closing switch (23), the high 
voltage is thrown on to light the "up" and 
"down" lamps on the floors. The wiring 
for one car is shown. The upper magnets 
and mercury cup (4) control the "up" 
light when the "up" button (1) is pushed 
on any floor. The lower set of magnets 



control the "down" light when the down 
button is pushed. At the right of the dia- 
gram are brass studs (5) to (14) mounted 
on slate and connected to the light and mag- 
net circuits. This panel and those for the 
other elevators is situated at the top of the 
shaft in some convenient place. To each 
car mechanism in this system is connected a 
chain gear which through a worm gear 
causes a contractor to slide over studs (5) 
to (14) opening and clos- 
ing circuits at the proper 
time as the car goes up or 
down the shaft. Some- 
thing of the operation 
may be understood by 
tracing out a signal. 

If a person on the third 
floor wishes to go up he 
pushes the "up" side of 
button (1). The current 
then finds a path from 
(19) through snap switch 
(25), to (1), thence to 
magnet (2), pulling its 
armature and allowing the 
armature on (3) to drop, 
plunging the needle at its 
end into the mercury cup 
(4) which closes the no- 
volt circuit up to (8); 
then, as the traveling con- 
tactor attached to the driving mechanism of 
the car bridges across (8) and (9) the cir- 
cuit is completed, for the floor signal light 
(15) and the car operator's light (17), the 
contactor being adjusted to throw on the 
lights two or three floors from the floor at 
which the car should stop. When the car 
passes the third floor the contactor opens 
the floor light and signal circuit which es- 
tablishes a circuit from (26) to magnet (3) 
up to studs (6) (5), through (18) back to 
(23), thus energizing magnet (3) and raising 



166 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



the needle out of the mercury and resetting 
the magnets (2) (3) in their normal position. 
In case a car is loaded, the operator may 
transfer his signal to the next car by press- 
ing push button (18) on his car, which 
opens the circuit and allows the magnet 
controlling the needle to be de-energized, 
thus holding the signal for the following car. 



The Automatic Telephone; Resistance Coil for 
Arc Light 

Questions. — (A) Explain the operation of the 
automatic telephone. (B) How many feet and 
what size B. & S. gauge iron wire should be used 
as a resistance coil for a 35-40 amp., 110-v., hand 
feed arc lamp ? — J. P. D., Newark, O. 

Answers. — (A) Consider a 100 line ex- 
change. Each telephone is connected through 
the line wires with a machine having a 
vertical shaft, which can be raised, lowered 
and rotated. This shaft carries a set of 
contact springs or wipers. Connection is 
made through the wipers with contact lugs 
connected to each of the other telephones or 
machines. These lugs are arranged in ten 
banks of ten each ; each bank is semi-circular, 
and one bank is above another. Each tele- 
phone has a separate machine and each of 
the hundred telephones is "multipled" in 
each machine in these contact lugs. In 
calling a telephone, say number 75, a sub- 
scriber moves a disk on his telephone to 
number seven and lets go. This sends seven 
impulses over one side of his line and ground 
to the machine. These impulses operate an 
electro-magnet which raises the vertical 
shaft and contact wipers to the seventh bank 
of lugs. The subscriber then moves the 
disk to number five and lets go. This sends 
five impulses over the other side of the line, 
which operates another magnet which ro- 
tates the wipers to the fifth lug in the seventh 
bank. This makes contact with lugs 75 
which are multipled through to telephone 
75. The subscriber then rings by pressing 
a button on his telephone. When through 
talking each subscriber hangs up and this 
automatically restores the machine wipers, 
etc., to zero position. Provision is made for 
busy signals and central energy. Exchanges 
of over 100 subscribers are arranged in 
groups of 100 machines each and provision 
is made for automatic trunkings between 
the groups. 

(B) You will need about 176 'feet of No. 
12 iron wire, or you can use 95 feet of No. 14 
iron wire. 



Receiver in Series With Buzzer 

Questions. — (A) Can a telephone receiver work 
in series with a buzzer so that the receiver will buzz 
when a wireless signal is coming in ? (B) Will the 
winding need to be taken from the receiver so that it 
will not have more than 4 ohms resistance, or that 
of the buzzer, or will it work with 75 ohms resistance 
by increasing the resistance of the buzzer? — 
H. M. K. 

Answers. — (A) We know of no way to do 
this. 

(B) Either way will do if you wish to 
operate the receiver and the buzzer in 
series, but you will get a sound in the re- 
ceiver several hundred times as strong as 
that produced by a distant wireless station. 



Charging Leyden Jars; Telephone Magnetos; 
Wet Batteries vs. Dry Batteries 

Questions. — (A) Name some of the simplest 
ways to charge a Leyden jar. Can it be charged 
by means of an electrified comb or glass rod? (B) 
Would a telephone magneto run as a synchronous 
motor with the current from another magneto? 
(C) With what size wire should I rewind my four 
bar telephone magnetos to get twelve volts ? (D) 
Is it better to use a sal ammoniac battery for ex- 
perimental purposes than to use a dry battery 
when sal ammoniac sells for 13 cents per pound? — 
O. M., Moline, Mich. 

Answers. — (A) The simplest and best way 
to charge a jar is by means of a glass plate 
static machine. It can be charged by 
means of an electrophorus or electrified 
rods as you suggest, but the results will be 
disappointing. A jar can often be heavily 
charged by holding the knob near a moving 
belt. 

(B) No. The magnetizing current pro- 
duced by the generator would not be suffi- 
cient to affect the motor. 

(C) The voltage depends on the number 
of turns, not in the size of the wire. Take 
off the wire now on the armature, counting 
the number of turns as you do so, and 
rewind with about one-sixth the number of 
turns, using as large a wire as possible 
so as to obtain the greatest current capacity; 
or divide the wire now on the armature into 
six equal lengths, lay the six wires together 
and twist the ends together, making elec- 
trically one wire of six times the cross sec- 
tion, and rewind the armature as though 
the six wires were one. Magnetos vary so 
much as to voltage and capacity, it is im- 
possible to give better directions from your 
description. 

(D) Dry batteries are never better than 
wet batteries except as a convenience. You 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



167 



can always renew the parts of a wet battery, 
hence, irrespective of price, you will find 
the wet battery better for. experimental 
purposes. You will find other batteries, 
such as the bichromate, still better than the 
sal ammoniac for experiments. 



Quadruple x Telegraphy 

Question. — Please show diagram and explain 
the principle of quadruplex telegraphy. 

Answer. — The principle may be under- 
stood from the diagram, in which (PC) 
is a pole-changer, (K) a key, (R) a Morse 
relay and (PR) a polarized relay. With 
the key (K) in its present position only a 
part of the battery is available. This cur- 
rent is sufficient to operate (PR) when the 




4HIM 

Bn-r. 

QUADRUPLEX TELEGRAPH 

pole-changer key is worked, but is not 
strong enough to cause the armature of (R) 
to respond. When both (R) and (PR) are 
to receive at the same time, key (K) as well 
as key (PC) is used. Key (K) sending full 
battery current through (R) makes the 
armature of (R) a receiver of the message 
sent by (K). 



Commutating Pole Motor 

Question. — What is a commutating pole motor ? — 
M. R. H. s Austin, Texas. 

Answer. — A commutating pole motor is 
one in which commutating poles are placed 
between the main field poles and are wound 
with insulated copper wire or strip con- 
nected in series with the armature circuit 
so that the proper proportion of the main 
current flows through the auxiliary field 
coils around the commutating poles. The 
main field is usually wound with a shunt 
winding, but it may have also a compound 
or series winding when service conditions 
require. 

The function of the commutating poles 
is to produce a magnetic field of such an in- 
tensity as properly to reverse the current in 
the armature coils short circuited during 
commutation, the brushes remaining in a 



fixed position. The detrimental effect of 
the armature reaction which ordinarily pro- 
duces sparking at the commutator is thereby 
avoided and sparkless commutation is in- 
sured at all loads within the speed ranges 
specified, as the strength of the auxiliary 
field is always proportional to the load and 
independent of the main field. Further, 
these poles are reversible in action, enabling 
motors to be run equally well in either direc- 
tion. By the addition of commutating 
poles, therefore, motors can be operated at 
a higher output and a greater speed range, 
thereby reducing the size of machines for 
the same horse-power, and at the same time 
enabling larger overloads to be carried for 
short periods. 



Direction of Current in a Cell; Polarization 

Questions. — (A) In the different kinds of cells 
does the current flow from the positive to the nega- 
tive element, or does it flow from the negative to 
the positive? (B) What is the meaning of polari- 
zation? — B. S. P., Jasper, Ala. 

Answers. — (A) In a simple cell the plates, 
the liquid and the connecting wires from 
one plate to the other form the electric cir- 
cuit. Much confusion results from not 
clearly understanding what is meant by the 
terms here explained. Assuming a cell 
with a zinc and a copper plate immersed 
in dilute sulphuric acid. The wire con- 
nected to the copper plate is called the posi- 
tive electrode, and the other the negative. 
The copper plate itself is called the negative 
plate, and the zinc the positive plate. When 
the ends of the wires connected to the plates 
are joined the electric circuit is completed 
and current flows from the zinc plate through 
the electrolyte to the copper plate and from 
the copper plate through the wire to the 
zinc. For further information see page 275 
of the September, 1909 issue. 

(B) In the cell just mentioned the con- 
dition may be represented in chemical terms 
before the circuit is closed by the following* 

Zn I H2SO4 I H2SO4 _ I Cu 

Zinc I Sulphuric Acid | Sulphuric Acid | Copper 

After the circuit has been closed for a 
time the following represents the condition: 

ZnSC»4 I H2SO4 I H2 I Cu 
Zinc Sulphate [ Sulphuric Acid j Hydrogen | Copper 

The hydrogen collects on the copper plate 
forming a resistance, and the bubbles allow 
little of the surface of the copper to come 
in contact with the electrolyte. The current 
falls off and polarization has taken place. 



Notes on the Law of Patent Titles 

By OBED C. BILLMAN, LL. B., M. P: L. 



Patent-Right Notes. — A valid patent, 
without regard to its pecuniary value, is a 
sufficient consideration for a promissory 
note. But a note given for a patent which 
proves to be void is without consideration, 
and cannot be enforced. So also such note 
may be avoided for breach of warranty or 
upon proof of false and fraudulent repre- 
sentations by the assignor, as where the as- 
signor falsely represents that he is the 
owner of the right sold, or that a patent had 
been obtained-. In a suit on a note for a 
patent the questions whether there was 
fraud or warranty in the sale, and, if either, 
what was the value of the right sold, are 
for the jury. 

Statutory Regulation of Patent-Right Notes. 
— In several states it is provided by statute 
that notes given for patent rights shall con- 
tain the words "given for a patent right." 

5. The right to an invention not yet 
patented, or the inchoate right to obtain a 
patent or an extension or renewal, may be 
assigned so as to pass an equitable title to 
the assignee. The statute provided that 
patents may be granted and issued or re- 
issued to the assignee of the inventor or dis- 
coverer, the assignment being first entered 
of record in the patent office. 

Co-tenancy Created by Assignment. — The 
assignment of an undivided interest in a 
patent right constitutes the assignee a joint 
' owner or tenant in common with the as- 
signor. 

6. Agreement to Assign. — An agreement, 
either before or after the issuance of a 
patent, to assign the patent, or an interest 
therein, is valid, and will be specially 
enforced in equity in a proper case. A con- 
tract by an inventor, to assign to an assignee 
of his invention all future improvements 
which he may make thereon, is valid and 
not contrary to public policy. It seems, 
however, that an agreement to assign in 
gross the product of all one's future labors 
as an inventor is void. It is immaterial 
whether the agreement is in writing or not. 
Such agreements are not within the statute 
of frauds, nor within the provision of the 
statute that patents shall be assignable by 
an instrument in writing, and need not be 
recorded. 



7. Cancellation and Recission of Assign- 
ment's. — An assignment or contract for the 
sale of a patent or interest therein may be 
rescinded or cancelled for fraud. So, also, 
an assignment may be cancelled by mutual 
agreement, and the cancellation and de- 
struction of an unrecorded assignment by 
agreement of the parties reinvests the title 
in the assignor, without a formal reassign- 
ment to him. A contract of assignment 
will not be rescinded at the suit of the as- 
signor without an allegation of fraud or 
offer to return the consideration, or other 
ground justifying equitable interposition. 

What Passes by Assignment. In Gen- 
eral. — In general, an assignment of an in- 
vention or patent, or interest therein, will 
pass only the specific right, title, or interest 
described in the conveyance. 

Extensions and Renewals. — An assign- 
ment of a patent carries the right for the 
original term only, unless the instrument of 
assignment contains words indicating an in- 
tention to convey the right to an extension 
or renewal also, in which case such right 
will pass. Such conveyance becomes opera- 
tive upon the grant of the extension. 

Improvements. — The same rule applies to 
improvements as to extensions. An assign- 
ment of the patent does not of itself pass the 
right to future improvements, but may be 
made to do so by the use of apt words. 
But in order to have this effect it must 
plainly appear from the language used that 
such was the intention of both parties. An 
assignment of future improvements on a 
particular machine will not convey any in- 
terest in a future patent for a machine radi- 
cally different though having the same 
object. 

An Assignment of an Improvement con- 
veys no right to the original patent. 

Right to Sue for Past Infringement. — A 
mere assignment of a patent does not carry 
the right to sue for past infringements. 
But such right is assignable and will pass 
when expressly included in the conveyance. 
A claim for profits and damages for past in- 
fringement cannot be assigned separately 
from the patent, since this would give a right 
of action for such claim in disregard of the 
statute. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



169 



Record Unnecessary. — An assignment of 
the right to sue for past infringements need 
not be recorded. 

Assignment Conveying only Assignor's 
Interest. — An assignment not purporting to 
convey all the right, title and interest granted 
by the letters patent, but only the right, 
title, and interest of the assignor, passes only 
such right, title, and interest, as he has at 
the time, and if he has previously parted 
with some interest, such interest will not be 
affected by the assignment although the first 
transfer may not have been recorded. The 
form of the assignment in such case is suf- 
ficient to charge the second assignee with 
notice of the prior unrecorded assignment. 
Such an assignment is not a mere release or 
quitclaim of the assignor's interest, and 
implies that a patent has been issued in 
due form. But it does not import a warranty 
by the assignor that he conveys all the rights 
under the letters patent. 

Warranty of Validity of Patent. — It has 
been held that on an assignment of a patent 
there is no implied warranty of its validity 
nor utility. On the other hand it is well 
settled that the invalidity of the patent is a 
good defense to an action for the purchase 
price or on a note given therefor. 



Electro-magnetic Ironing Board 



Using magnetic attraction to produce and 
vary the pressure of the iron upon cloth or 
other material being pressed is the subject 
of a patent issued to E. St. Clair Clayton, 
Baltimore, Md. The ironing board con- 
sists of a magnet wound with a coil of wire 




with the pole ends dovetailed into each 
other but having air spaces between. A 
thin board of wood or non-magnetic material 
is laid on the magnet surface and upon this 
the usual cloth. By connecting the mag- 
net coil to the circuit through a foot switch 
and resistance the current around the mag- 
net may be varied at will, thus increasing or 
decreasing the downward pressure of the 
iron on the goods, making a light iron do 
the work of a heavy one and relieving the 
operator from lifting a heavy iron. 



Tuning Fork for Ear Treatment 



Isidor Miiller of Vienna, Austria-Hun- 
gary, is the inventor of an electrical device 
for vibrating the auditory nerve. It con- 
sists of an electrical tuning fork which is 
made to vibrate by a small electro-magnet. 





TUNING FORK FOR EAR TREATMENT 

It has a projection which is pushed tightly 
into the ear passage and when the current 
is turned on, the air in the ear passage, the 
tympanum and the skuJ itself is set into 
vibration which vibrations are communi- 
cated to the auditory nerves and brain cen- 
ter. It is used for the purpose of clinical 
examination and for treatment of diseases 
of the ear. 



Grora section*] rie« of the magnet Foot control switch 

ELECTRO-MAGNETIC IRONING BOARD 



Training Baseball Pitchers 

The illustration shows a patented device 
of Harry E. Hire, Mark Center, Ohio, 
which is to be used as a training equipment 



170 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




TRAINING BASE-BALL PITCHERS 

for pitchers in the outdoor game of base- 
ball. The screen at the back represents 
the grandstand and catcher. At the proper 
distance in front of it is placed a figure 
representing the player at bat. The home- 
plate is provided and just behind it a padded 
frame which is called the " umpire." Balls 
thrown by the pitcher if passing over the 
home-plate as they should will ring a bell, 
the circuit of which is closed when the ball 
strikes the umpire. 

Aging and Curing Tobacco 



Green tobacco must be subjected to a 
treatment of dry, warm air before if is ready 
for consumers. The cut shows leaves of 
green tobacco hung in an enclosure on racks 




AGING AND CURING TOBACCO 

ready for curing by a patented process. At 
the corners near the bottom are electric 
heating coils for keeping the temperature at 



approximately ioo°F. Ventilation is pro- 
vided at the sides and top. "Modified" 
air used in the process is made by passing 
air through a flaming arc and into the en- 
closure. The air so treated contains nitro- 
gen peroxide. From 24 to 96 hours com- 
pletes the treatment. S. G. Martin, W. O. 
Bartholomew, and E. Schaaf of Chicago, 
St. Louis, and St. Marys, Mo., respec- 
tively, are the patentees. 



?BOOK REVIEWS 




The Motion Picture. Its Making and Its 
Theatre. By David S. Hulfish, Chicago: 
Electricity Magazine Corporation. 1909. 144 
pages with 23 illustrations. Price, paper, 50 
cents; cloth, $1.00. 

The desire of the public to know some- 
thing about the production of the moving 
picture and the chance by theatre owners 
to profit from the experience of others is 
accorded in this volume. The book con- 
sists of two parts, the first being devoted to 
describing how moving pictures are made, 
and written in a way to be interesting to 
the average reader. The second part gives 
to the theatre owner and operator informa- 
tion on an infinite number of problems that 
are sure to arise. Although the book is 
largely a compilation of the author's answers 
to questions by machine operators, by theatre 
managers, and by the public, yet much 
additional matter has been put into this form 
to make the treatise complete. 



Practical Handbook of Medical Electricity. 
By Herbert Mcintosh, A. M., M. D. Boston: 
Therapeutic Publishing Company. 1909. 498 
pages with 200 illustrations. 

Electricity is becoming more and more 
recognized as having a definite and estab- 
lished place in the practice of medicine. 
When rightly used by an ethical member 
of the profession it is a great aid not only 
in diagnosis but as a valuable assistant to 
established methods of treatment, and in 
some cases as a specific treatment. This 
work is calculated to give the physician as 
much as he will be required to know about 
the theories and laws of electricity and how 
to apply it in his practice. 




ON POLYPHASE SUBJECTS 







■••'■■-;-■■ ■■■■■■.,■■, .-mi — ..--..-...■ v.-.- •/. ;.»^, ■.■■.-,. -v . •■. .■....■■■ . /.,,..■ , . ■■ • . , ,■ 




Millions of people in this 

Why Don't country today make use of 
You Use electric current in one form 

Electricity or another; from the house- 
holder with a single porch 
light to the largest railroad systems, the 
greatest factories, the deepest mines. In 
between these extremes there are also other 
millions whose homes, stores, factories and 
shops have never been equipped with the 
wires which bring about better and more eco- 
nomical conditions. This, for various reasons, 
which in the general run turn out to be not 
reasons at all but simply lack of understand- 
ing of the real benefits and economies to be 
derived by the use of electricity. Of course 
electricity as an applied force is still com- 
paratively young, and it takes time for any- 
thing to grow. If all were to suddenly 
wake up to its advantages at once and de- 
mand current the central stations and the 
manufacturers would be tied up in a terrible 
tangle trying to fill the demand. Still, 
without bringing about such a chaotic state 
of affairs, the consumption of current would 
be, tremendously increased if only those who 
are just wavering on the dividing line were 
to make up their minds in favor of the 
modern way of doing things. 

It would be interesting to know just why 
those who do not use current in their homes 
and places of business have not taken the 
step which tends toward their own better- 
ment in every way; what answer they would 
give to the question: Why don't you use 
electricity? If sufficient answers to this 
question could be obtained from people in 
all walks of life and in all localities some 
very interesting data would be available 
and possibly some valuable conclusions 
might be drawn. 

It is presumed that all who are readers 
of Popular Electricity are users of elec- 
tricity in one way or another. But you 
know people who are not, and we would 
like to have you put that question to some 
of them and give us their answers. Some 
may think it too expensive, others may be 
afraid of it, others again may not have cen- 



tral station service available and do not know 
how to obtain current in any other way. 
But no matter what the answers may be 
they will have a value in the data we wish 
to collect, and we will appreciate your 
services in helping to obtain it. Simply 
ask a non-user why he doesn't use electricity 
and give us his answer together with the 
nature of his business (whether he is a house- 
holder, storekeeper, dentist, manufacturer 
or what not). Also any other information 
which might have a bearing, such as the price 
of electricity and of gas in that locality, 
whether fuel is plentiful or scarce. 

The more of these answers we can get the 
better, and we feel that we can depend on 
our readers to help obtain them. 



Still Trim 
Lamps 



One is reminded of the old quotation: 
"Water, water everywhere, but not a drop 
drink," when contemplating 
the curious state of affairs in 
Palermo, Cal. This town, 
which has two railroads pass- 
ing through it and is not out 
of the world by any means, is decades be- 
hind in electrical development, and although 
thousands and thousands of horsepower of 
electrical energy pass through it, the in- 
habitants cannot use the current and are 
worrying along with the old fashioned 
kerosene lamp. The housewife, looking 
through her window, can see the tower of 
the Great Western Power Company's plant 
where 150,000 horsepower of electrical 
energy is developed. In other directions 
can be seen the plants of the Pacific Gas 
and Electric Company and the Oro Water, 
Light and Power Company with thousands 
of horsepower more. Some of the trans- 
mission lines from these plants pass through 
the town, yet the women must trim the 
primitive lamps in the morning for approach- 
ing darkness. 

However, the townspeople look for better 
things, and in the near future their homes 
will in all probability be lighted by electri- 
city from a substation. 





SHORT CIRCUITS 




One of the officials of the Midland railway, com- 
ing from Glen wood Springs recently, was telling a 
young woman on the train how wonderfully productive 
Colorado's irrigated ground is. 

"Really," he explained, "it's so rich that girls who 
walk on it have big feet. It just simply makes their 
feet grow." 

"Huh," was the young woman's rejoinder, "some 
of the Colorado men must have been going around 
walking on their heads." 



rounds, he stopped at one of the mains in a busy street 
to turn off the water, owing to some repairs. He had 
just put the handle on the tap and begun turning, 
when a hand was placed on his shoulder. Looking 
around, he was confronted by a tipsy gentleman, who 
exclaimed solemnly: 

' So I have found you at last, have I? It's you 
that's turning the street around, is it?" 



"Yis, Mrs. Muggins, Pat and Oi part to mate no 
more. Oi wint to the hospital to ax afther him. 
'Oi want to see me husband,' sez Oi; 'the man that 
got bio wed up.' 'Yez can't,' sez the docther, 'he's 
unther the inflooenyce of Ann Esthetics.' 'Oi don't 
know the lady,' sez Oi, mighty dignified loike, 'but if 
me lawful wedded husband can act loike that whin 
he's at death's door, Oi'll have a divorce from him I' " 



A few days after a farmer had sold a pig to a neigh- 
bor he chanced to pass the neighbor's place, where 
he saw their little boy sitting on the edge of the pig- 
pen watching its new occupant. 

"How'd d'ye do, Johnny," said he; "how's your 
pig today?" 

"Oh, pretty well, thank you," replied the boy. 
'How's all your folks?" 



Customer: I look upon you, Sir, as a robber. 
Courteous Solicitor: You are privileged to look 
upon me in any character you choose to assume. 



"What did you do, James, when Edward called you 
a liar?" asked the teacher. 

"I remembered what you said, that 'A soft answer 
turneth away wrath,'" replied James. 

"Good boy. What soft answer did you make?" 
queried the interested teacher. 

"Why, I hit him with a rotten tomato," said James. 



"Is that you, dear?" said a young husband over the 
telephone. "I just called up to say that I'm afraid 
I won't be able to get home to dinner tonight, as I 
am detained at the office." 

"You poor dear," answered the wife sympatheti- 
cally. "I don't wonder. I don't see how you manage 
to get anything done at all with that orchestra play- 
ing in your office. Good-by." 



A Washington woman has in her employ as butler 
a darky of a pompous and satisfied mien who not long 
ago permitted a chocolate-colored damsel, long his 
ardent admirer, to become his spouse. 

On one occasion when the mistress of the house had 
occasion temporarily to avail herself of the services of 
the butler's wife, it was observed that whenever the 
duties of the two brought them in conjunction the 
bride's eyes would shine with extraordinary devotion. 

"Your wife seems wonderfully attached to you, 
George," casually observed the mistress of the house. 

' Yes, ma'am," answered George complacently. 
"Ain't it jest sickenin'?" 



One winter's evening, in "The City of Churches" 
(Brooklyn), when a water inspector was going his 



A rather seedy looking man hurried excitedly from 
the rear coach into the one ahead. "Has anyone got 
any whisky?" he shrilly inquired. "A lady back 
there has fainted." 

Half a dozen flasks were offered instantly. Seizing 
one, he looked at it critically, uncorked it, put it to 
his lips, and took a long, lingering pull. 

"Ah!" he exclaimed, with gusto, "I feel better now. 
Seeing a woman faint always did upset me." 



The teacher had been telling the class about the 
rhinoceros family. "Now, name some things," said 
she, "that are very dangerous to get near to, and 
that have horns." 

"Automobiles!" replied little Jennie Jones, promptly. 



"Fountain pens," snapped the wife, "remind me, 
Horace, of some husbands." 

"Why?" responded the meek little man. 

"Expensive, can't be depended on, won't work, and 
half the time they're broken!" she snorted. 

"That's pretty rough, Marial" bleated Horace. 
"I call it most 'unkind, in fact. Really! But you 
couldn't compare a fountain pen with some women." 

"Of course not!" 

"No, Maria. You see, a fountain pen will dry up, 
and some wives won't." 



Mrs. X (away from home) — John, did you leave out 
anything for the cat before you started? 

Mr. X (who dislikes the beast) — Yes ; I left a can of 
condensedmilk on the table, with the can opener be- 
side it. 

* * * 

A little girl fell out of bed during the night. After 
her mother had picked her up and pacified her, she 
asked her how she happened to fall out. The child 
replied: "I went to sleep too near the place where I 
went in." 




The Night School of the Future 



ELECTRICAL TERMS DEFINED 

In this age of electricity everyone should be versed in its phraseology. 
By studying this page from month to month a working knowledge 
of the most commonly employed electrical terms may be obtained. 




Annealing. — Heating iron used for electro- 
magnets and allowing it to cool gradually increases 
the magnetic conductivity. This process when 
done by passing an electric current through the 
material is termed electric annealing. 

Annunciator. — A magnet and drop arranged 
to indicate, by the latter, when the circuit, nor- 
mally open, is closed. Used on passenger eleva- 
tors to give notice to operator of passenger waiting; 
in hotel offices; on automatic alarms; telephone 
switchboards, etc. 

Anode. — Applied to the plate in an electroplating 
bath from which particles of metal are carried for 
deposition upon the article to be electroplated. 
Also the positive plate in an ordinary battery, the 
positive plate being the one to which the negative 
terminal of the outside circuit is attached. Also 
the positive terminal in an X-ray tube. 

Anion. — The electronegative element or radical 
of a molecule, such as oxygen. It is the portion 
which go to the anode in electrolytic decompo- 
sition. 

Answering Jack. — The termination of a sub- 
scribers' line in a telephone switchboard panel into 
which the operator plugs when answering the call. 
The subscriber's line terminates in only one 
answering jack located in one of the switchboard 
panels. 

Arc. — An electric arc is produced by placing the 
ends of two electrodes near enough to each other 
to allow the voltage to force current across the re- 
sistance of the air gap, these electrodes forming 
the terminals of an electric circuit. This arc pro- 
duces the most intense heat known. 

Arc Lamp. — An electric lamp producing light 
by means of the arc formed between its electrodes. 
These electrodes are ordinarily of carbon, sometimes 
one is of metal, however, as in the magnetite arc 
lamp, sometimes also the carbons have special 
cores as in the flaming arc. Arc lamps are also of 
the open and enclosed types, in the latter the arc 

burning in a globe from which the 1 

air is nearly all excluded. Generally I 

represented in a circuit drawing *> 
thus: I 

Areometer. — A glass tube enlarged and weighted 
at the bottom and having a scale marked on the 
upper portion for measuring the specific gravity of 
a fluid. In a light liquid this tube will float deeper 
than in a heavy one, the specific gravity being read 
directly from the scale. Used in caring for battery 
solutions. 

Armature. — The part of a dynamo or motor 
which revolves between the pole pieces. It con- 
sists of an iron core (usually laminated) on which 
are wound a large number of turns of insulated 
wire. These coils of wire cut the lines of force be- 
tween the magnet poles and, in a dynamo, generate 
electric current. In a motor the lines of force 
react upon the wires of the armature and give the 
latter a rotating movement thus converting electric 
energy into mechanical motion. In some few ma- 
chines the armature is stationary and the fields 



revolve. The term is also applied to the bar or 
mass of iron or steel designed to be acted upon by 
a permanent magnet, as a nail placed across the 
poles of a horseshoe magnet when laid away. 

Armature, Disk. — An armature in which the 
coils are wound so as to be flat and carried on the 
face of a disk forming the core. 

Armature, Drum. — An armature which takes 
the form of a drum or cylinder, the armature wires 
being wound on its surface or in slots below the 
surface. 

Armature, Ring. — Armature whose core is in 
the shape of a ring. 

Armature Coil. — One of the coils wound on 
the armature core in a dynamo or motor. 

Armature Core. — The mass of iron upon which 
the armature coils are wound. 

Armature Reactions. — When a dynamo is do- 
ing work the current in the armature coils sets up 
a magnetic field in addition to that produced by 
the field poles. The effect of these two fields upon 
each other together with the rotation of the arma- 
ture results in armature reaction which may show 
itself in several forms, such as: eddy currents and 
heating, cross magnetization of the armature, 
sparking at the brushes, tendency of the armature 
current to demagnetize on account of the lead of 
the brushes (see Angle of Lead), changing of the 
place (see Neutral Point) wdiere the brushes best 
take current from the commutator. 

Armature Slots. — Slots in the surface of an 
armature core in which the windings are placed. 

Armature Stampings. — Thin pieces of soft 
sheet iron stamped out to the form of the cross- 
section of the armature core. They are then piled 
one above the other to build up the core, forming 
what are called the laminations. They are pressed 
together under hydraulic pressure and mounted 
on the armature shaft. 

Armature Windings. — The coils of wire wound 
on the surface or in the slots of an armature. In 
the larger machines these sometimes take the form 
of copper bars. 

Astatic Galvanometer. — A galvanometer 
equipped with an astatic needle. (See Astatic 
Needle.) 

Astatic Needle. — Two magnetic needles sus- 
pended parallel and near each other with opposite 
poles adjacent and in the same plane. So arranged, 
they are practically unaffected by the earth's mag- 
netism and will remain pointed in any direction. 
This fact is made use of by surrounding one needle 
by a coil of wire leaving the other outside. A very- 
feeble current passed through this coil will produce 
a strong deflection of the needles, the principle being 
made use of in the astatic galvanometer. 

A. W. G. — An abbreviation for "American Wire 
Guage." 

B. S. G. — An abbreviation for "British Standard 
Gauge." 

B. and S. W. G. — An abbreviation for "Brown 
and Sharp's Wire Gauge." 




Popular Electricity 

IN PLAIN ENGLISH 



HENRY WALTER YOUNG. Editor 




Vol. Ill 



July, 1910 



No. 3 



CONTENTS 



Page 
INTERESTING GLIMPSES OF KELVIN. By T. 

C. Martin 175 

GOVERNMENTAL TESTS OF OFFICE DEVICES. 

By Waldon Fawcett 178 

The Progressive Chinee . . . . ; 183 

CURRENT FROM— WHERE? By Edgar Franklin 184 
ELEMENTARY ELECTRICITY. CHAPTER 27. 

By Prof. Edwin J. Houston 191 

Are Dynamos Understood? 195 

THE NON-MAGNETIC YACHT CARNEGIE 196 

ELECTRICAL SECURITIES. By "Contango" 199 

High Speeds and Signals 201 

A "Magic Mirror" , 201 

TALKS WITH THE JUDGE 202 

SOME RAILWAYS OF FRANCE AND NORWAY 203 

Episodes in Electrical Inventions 206 

Graveyard of the Atlantic 206 

WHERE ELECTRICITY STANDS IN THE PRAC- 
TICE OF MEDICINE. CHAPTER 7. By 

Noble M. Eberhart 207 

SPEED AND PLEASURE WITH ELECTRIC 

BOATS 211 

FIRST ELECTRICALLY PROPELLED BAL- 
LOON 212 

Recorders on Berlin Cars 213 

Tunnel from Sweden to Denmark 213 

Brilliant Flaming Arcs 214 

Who Will "Invest" Him? 215 

Electric Traction on Bavarian Roads 215 

The Montefiore Prize 215 

Under-running Trolleys of Paris. By Emile Ruegg 216 

Testing Copper-clad Steel Wire 217 

Batteries Large and Small 217 

The Electric Semaphore 218 

Three Centuries of Electric Bells 218 

Insulating Materials ■ 219 

Tungsten Lights Up First 219 

It Sparks Under Water 220 

Return to Battery Lamps 220 

Ornamental Pendant Pushes 220 

Hiding the Lamps 221 

Electricity from the River Jordan 221 

Old Coffee Roaster Resurrected 221 

Instrument to Detect Gas Leakage 221 

AUTHENTICITY OF STATUARY DETERMINED 

BY X-RAY. By Dr. Alfred Gradenwitz . . 222 

The New York and Paris Subways 223 

The Work of the Crane 224 

Power of Electric Locomotives 224 

Line Construction in Elfland 225 



Electric Engines on Italian Roads 225 

First Wireless Telephone 226 

Tungsten Not a New Metal .' 226 

Electric Soldering Iron 227 

Electric Stove and Toaster 228 

The Door-bell Circuit 228 

How to Make a Warming Pan 229 

Wiring Through Joists 229 

Pocket Wire Gauge 229 

Results of Imperfect Wiring. By George Rice 230 

Protecting Lead Cables 231 

Telephone Magnets in the Making 232 

Electric Crane in the Foundry 235 

The Making of Ozone 235 

Color Changing Fountain 236 

Electric House Pump 236 

To Indicate Propeller Speeds 237 

Rail-cutting Saw 237 

Ignition Trouble Finder 237 

Multi-indicator Switch 238 

Waking the Servants 238 

A Low-voltage Transformer 238 

ELECTRICAL MEN OF THE TIMES— T. Commer- 

ford Martin 239 

The American Electric Girl 240 

THE LETTERS OF A BACHELOR GIRL. By R. 

Gracelyn Everett 241 

Heating in the Future 244 

Planning Home Illumination 244 

A NEW GAME. BY "SPARKS" 245 

AN ELECTRICAL LABORATORY FOR TWEN- 
TY-FIVE DOLLARS. PART 7. By David 

P. Morrison 247 

Electric Clocks as Time Keepers 252 

Determination of Wave Length 253 

TRANSMISSION OF PHOTOGRAPHS BY WIRE- 
LESS 254 

HIGH POWER WIRELESS EQUIPMENT. PART 

3. By Alfred P. Morgan 255 

Effect of Sunlight on Transmission 260 

Newspaper Establishes Wireless Station 260 

Rockland County (N. Y.) Wireless Association 260 

Safeguarding Airships by Wireless 260 

Wi.t-less From Coast to Coast 260 

Sending and Receiving Radii 261 

Wireless Queries 261 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 263-264 

ON POLYPHASE SUBJECTS (N. E. L. A. CON- 
VENTION) 265 

SHORT CIRCUITS 268 

COMMON ELECTRICAL TERMS DEFINED 270 



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Entered as Second Class Matter April 14, 1908, at the Post Office at Chicag-o. Under Act of March S, 1879. 

Copyright 1910 by Popular Electricity Publishing Co. 




By Courtesy of the MacNHlan Compan y 



r n Plain English 



VOL. Ill 



JULY 1910 



No. 3 



Interesting Glimpses of Kelvin 



By T. COMMERFORD MARTIN 



Two interesting books have just been 
given to the world dealing with the career 
and character of the late Lord Kelvin, so 
much better known to the world as Sir 
William Thomson, that a distinguished 
European savant once wrote indignantly to 
London to inquire who the man Kelvin 
was that had the audacity to claim so many 
of the things done by Thomson. It is one 
of the misfortunes of the English peerage 
system that many great men are thus made 
to lead a kind of " double life" in history; for 
after a few hundred years it is difficult to 
remember to whom the changed appellations 
belong. In Kelvin's case, however, al- 
though it might have been better if in be- 
coming ennobled as was his great German 
friend, he had like Helmholtz retained his 
own surname, it does not seem likely that 
the world will readily forget the greatest 
scientist of his century and the great father 
of the submarine cable art. 

One of these biographies is by Prof. 
Silvanus Thompson and is worthy the pe- 
rusal of any student of physics. The other 
is "Lord Kelvin's Early Home," being 
chiefly the simple, unaffected but very charm- 
ing reminiscences of his sister, the late Mrs. 
Elizabeth King, throwing vivid flashes of 
light upon the youth of the great scientist. 
As the son of a professor of no mean attain- 
ment, it was not unnatural that William 
Thomson should have manifested precocity 
and even genius. Mention is made of the 
after-dinner study of the globes in the pro- 
fessor's home, and of arithmetic. " William 
was scarcely four when he began to take 
some part in these cheerful after-dinner 



lessons, and from the very first be showed 
the wonderful mental capacity with which 
he was endowed." A little prodigy is 
sometimes a little prig, but it is pleasant to 
learn that Thomson was very natural as 
well as intellectual, and there is one amusing 
story of the mere infant being found one day 
seated before a looking glass and remarking 
complacently to himself: "P'itty blue eyes 
Willie Thomson got!" There is much in 
the two books to show that Thomson was, 
in fact, one of the marvels of the time in 
his astounding precocity, very much like 
the mathematical genius that has of late 
been enjoying the applause of the pundits 
of Harvard. In 1834, when only ten, he 
is described as working upon electrical ap- 
paratus, and shortly after that he entered 
the University of Glasgow as a student. 
Within a year he had won two prizes and 
by the time he was twelve secured another 
prize for translating Lucian's brilliant sat- 
ires: "Dialogues of The Gods," and for 
parsing completely the first three dialogues. 
Imagine a Japanese boy of twelve doing 
the same with three of Skakespeare's plays, 
and we form a relative idea of the feat. 

People began to get interested. When he 
was fifteen Thomson was a prize man in 
natural philosophy, and a year later had 
the class prize in astronomy, and a university 
medal for an essay on "The Figure of The 
Earth." Taking a trip to Germany with 
his father, he smuggles into his box a cele- 
brated French book on heat, and at Frank- 
fort goes surreptitiously down to the cellar 
to read it, for fear his father might object. 
At seventeen he goes up to Cambridge Uni- 



176 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




versity, and soon begins to contribute to its 
"Mathematical Journal," his articles plac- 
ing him in line with the greatest mathema- 
ticians and physicists of the period. Gradu- 
ating with highest honors at twenty-one, he 
becomes professor at Glasgow in natural phil- 
osophy at twenty-two, and gets into touch with 
Helmholtz, Faraday and the other intel- 



jjy Vourtzsy of the MacMUlan company 

lectual leaders of the day. All this was cer- 
tainly "going some," and he kept up the 
pace not only through the fifty years of his 
notable professorship but up to the very 
time of his death in 1907. He wrote and 
delivered during that fruitful life some 300 
papers, addresses, etc., on all the great 
physical questions, particularly those re- 



INTERESTING GLIMPSES OF KELVIN 



177 



lating to the nature of the solar system and 
to electricity and magnetism — many of them 
of the first importance. He was engaged in 
controversy meanwhile with such men as 
Huxley, but always held his own, and a 
little more. Added to this were his numer- 
ous inventions and his great conquest of 
the science and art of submarine telegraphy. 
Westminster Abbey contains the remains 
of many great English worthies; but cer- 
tainly no finer genius is there enshrined than 
Kelvin. 

Prof. Thompson devotes wisely a large 
part of his biography to the story of the 
Atlantic cable. It is ever fresh and exciting, 
and as here narrated the part of the plain 
college professor in pushing to success the 
daring plans of Cyrus Field and his asso- 
ciates is seen to be of the most vital nature. 
In 1855, telegraphy on land was not very 
far advanced, and in this country still 
awaited the touch of Edison, then only eight 
years old. Even when the pioneers were 
able to get laid their primitive cables, they 
did not know how to work them. The 
popular plan was to jam into them all the 
current that could be got from big batteries 
and strong induction coils; and if dynamos 
had been handy in those days they would 
assuredly have been hitched on to furnish 
even heavier doses. No wonder the fragile 
cables gave up the ghost ! William Thomson 
was the homeopathist who showed that deli- 
cate currents too weak for human sensation 
would do the work, and the cables were 
saved. There was endless research and 
invention in all this, but not satisfied he 
brought in two kinds of instruments to re- 
cord the "talking." His mirror galvan- 
ometer gave the pulsing signals in little 
flashes of light; and then he supplemented 
that with the siphon recorder which writes 
the message out on tape in tiny hills and 
valleys that the expert operator reads at 
a glance. These two wonderful advances 
made the art practicable, helped bring into 
being the extensive modern cable systems of 
the world, and incidentally made a number 
of millionaires, of whom Sir William him- 
self was deservedly one. 

He who did this was able to appreciate 
all the more such inventions as Edison's 
incandescent lamp, Bell's telephone, West- 
inghouse's air brake — and he did. Every 
visit to this country was a source of inspira- 
tion to him, and he loved to take back with 
him some new example of American in- 



genuity. He was deeply interested, more- 
over, in the utilization of Niagara, and was 
stout in defense of those who, believing in 
the conservation policy discovered much 
later by President Roosevelt, did their best 
to prevent such waste of needed energy from 
going on for ever. 

There are many human touches in Prof. 
Thompson's handsome volumes. Kelvin is 
shown as fond of music, and as playing the 
cornet in the college band. He took up 
rowing at Cambridge for the exercise, and 
won the silver sculls. When he got money 
at last, he indulged his taste for sailing and 
bought a staunch seagoing yacht, the "Lalla 
Rookh," which in the long summer vacation 
he would navigate himself, turning it into 
a floating laboratory, and sometimes leaving 
his guests to flop around on the wet decks by 
themselves when he happened in a hurry to 
note some wave effect or think out some 
formula and would take a hurried header 
down below to record it in one of his ever- 
lasting little green note books. With re- 
gard" to the work he did in his mariner's 
compass, finding the position of a ship at 
sea, the nature of the tides, etc., Prof. 
Thompson quotes the following incident 
related to him: "I don't know," said a sailor 
in the distant seas of the East, "who this 
Thomson may be, but every sailor ought to 
pray for him every night." 

Many of the stories and incidents refer 
to Kelvin's work as a teacher. He appears 
to have been a great teacher, but not in the 
strict pedagogic sense. He was not exactly 
ideal for the handling of large clasess, but 
was a great intellectual stimulus to the stu- 
dents who could appreciate what he was 
driving at and who were willing to follow 
up his line of thought and experiment. His 
consumption of chalk at the blackboard was 
enormous, in working out the equations, but 
he did insist on proving all things and loved 
to take a share himself. Helmholtz tells 
how " Thomson's experiment did for my 
new hat." — The eager investigator threw a 
metal disk into rotation and hit it with a 
hammer, treatment which the disk resented 
so much that it flew in one direction while 
the iron foot on which it was revolving went 
off in another, ripping up the savant's hat 
and pretty nearly braining him. Another 
amusing picture is that of the Paris Electrical 
Congress of 1881 where there was mani- 
fested a strong feeling in favor of abandoning 
the British Association's unit of resistance, 



178 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



the ohm, in favor of Siemens's unit, the col- 
umn of mercury, one meter long. "The 
debate grew warm. One who was present 
has narrated the unforgettable scene of 
comedy of Thomson and Helmholtz dis- 
puting hotly in French which each pro- 
nounced more suo, to the edification of the 



representatives of other nationalities." It 
may be noted in passing that his house was 
the first in Scotland to be lighted by elec- 
tricity. Altogether in these books we en- 
joy a splendid and vivid picture of a great 
genius, and of the greatest electrician in 
England for at least fifty years. 



Governmental Test of Office Devices 



By WALDON FAWCETT 



There has recently been held under the 
auspices of the national government at 
Washington, D. C, a unique test and de- 
monstration of no little significance to the 
electrical interests of the country. This 
event which was conducted by Federal 
officials acting wholly disinterestedly in the 
cause of general progress, consisted, primari- 
ly, of an exhibit of labor-saving devices 
suitable for office work and was held in 
the Treasury Building. There were more 
than 70 different exhibits, many of them of 
most elaborate character. 

Participating in this practical " try-out" 
of modern office aids and business equipment 
were not only all the well-known firms manu- 




facturing such utilities but many inventors 
and newcomers among electricians and 
manufacturers who presented novelties of 
recent inception. Moreover, the magnet 




NEW MODEL ADDRESSOGRAPH 



POSTAGE STAMP PERFORATOR 

of prospective heavy government contracts 
served to induce the first public demonstra- 
tions of a number of mechanical and elec- 
trical marvels which have never been ex- 
ploited at any of the "business shows" or 
electrical expositions held in our larger 
cities of late years. The contemplation of 
new business, as mentioned, was due to the 
fact that this whole exhibition was planned 
as means to the end of modernizing the 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



179 




FLEXOTYPE FOR DUPLICATING TYPEWRITTEN SHEETS 



equipment of our government offices. Heads 
of bureaus, chiefs of divisions, and in fact 
all officers and clerks of the various depart- , 
ments in Washington and Uncle Sam's 
"branch offices" throughout the country 
were invited to familiarize themselves with 
the devices shown and to make recommen- 
dations for the adoption of any that might 
seem to give promise of promoting economy 
or efficiency. 

A number of circumstances and consid- 
erations rendered notable and significant 
this new departure on the part of the govern- 
ment. However, probably the most im- 
pressive object lesson afforded by this com- 
petition concerned the rapid and tremendous 
growth of the use of electricity for power 
purposes of all kinds, in the up-to-date 
business office. Reference is not made, 
of course, to the indispensables such as elec- 
tric lights, electric fans, electric elevators, 
etc. All such are established institutions, 
although improvements are continually mak- 
ing their appearance. Rather does the newer 
development contemplate the displacing of 
hand power by electricity in all the functions 
of recording dictation, writing letters, re- 
producing typewriting, folding letters and 



circulars, addressing and sealing envelopes, 
and all the other functions of office routine. 
With examples of the various classes of 
machines, shown at the Treasury, in opera- 
tion in a well-fitted office, very little human 
brawn will be required to dispatch business, 
and to do it, too, in far less space than 
would be required under the old methods. 

Persons who have kept at all in touch with 
the trend of the times have noted in recent 
years the strong tendency to have electricity 
supplant all other forms of power as the 
universal source of energy for office activi- 
ties in all branches of the work-a-day world. 
What has not been generally appreciated, 
however, even by electricians themselves 
is that there is no field where this new func- 
tion of electricity has been so welcome or 
where it finds such boundless opportunities 
awaiting it as in the government offices. 
For one thing Uncle Sam has plenty of elec- 
tricity and to spare — manufacturing his own 
current for most of his big business estab- 
lishments at the seat of government— and 
consequently there is never any question 
regarding available current. Secondly, the 
national government has need of electrical 
helpers in the discharge of office routine 



180 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




SHOWING THE SENDING AND RECEIVING PARTS OF THE TELAUTOGRAPH 



because Uncle Sam does business . on so 
much larger scale than the average private 
institution. With upward of 30,000 em- 
ployees (in Washington alone) to be kept 
constantly in touch with one another; with 
dozens of different mailing lists, some of 
them containing as high as 50,000 names 
to be handled daily or weekly, and with other 
chores of corresponding proportions it goes 
without saying that the central government 
needs something much speedier than hand 
labor if desks are to be kept cleared for 
action. 

Consequently the government officials who 
planned the recent exhibition of office ap- 
pliances rather specialized on electrical 
toilers. No charge was made, of course, 
for exhibit space and electric current at 
no volts or 220 volts direct was furnished 
free to all exhibitors who would make use 
of it. Many of the new inventions or new 
models of old appliances which were dis- 
played were designed especially for electrical 
operation but equally interesting were the 
object lessons afforded as to what may be 
accomplished by harnessing the magic cur- 
rent to equipment, such as some of the smal- 
ler desk devices, which until a few years 
ago Avere never thought of as adapted to 
other than hand power manipulation. 

A distinctive feature of the governmental 
demonstration as reflecting electrical prog- 
ress was the evidence of the advantages of 



"electric drive" for all manner of type- 
writer reproducing, manifolding and office 
printing outfits, indexing and addressing 
machines, etc. Only a few years ago this 
important new class of time-saving and 
labor-saving office equipment provided for 
nothing but hand operation. Now all the 
new models of such machines, as shown for 
the .first time at the Treasury display, are 
motor driven, motors ranging in power from 
I to 1 -1 6 horsepower being employed in a 
majority of instances. 




DICTATING TO THE DICTAPHONE 

Electrical operation, combined with auto- 
matic feed, also made practicable through 
the introduction of electrical power, has 
enabled great increases in the speed and con- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



181 



sequently in the capacity of machines of 
this class. For instance a new model ad- 
dressograph, equipped with automatic en- 
velope and card feed, which was tested at 
the Treasury, maintained a speed of two 
addresses per second for " runs" of consider- 
able length. This machine fed envelopes 
and cards ranging all the way from five to 



like notices which must be selected for 
printing according to date. Under the new 
scheme all the cards or stencils are put into 
the magazine of the machine and the appa- 
ratus set in operation, whereupon this won- 
derful toiler automatically picks out the 
cards that should be printed and allows the 
others to go through without making any 
impressions. This auto- 
matic selection is accom- 
plished by means of dif- 
ferent notches on the 
frames of the cards or 
stencils which cause them 
to be separated accord- 
ing to months or by any 
other system of classifica- 
tion desired. 




10 inches, in their greatest 
dimension, with uniformly 
satisfactory results, the 
adjustments for the dif- 
ferent sizes and weights 
being made on an aver- 
age of less than on minute 
for each such change. 
An interesting feature was 
the evidence afforded that the shape 
of the flap on an envelope did not 
affect the successful operation of the ma- 
chine, the envelopes in this new model not 
being carried to the printing position by the 
flap. The electrical feed mechanism in this 
machine is rotary in its movement. 

Some of the newly perfected motor-driven 
rapid addressing machines which were 
"tried out" before the government officials 
featured not only an automatic envelope 
feed but also an automatic wrapper cutter 
attachment, actuated by electricity. That 
electrical operation has been reduced to a 
perfect stage is eloquently proven by the 
fact that machines of this type are being 
used nowadays for sending out premium 
notices to insurance policy holders and other 



TALKING INTO THE DICTOGRAPH 

Worthy co-workers of the new and im- 
proved patterns of addressing and mailing 
machines are the electrical letter folding 
machines and the electric envelope sealing 
machines. The former are especially mar- 
velous in their well-nigh human capabilities. 
The new electrically operated folders de- 
monstrated at the government test, and each 
operated by a motor of one-sixteenth horse- 
power, attested their ability to fold letters, 
bulletins and other printed or typewritten 
documents in note, letter and legal sizes 
into standard folds for large and small size 
envelopes. Tests were made on thin, 
medium, heavy, smooth and rough papers. 
Sheets are fed automatically, folded singly 
and stacked consecutively ready for inser- 



182 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



be run at a better gait, with evenness and 
uniformity of operation, than would be pos- 
sible with hand power and, furthermore, 
power operation combined with the safe- 
guard above described makes practicable 
two-handed feeding. As high as 8000 
letters per hour were printed by one of these 
machines under test. Even these improve- 
ments will be overshadowed a few weeks 
hence when an electrically operated auto- 
matic paper feed is to be introduced for use 
in conjunction with such machines. It will 
feed from the bottom of an eight-inch stack 
of paper and this new operation, alike to 
all the others involved in the action of the 
machine, will be carried out by the power 



tion into the envelopes and at a speed about 
eight times as fast as experts can fold by 
hand. 

No class of office equipment has been the 
subject during recent years of such speciali- 
zation as that embracing the various forms 
of printing, manifolding and duplicating 
apparatus for reproducing typewriting, etc. 
Uncle Sam has been a powerful incentive 
to the development of this class of apparatus 
because one or another of these office ad- 
juncts are used for the production of all 
the governmental form letters, bulletins, 
etc., that are not issued from a regular print- 
ing press. A few years ago in all govern- 
mental offices, as in all private business es- 
tablishments, there were 
to be seen nothing but the 
hand-operated machines of 
this class, and in many a 
Federal office two, three 
or even four men gave up 
practically their entire time 
to the work involved. 
Now a long step forward 
has been taken with the 
introduction of the elec- 
trically operated duplica- 
tors, and the recent educa- 
tional event in Washing- 
ton witnessed the suc- 
cessful conduct of motor- 
driven mimeographs, writ- PROTECT 
er presses, printographs and all the other 
members of this large family. 

It has long been recognized that motor 
drive if introduced successfully would con- 
tribute tremendously to the economy of office 
printing and duplicating apparatus. The 
trouble has been in many of the attempts 
made in this direction that infallibility of 
feeding could not be depended upon and any 
slip-up in this respect spelled disaster. The 
best of operators would skip a sheet occa- 
sionally and when the cylinder of the ma- 
chine turned without a sheet feeding the 
imprint would be received on the platen and 
each succeeding sheet blurred or offset on 
the back, requiring the cleaning of the platen. 
With the latest type of machines, however — 
for instance, the motor-driven flexotype — 
the machine automatically detects the fail- 
ure of the operator to feed the sheet and 
instantly lowers the platen in time to pre- 
vent the offset. 

Electrical operation has meant greater 
speed because a duplicating apparatus can 




furnished from a one-eighth horsepower 
motor, operating on either direct or alternat- 
ing current. 

The government demonstration embraced 
another modern invention for the reproduc- 
tion of writing but of a character widely 
dissimilar to those above mentioned. This 
is the telautograph, an electrical device 
which enables the transmission instantane- 
ously to a distance of handwriting of any 
kind. The equipment of the station as 
installed at the United States Treasury con- 
sisted of a transmitter and receiver associated 
together so that messages could be either 
sent to or received from the other end of 
the line. The telautograph which operates 
on well known and reliable electrical prin- 
ciples is self-registering. It makes two 
records, one for the sender and one for the 
person addressed, the latter, if absent, 
finding the message on his return. Two 
instruments may be used for a simple pri- 
vate line between two points or a number of 
instruments at various points may be con- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



183 



nected to a switchboard to send and re- 
ceive messages in a manner similar to the 
operation of telephones through a central 
exchange. One transmitter may be con- 
nected to operate a number of receivers 
simultaneously in series, the same message 
going to all, or one transmitter may be used 
in connection with any one of a number of 
receivers by means of a rotary or cam 
switch, distributing the messages as re- 
quired. 

The telautograph did not, on this recent 
occasion, have its first introduction to the 
government officials for it has already been 
adopted by the United States Army for the 
coast defense artillery service and by the 
Navy Department for use on the warships. 
The line wires for the telautograph are in- 
stalled according to the rules which are 
followed in telephone line construction. 
For exterior service two line wires are re- 
quired between stations. For interior ser- 
vice there is used a special type of instrument 
that requires three wires. Operating, cur- 
rent is taken from the ordinary direct cur-, 
rent electric lighting mains, or if only alter- 
nating current can be obtained a motor 
generator is used to convert it to direct 
current. 

New models of electrical apparatus for 
voice reproduction arid transmission had 
prominent place. 

Conspicuous among the number was the 
new model dictaphone. This form of busi- 
ness phonograph has, in its essential char- 
acteristics, been familiar to the public for 
some time past but the new model has a 
number of improvements, among the added 
features being a resistance coil enabling the 
use of either direct or alternating current. 
The cylinder of the new machine will run 
for twelve minutes instead of only eight 
minutes as formerly, and in the tests it 
was demonstrated that as high as 3,300 
words can be recorded upon a single 
cylinder. 

At the governmental event there was given 
for the first time under such circumstances 
a complete demonstration of the dictagraph, 
the vehicle of electrical communication which 
has been hailed as the successor of the tele- 
phone. A master station was established 
in one of the rooms in the basement of the 
Treasury while at a substation in another 
room some distance away sat a stenographer 
who received and repeated dictation at 
varying speeds. 



A novelty of the display was an electrically 
operated postage stamp perforator for per- 
forating postage stamps with letters, nu- 
merals or other marks or devices for identifi- 
cation purposes — an effective preventative 
of theft by dishonest employees. 
^ As noted above, too, there was an illustra- 
tion of the extent to which electrical operation 
has lately been adopted for minor office de- 
vices. For instance there is the new elec- 
trically operated protectograph, the function 
of which is to offer a safeguard against the 
"raising" of bank checks. Electrical opera- 
tion will be advantageous in large business 
establishments and government offices where 
great numbers of checks are prepared. 



The Progressive Chinee 



Hing Kee, a Chinese laundry man in the 
City of New York, had been induced by the 
New York Edison Company to buy an elec- 
tric washing machine. After he had used 
it a while he became highly enthusiastic 
about it and wrote the company the follow- 
ing letter. 



&/$ — -m A % 



w 
*} 



■* HI 

>te ft 



And here is the translation: 
Dear Sirs: 

My electric washing machine you make 
run by electric is very good and saves me 
lot of money. I have.it in over three months 
and it never stops. We get more business 
for we can wash quicker and cleaner. 
Send me man about new electric light I 
see in the stores. 

Hing Kee, 
204 E. 13th St. 
. Chinamen are said^to be heathens. Are 
they? 



Current From — Where? 



BY EDGAR FRANKLIN 



CHAPTER V. 

THE MAYOR INQUIRES 



Now, there is something about a pistol 
bullet, flattening little more than a foot above 
one's head, which convinces the average 
man that he is in the wrong — temporarily, at 
any rate. Hardly anyone will stop and argue 
the question with you, if you demonstrate 
clearly a firm determination to allow the 
passing of spring breezes through his 
anatomy. 

Race seemed not to differ from the aver- 
age man; for he gripped Dunbar's arm 
and whispered, so rapidly that the words fell 
over one another: 

"Don't stop! Go on! Keep low down, 
Bill! He can't see! Run like the devil 
when we're clear of the building!" 

And Mr. Race set the example. 

With the least possible commotion, he 
hugged the brick wall and — travelled. Some- 
times running low, sometimes ploughing 
along on all fours, he cleared the wall with 
Dunbar at his heels, just as a second shot 
crashed out behind. Doors were opening — 
they heard the creak of a shutter hinge 
— the landscape just behind grew lighter for 
a few seconds — and a third shot followed 
them. 

And they ran. 

There was a barbed wire fence to expect. 
They met it, head on. They found poles 
and went over, monkey fashion; and without 
a pause they plunged ahead through the 
rough fields. 

Later, when drops of perspiration were 
fairly streaming behind and breath was 
coming hard, luck sent them stumbling 
straight into the main road at the far side 
of town, and in the distance they caught 
the faint twinkle of an outlying street lamp 
and there, at last, they slowed to a walk 
and listened. 

The annoyed cluck of an awakened chicken 
was the solitary sound to meet their ears; 
and Race heaved a choking sigh of relief. 

"Well — either we've outrun them or 
they didn't chase us far," he panted. 

Dunbar, leaning against a tree, could not 
speak for a moment; then: 

"Did you see it all too?" 

"I saw it." 



"I — I don't mean so much the plant it- 
self. I've been expecting to find that all 
.afternoon, somehow. But — did you see 
how it was laid out?" 

"Huh?" asked Mr. Race, as his handker- 
chief started on a new mopping tour. 
. "Why, he's built the place so as to leave 
plenty of room for tlie stuff we've bought for 
our station. Ten feet from that big unit 
he's left the floor all unfinished, so that there 
won't even, be any bother setting up our 
engines when he gets them." 

"Are you indicating that he's even getting 
ready to fit our own engine beds in his in- 
fernal place?" 

"Certainly. It's clear as daylight, isn't 
it — the whole business? Bowers has us 
where he wants us. He's put up a good 
spacious building. He's set up a generator 
big enough to do all the lighting, at least. 
He's left room to absorb our stuff and be 
ready to handle the power end for two or 
three years to come as well." 

Mr. Race stared at the distant lamp for 
nearly a minute. 

"Let's go home, Bill," he said at last. 
"This night air's bad for you." 

On their way to business next morning, 
Race left Dunbar, some two blocks from the 
office, to pursue his way alone. 

When the president himself put in an 
appearance, it was with Mr. Keller. 

Mr. Keller seemed entirely calm and un- 
hurried this morning. His keen little eyes 
were a trifle keener than usual as he found 
a chair; his lean neck seemed more angular 
as it thrust his lean face forward to an angle 
of constant attention; and he patted down 
his little old fashioned black tie and straight- 
ened his impeccable collar. 

Race dropped wearily into his own place 
and sighed: 

"I've told Keller the main facts." 

The attorney nodded. 

"As I understand it, Mr. Dunbar and 
Mr. Race, you visited Bowers' new factory 
at an early hour this morning — you dis- 
covered it to be an electric power plant — 
and while peeking through a shutter, a 
watchman shot at you and you escaped." 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



185 



The pair nodded. Mr. Carey lit a cigar 
and sat silent. 

"From what little I heard yesterday and 
from what Mr. Race told me as we came 
here, the conclusion seems pretty obvious. 
Bowers has his plans entirely cut and dried, 
to keep you out of the business until your 
time limit has passed and then secure a 
franchise for himself and start business in 
earnest." 

"But Mayor Wendell " Dunbar be- 
gan. 

Keller's long, keen, dry stare stopped 
him. 

"Upon my word of honor, gentlemen, I 
know practically nothing about politics in 
our city. But I presume they are much 
like politics in other cities." 

"Which means " 

"Anything you like to have it mean," 
Keller smiled. "Now that we are, to all 
intents, certain of the situation, what are 
we going to do about it?" 

'"Well, that's what you're here to tell us," 
Race said, vigorously. 

"What do you want to do?" 

"Put that Bowers plant straight out of 
business." 

"Naturally. Why not get a few pounds of 
dynamite and make another evening call?" 
smiled the lawyer. "Don't let that excit- 
able nature run away with you, Mr. Race." 
He settled back in his chair. "There are 
laws here as elsewhere, and we'll have to 
be governed by them. Now, in the very 
first place, are you positive of your ability 
to make good on the first of July?" 

"No," said Race, frankly. 

"That's -the saddest feature in the very 
beginning. As to Bowers — do you know 
any law that forbids him building a power 
plant or a dozen of them, so long as he 
remains within the law and attends to his 
own business? Is there anything to pre- 
vent his constructing a line of central sta- 
tions from here to Jericho, so that he pays 
his bills and annoys no one?" 

"No. I suppose not.!' 

"Take another tack. Do you want to 
have a warrant issued, go back tonight with 
an officer, and arrest the man?" 

"There might be something in that." 

"Then again, there might not. They 
tell me Bowers has signs all over his proper- 
ty, forbidding trespass of any sort. It is 
possible, in the present condition of affairs, 
that Bowers might choose to raise a time 



about it. At any rate — will you gain any- 
thing?" 

"I presume that we'd advertise the fact 
that we're worried to death, all over town!" 
suggested Carey. 

"Benefit to be gained thereby?" 

"Hardly!" snapped Race. 

"Has Bowers — or anyone else — ever inter- 
fered with your lines or your equipment?" 

"No. Except that armature " 

"That's a matter for the railroad, I'm 
afraid. You've no actual evidence that it 
wasn't an accident?" 

"No." 

Keller leaned forward, until his thin elbow 
rested on the^president's desk. - 

"To call a thing a case, a Court demands 
real proof, gentlemen. You haven't one 
iota of that, have you? You — I — all four 
of us know now just what is going on. If 
we had known it all three or four months 
ago — if we'd had time to get a couple of 
good detectives here, to gather real evidence 
and real witnesses — I'd guarantee, without 
knowing one of the inside details, to give 
Mr. Bowers and whoever may be his asso- 
ciates and accomplices, such a thorough 
airing in court that they'd seek the sea-coast 
for a change of climate. And what's more, 
they'd stay there." 

"Well, that's the talk!" Race exclaimed. 

"And it is only talk," said Keller. "It's 
too late now, as I understand matters. Be- 
fore we'd get a chance to have the case 
heard, provided evidence walked straight 
in here, June would be over. What's more, 
assuming we could force our way straight 
in now, all three of you would have to be 
present, which would leave business here 
pretty near a standstill, eh ?" 

"Yes." 

"And be doubtful of outcome at the best," 
concluded Mr. Keller. 

For a little time, he looked over the 
gloomy trio; then he arose slowly. 

"Gentlemen, you believe that I have — 
that I am — advising for the best interests 
of this company?" 

"Certainly," said its president. 

"Then you have one course to travel 
and only one. Deliver the goods on time 
or quit good losers." He picked up his 
hat. "My place is not to inquire into your 
financial standing. With sufficient money 
at your command, I presume you could 
rush in a wholly new equipment for your 
plant. Doubtless it would be expensive. 



186 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Doubtless, also, it would be more expensive 
to burn seven-dollar coal. But in the course 
of time, we can unquestionably force these 
Stelton people to a proper price." 

"How long?" Carey inquired quickly. 

"I have no idea whatever. They're in 
a strong position, evidently, and there are 
probably resources behind them. 

I'm sorry. I'm sorrier than I can say. I 
could snow you under with legal expenses 
— to no end. Try to be cheerful. Keep 
up the impression that everything is lovely, 
to the last moment, if you want to, up to 
the last second. But if you have to quit — 
well, do it with a grin and die game," said 
Mr. Keller, mournfully. "Good day." 

There was no undue clatter of joyful 
talk as the door closed behind. 

For a minute or so, all three stared at the 
floor, as if the corpse of their company lay 
there at rest. Then, for the same idea was 
in three heads, two pairs of eyes met Mr. 
Carey's — and he shook his head sadly. 

"If I were certain that it was worth the 
risk — certain that we could buy coal properly 
within a reasonable time — certain that, hav- 
ing once started, we could go on without 
incessant opposition and trouble, and eventu- 
ally put the proposition on a paying basis, 
however small, I would gladly raise the 
money now and do it. As it is, I cannot." 

Neither of the younger men spoke. When 
Mr. Carey had had his say, there was nothing 
to be added. 

"If it appears that you have both lost all 
you have put in, I shall make it up to you," 
said Carey, with a slight smile. "I was the 
one who suggested the thing in the first 
instance." 

"We don't want you to do it!" Race 
cried, almost wrathfully. "We don't want 
to — to just drop out of the procession and 
cry for our money back because we couldn't 
keep up. We've undertaken the job of 
lighting this benighted burg, and by the 
living " 

"Shut up!" said Dunbar politely. 

"Hey?" 

"More company!" announced the en- 
gineer. And as he squinted at the approach- 
ing pair through the glass door, he straight- 
ened up with a jerk and produced a con- 
tented smile that was neither more nor less 
than miraculous. "I'll be drawn and 
quartered if it isn't the Mayor and the 
president of the microscopic Board of 
Aldermen!" 



The guiding spirits of the electric com- 
pany were growing hardened to rapid 
changes of countenance. Possibly one sec- 
ond later, they were smiling and chatting; 
and when the street door opened, they looked 
up, surprised, and rose to greet the visitors. 

Mr. Wendell, Mayor of Bronton, was a 
nice little old man, with sharp little red eyes 
and long white beard. He had grown up 
with Bronton; he had been Chief of Police 
when the town found need of a uniformed 
force; except for Link, the retired miner, 
he had been essentially the only candidate 
at Bronton's first mayoralty election. 

As for Schwartz, of the aldermanic body, 
he was the biggest butcher in Bronton and 
had been for years. He was a man of im- 
portance, wholly out of place in any official 
capacity short of the Governor's chair — 
and he knew it well. 

Greetings were exchanged — and the elec- 
tric trio wondered actively as both exalted 
visitors settled in their chairs with an air 
of real business. 

"We have — um — called to look things 
over," Mr. Wendell set down as a fact. 

"Sorter see how you're gettin' on, y' 
know," supplemented Mr. Schwartz. 

"You are welcome, gentlemen — certainly 
very welcome indeed," beamed Mr. Race. 

"Um — yes. Thanks," said the Mayor. 
"Everything in proper running order, I 
presume?" 

"Got your lines all up in fine shape, ain't 
you?" bawled the president of the Board, 
with almost weird heartiness. 

"Our line construction is complete all 
over the city — every one of our consumers, 
under yearly contract and otherwise, has 
had his wiring inspected and approved — 
lamps are all ready to be installed, down at 
the central station. Yes!" 

"Um — that central station, Mr. Race," 
the Mayor looked at him with keen interest, 
"is that all ready to start up?" 

"He means, could you go down there 
now, light up the fires and illuminate the 
city tonight!" Schwartz added. 

"Essentially so — essentially so," said the 
president of the company, happily. "Of 
course, we couldn't precisely fulfill Mr. 
Schwartz's expectations. There are always 
finishing touches to be put on." 

"I see." The Mayor nodded. "I sent 
a man down there yesterday to look things 
over, and one of your men chased him off 
the place." 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



187 



"We do not encourage visitors at present, 
Mr. Mayor," Race laughed, airily. "We 
are going to give the city a surprise — and 
on the first of July and afterward, the entire 
public of Bronton will be welcome to view 
as perfect a central station as money and 
modern methods can provide." 

It sounded extremely well. The Mayor 
allowed the briefest glance to wander in 
the direction of his companion. 

"Then you can assure us beyond any 
shadow of doubt, that everything will be 
in perfect working order on time.?" 

"I can," said Mr. Race, blandly. It was 
quite the truth ; he could have assured them 
with equal ease that the planets were about 
to form a trust and travel hereafter in a sort 
of celestial combine. 

"And even if something unavoidable 
should turn up to delay us for a day or two," 
Carey put in, "the city would no doubt 
grant us a reasonable extension of time?" 

With a start, the elderly Mayor faced 
him. His eyes bulged a little and he blinked 
them back before he said: 

"No! That's just it! The city wouldn't!" 



CHAPTER VI. 

STRAIGHT TO THE WOODS 

Mr. Carey scowled. 

Mr. Race, whom little less than dynamite 
could have startled now, maintained his 
smile without great effort. After all, the 
gentle edict of the Mayor seemed to put a 
neat, workmanlike finish on the situation; 
it was the last, shining nail to be driven into 
the lid of their electric coffin, and without 
it, the obsequies would hardly have been 
complete. 

"The city — wouldn't ?" escaped him rather 
stammeringly, however. 

"No, sir! The city would not," repeated 
her Mayor. 

"V see, we held a special meetin' to 
consider it!" said Schwartz, who was the 
tactful, secretive politician personified. "We 
voted unanimous that we couldn't give you 
no more time if things weren't ready on the 
first." 

Slowly, Race sat down before his desk; 
and if his eye appeared wholly calm and 
genial at first glance, a closer study might 
have revealed a dancing, ugly fire somewhere 
within. 

"Just why" he said, "did you find it 
necessary to call the Board together to con- 
sider us?" 



"Be— because," said Mr. Wendell, stiff- 
ly, "because the matter was deemed worthy 
of especial consideration." 

11 Why?" persisted the president. 

The Mayor pursed his lips, crossed his 
legs and expanded his official chest. 

"There have been rumors, Mr. Race, 
that you had little or no chance of starting 
up your plant on time." 

"Where did they come from? Who told 
you that?" Race asked, with his easy smile. 

"Personally, I may say — directly, that is 
— no one has spoken to me in the matter, 
save " 

"Well — save what?" the president shot 
in, as the Mayor cleared his throat. 

"Save — um — in an official capacity, re- 
porting to me." 

"Hearsay evidence?" 

"Um — well, yes." 

"Did you send anyone to get hearsay 
evidence against us?" Mr. Race asked, 
politely. 

"Why — God bless my soul! We — cer- 
tainly not!" 

"Then, if it isn't impertinent, may I ask 
again why it was necessary to call a special 
meeting to consider hearsay evidence." 

Mr. Wendell was not quite accustomed to 
being cross-examined. Indeed, he had been 
Bronton's star Prominent Citizen for so 
many years that this kind of heresy stag- 
gered him. 

"Now listen to me a moment," Race con- 
tinued, "before this electric business ever saw 
one cent of our investment, I went to you 
personally — I talked to you and to the Board. 
I showed you that we stood ready to furnish 
the city with light and power at a rate cheaper 
than any other city of this size that you can 
quote. I didn't ask one thing of you, save 
that you give us the sole right to make elec- 
tricity here for public consumption. I ex- 
pected to pay pretty well for that franchise. 
You wouldn't hear of it. You were all too 
devilish grateful that somebody'd taken 
enough interest in your ten-cent town to 
light it," Race's voice was rising. "I 
thought you might stick on our getting our 
poles up last fall, rather than risk a delay 
this spring, if the ground thawed out late. 
And you said, both of you, .that, even if we 
had a late spring, a month or so one way or 
the other wouldn't make any difference. 
Do you remember that?" 

"No!" said the Mayor of Bronton, as his 
face turned a vivid red. 



188 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



"I don't remember nothin' like that, 
either," Mr. Schwartz blustered. "Maybe 
somebody said it in joke. I dunno. Any- 
way, you ain't got it in writing? No!" 

"I haven't it in writing no!" sneered 

Race. "What I'm trying to dig out of you 
is this: why are the highest authorities of 
this great city getting excited'wow and calling 
special meetings and sending their Mayor 
to inform us that we've got to produce on 
the second — when we've been promising 
just that all along?" 

"You see, it's like this," said the alderman. 
"You people didn't pay nothing for that 
charter. Now, there's other people that 
are willing " 

Mr. Wendell popped to his feet. 

"It is — um — not necessary to go into 
details, Mr. Schwartz," he exclaimed. "I 
think we have done our duty here. We 
have Mr. Race's assurance that " 

"You have Mr. Race's assurance that we 
know " 

And there he stopped. No new sunshine 
had lighted their pathway since Keller's 
departure; it might be as well to keep a 
close mouth and "die game." 

The visitors waited interestedly for a 
moment. There seemed to be nothing more 
to come, for Race was smiling again — and 
the queer little meeting broke up suddenly 
as Schwartz jammed on his hat. 

"They understand it all right, Mr. Wen- 
dell," he remarked. 

"We understand it perfectly," said Race, 
as he opened the door with a profound bow. 
"We appreciate the honor of this visit, too. 
Come and see us again." 

He closed the door and faced his asso- 
ciates with a sour grin. 

"Now, I wonder," he said, "when it 
comes to finishing the job altogether, whether 
they'll hire thugs to kill us, or merely have 
us arrested?" 

"The last remnant of hope's gone — that's 
sure," said Dunbar, from his particular 
gloom-cloud. 

"It certainly is," sighed Mr. Carey. "I'd 
thought of making an appeal for another 
month, myself. Now " 

There was no need to finish the sentence. 
The elder man sat back and smoked in 
silence — and Race took to studying him in- 
tently, with a queer little smile. 

"Mr. Carey," he said at last, "do you 
remember, when Bill and I were about three 
years old and we all lived back East, how 



you used to argue with me and try to con- 
vince me that I could or could not do this 
thing or that?" 

"Yes?" 

"Well, do you remember that big mongrel 
pup of mine and the time that -you tried to 
convince me that I couldn't get across the 
little pond on his back, and that we'd both 
be drowned?" 

"Yes." Mr. Carey laughed a little. "The 
pup was very nearly extinct when the opera- 
tion was over." 

"So is this company very nearly extinct. 
But the doggie got across and lived to a ripe 
old age, if you remember." 

Mr. Race rose, stretched and remarked 
irrelevantly: 

"I'm going for a ride in our exquisite 
four-hundred-dollar racing machine." 

"Whereabouts?" Dunbar asked, in some 
surprise. 

"I'm going to find a spot where there's 
no house — no electric light poles — no sign 
of civilization," said the president, savage- 
ly. "I don't know where it is, but I'm going 
to find it and sit down and bite my nails 
and cuss myself back to a normal tempera- 
ture. Coming, Bill?" 

"I might as well," said Dunbar, disgus- 
tedly. 

Silently, they rolled through the town, 
Race beaming on everything in sight. They 
came upon Bowers, seated on the veranda of 
the new Brontonvale Inn. Mr. Bowers start- 
ed and stared. Mr. Race waved him a 
sunny greeting, stopped the machine, climbed 
briskly to the top of their nearest pole, made 
a thorough and wholly senseless inspection 
of the cross arms, and, returning to earth 
with a nod of satisfaction, bowled on again, 
chatting merrily with Dunbar. 

They reached their forlorn, powerless 
power-house at last and stopped, and Dunbar 
dropped down, while Race sat still and 
stared at the big hills beyond, piling higher 
and higher, thick with timber. 

"And all those belong to Uncle Dick, who 
never tried to make electricity," observed 
the president. "Your uncle is a wise man, 
Bill." 

"And bought them almost for nothing," 
Dunbar muttered thoughtfully. "That was 
five years before we moved here — after the 
forest fires — when people said that timber 
would never be worth ten cents an acre. 
How like sin they've grown up in sixteen 
years!" 




RACE SAT STILL AND STARED AT THE BIG HILLS BEYOND, PILING HIGHER AND 

HIGHER, THICK WITH TIMBER 



190 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



"I didn't know 'em personally sixteen 
years ago," said Race, "but I'll wander up 
to them now. They're Mr. Carey's private 
property, aren't they?" 

"Near two miles straight ahead and half 
a mile down the tracks," said Dunbar. 

"Altitudinous, green and calm," con- 
cluded Race. "Are you coming, William? 
Going to stay around the power-house, eh ?" 
He stepped down from the machine. "Well, 
if you feel just like it you can leave the 
machine here, Bill, because I'm going for a 
long, long tramp. I'm going to commune 
With Nature to beat the cars and I don't 
know when I'll be back. I don't want any 
lunch. Good bye." 

* * * 

The City Hall clock was booming out 
half past two. 

Dunbar, back from lunch, was folding up 
his plans and blue-prints of the central sta- 
tion, with sad and methodical care — when 
a chorus of wild yells down street brought 
him hastily to the window. 

A meteorite had landed in front of their 
office! A meteorite that bore some resem- 
blance to their little auto, until the dust 
cloud caught up and enveloped it and 

Dusty, hatless, pouring perspiration, with 
eyes wild as the wildest maniac, Mr. Race 
entered with a crash that shattered the 
pane. 

"Damn the glass!" choked he, at Mr. 
Dunbar. "How much • cash have we in 
the bank, Bill?" 

"Over three thou " 

"Draw three thousand and have it here 
ready for me inside of five minutes!" shouted 
the president of the company as he whizzed 
out — banged into the car — disappeared! 

For seconds, Dunbar and his uncle stared 
after him, rigid. Then, without a premoni- 
tory symptom, Race's craziness seemed to 
infect his partner, for he jerked their check 



book into position, scribbled a blank and 
ran bareheaded for the bank. 

He was hardly within the office again 
when the meteorite returned and banged to 
a standstill before the door. Mr. Race did 
not walk in; he pranced in, with a suit case 
in one hand, and he pranced straight at 
Carey. 

"Can you raise ten thousand dollars cash 
inside of a week and have it banked 
here?" 

"Of course. I " 

"Do it!" commanded Race, as he whirled 
on Dunbar. "Gimme the money! Gimme 
all the plans of that power-house! Quick!" 

"What " 

Mr. Race snatched the roll of bills from 
his hands and rammed it into his trousers 
pocket. His wild eyes noted the plans on 
the desk and he grabbed them, crushed 
them, tore open his bag and hurled them in. 

"Is it all here? All the machinery part?" 
he demanded fiercely, as he slammed the 
lock of the case. 

"Yes, the whole thing " 

"Come with me and bring the car back!" 
Mr. Race vociferated as he leaped the steps 
and into his seat. "Hurry up! Hurry up 
there, you " 

But Dunbar was in his place, gasping for 
breath— and the automobile pitched head- 
long for the center of the street. 

It was the sort of ride one rarely remembers 
clearly. Dunbar, later, could recall only 
that, from somewhere in his neighborhood, 
came a yell of: "I'll make that three-forty- 
two to the express, if I kill every man, woman 
and child in this " 

Then there came a blood-curdling whirl 
at the station platform — and Race and his 
bag seemed to hurtle through space — and 
land somehow on the back platform of a 
moving train. 

(To be concluded.) 




Elementary Electricity 

By PROF. EDWIN J. HOUSTON, PH. D. (Princeton) 



CHAPTER XXVII. — INCANDESCENT ELECTRIC LAMPS. (CONTINUED.) 



Incandescent electric lamps assume a 
variety of forms according to the character 
of the work they are intended to perform. 
They differ either in the size and length of 
the filaments; in the amount or character 
of the light emitted; in the character of this 
light; in their life or duration, as well as in 
their efficiency or the relation existing be- 
tween the amount of useful light produced 
and the amount of energy expended. 

But none of the above mentioned differ- 
ences alter the general construction of the 
lamp as described in the preceding chapter. 
Up to a comparatively recent date they all 
consisted of a carbon filament suitably sup- 
ported inside a lamp globe or chamber in 
which a high vacuum is maintained. 

The character of the light emitted varies 
markedly with the temperature of the fila- 
ment. The higher the temperature the 
more nearly does the emitted light resemble 
in its color values that of ordinary daylight. 
When a beam of daylight is passed through 
k a prism, all the colors of the rainbow are 
produced. This is not true, however, with 
the light of the ordinary incandescent elec- 
tric lamp. When examined by a prism it 
is found that this light contains an excess 
of red, orange and yellow rays, and a de- 
ficiencyjof the indigo, blue and violet rays. 

It is only white bodies that are capable 
of throwing off all the colors of the rainbow. 
A red body can only throw off red rays or 
at least rays near the reds of the solar spec- 
trum. A blue body can only throw off blue 
rays or rays near the blues. A red body 
appears red when placed in sunlight because 
it throws off the reds or colors near them, 
and absorbs all the other colors; a blue body 
appears blue because it only throws off the 
blues and absorbs, the other colors. 

Consequently, colored bodies illumined by 
light that does not contain all the colors of 
sunlight, can only appear in their proper day- 
light colors, that is, the colors they possess 
when illumined by daylight, when the arti- 
ficial light contains all such colors. 

Since the light of the incandescent elec- 
tric lamp contains an abundance of red, 
orange and yellow rays it is capable of so 



illumining red, orange or yellow-colored 
objects as to cause them to appear the same 
as they would when illumined by sunlight. 
If, however, an attempt is made to illumine 
blue or violet-colored bodies by the light 
of the incandescent lamp, the color effect 
produced will differ markedly from what 
would be produced by illumination in day- 
light 

It is, therefore, a matter of considerable 
importance that the light emitted by any 
artificial source, such as the incandescent 
electric lamp, should have, as nearly as pos- 
sible, the same color values, or, as they are 
called, daylight values, as that of sunlight. 

Consequently, as is generally the case, 
where the lamps are employed for the 
illumination of colored bodies under con- 
ditions in which it is necessary that they 
shall possess the same appearance as they 
would present when illumined by daylight, it 
is necessary to employ high temperatures, 
and this means a decrease in the useful life 
of the lamp. 

When placed in positions where it is dif- 
ficult to reach them, as on the ceilings of 
high rooms, an advantage is ensured by pur- 
posely employing a smaller pressure and 
current thus decreasing the number of neces- 
sary lamp renewals. 




b b b 

FIG. 171. COMPLETED LAMPS WITH BASE 
ATTACHED 

The tendency at the present day for pur- 
poses of general illumination is to use long 
lamp filaments. This is easily done in the 
case of the squirted filaments that are now 
generally made. These assume a variety 
of forms three of which are represented in 
Fig. 171. It will be observed that all of 



192 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



these have the shape of a horseshoe. The 
lamp represented at the left hand side of the 
above figure has the form of a simple horse- 
shoe. That represented in the middle of 
this figure has the shape of a horseshoe with 
a single loop, and that on the right-hand side 
a horseshoe with two loops. In order to 
prevent the breaking of a looped filament 
by vibration, it has been found advisable in 
practice to provide the filament with what 
is known as an anchor wire, a wire attached 
to the top of the glass mount, and the center 
of the filament loop. In the case of the 
double loop filament two separate anchor 
wires are sometimes used, attached at points 
on top of the filament and sides of the lamp 
^lobe as shown in the above figure. 

But the increase in the amount of light 
obtained by an increase in the length of the 
lamp filament is not the only advantage en- 
sured. An incandescent electric lamp emits 
more light in certain directions than in 
others. Generally speaking, the simple 
horseshoe filament lamp emits the greatest 
amount of light at the bend of the horseshoe, 
in the direction of its length. 

Since electric lamps are generally em- 
ployed with the bulb or lamp chamber 
pointing downwards it is desirable that the 
amount of light thrown in this direction 
shall be as great as possible. Now, in the 
case of the ordinary sixteen candle power 
horseshoe carbon filament lamp it can be 




FIG. I72. LAMPS IN PARALLEL 

shown that, approximately, an amount of 
light represented by six of these candles is 
thrown downwards from the top of the fila- 
ment and the remaining ten in other direc- 
tion. When the filament is provided with 
a single curl an amount of light equal to 
seven candles, and when provided with a 
double curl, an amount equal to ten candle 
powers is thrown downwards. 

Generally speaking, incandescent lamps 
are placed on the lighting mains in buildings 
in multiple or parallel, as shown in Fig. 172. 
These mains are what are known as con- 



stant-potential mains because they are main- 
tained at a constant voltage pressure or dif- 
ference of potential. Frequently, however, 
in order to permit a lamp of a lower voltage 
to be employed on a high voltage main the 
lamps are connected in series groups to the 

I 



+ 



A B C 

FIG. I73. LAMPS IN SERIES 

multiple mains as shown in Fig. 173. In 
this case, the current, instead of passing 
from the mains in parallel through the three 
lamps (A), (B) and (C), passes through them 
in series. This series connection is con- 
venient with lamps designed for use in a 
candelabra. In lamps of this character 
although fairly lengthy filaments are used, 
yet the resistance is comparatively low. 

It is evident that by making the lamp 
bulb of different colored glass, or by color- 
ing it with a suitable transparent paint, 
lights of various colors can be readily ob- 
tained. 

Incandescent lamps, capable of being 
operated by the comparatively low pres- 
sures, produced by a small voltaic or storage 
battery, are known as battery lamps. These 
lamps are generally so'designed as to produce 
small candle powers. They are generally 
designed for use in electric signs and are 
intended to be placed in series of two, three 
or four across 100 to 120- volt mains, or in 
multiple series across 50 to 60-volt mains. 
Usually they are of low candle power capa- 
ble of producing, say, one-half a candle, 
one, two, three, four and six candles. The 
pressure required to be applied to the ter- 
minals of the half candle power lamp varies 
from three to' five volts, and the current 
from 1 to 0.6 ampere. The one candle 
power lamp requires from four to six volts, 
and from 1.4 to 0.9 ampere. The two 
candle power lamp from four to seven volts, 
and from 2 to 0.1 amperes. The three 
candle power lamps require a pressure of 
from five to seven volts, and a current of 
from 2.5 to 1.75 amperes. The four candle 
power lamp requires a pressure of from 
seven to nine volts, and a current of from 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



193 



2.5 to 1.75 amperes. The six candle power 
lamp requires a pressure of from nine to 
twelve volts, and a current of from 2.75 to 
two amperes. 

The fact that small candle power lamps 
can be operated by a battery small enough 
to be readily carried in one's pocket, renders 
it possible to employ miniature electric 
lamps, or as they are sometimes called 
electric jewelry, on one's body. Such lamps 
are employed for stick pins and are especially 
common in producing various effects on the 
stage. In the latter case, however, instead 
of a single lamp being used, a number of 
separate lamps are connected in series in a 
single circuit across the lighting mains. 

Small lamps are also employed for the 
illumination of parts of the human body, 
such as the throat, the ear, the nostrils, or 
other parts that are readily entered by its 
natural cavities. Lamps of this character 
are generally employed at high tempera- 
tures and therefore produce considerable 
light and consequently have a short life. 

Electric lamps are sometimes employed 
on bicycles and by miners. Lamps for these 
purposes, however, do not differ essentially 
from other battery lamps. 

High candle power electric incandescent 
lamps have been de- 
vised for special use as 
a luminous source in 
magic lanterns. As 
shown in Fig. 174, a 
peculiar shape is given 
to the carbon incan- 
descing filament in or- 
der to concentrate the 
light roughly at the 
focus of the condensing 
lenses of the lantern. 
The best results are 
obtained by giving the 
filament a spiral coni- 
cal shape, since in this 
way the light is concentrated in a compara- 
tively small area. 

Incandescent electric lamps are some- 
times used in what are known as lamp 
banks for rheostats or variable resistances. 
By providing suitable receptacles, the mere 
screwing of the lamps in place connects them 
in series with the other lamps. While almost 
any ordinary electric lamp is suitable for 
this use, yet lamps known as resistance 
lamps are especially prepared for this pur- 
pose in which a comparatively great length 




fig. 174. SPIRAL 
FILAMENT LAMP 




FIG. 175 



of a thick filament is placed in the lamp 
chamber connected in series. In the elec- 
tric resistance lamp shown in Fig. 175 three 
separate filaments are connected with one 
another in series as shown. 

Where especially high candle powers are 
required what are known as low-voltage 
lamps are used. These lamps differ from 
others simply in the fact that they employ 
heavy filaments. They are made to furnish 
from 100 to 150 candle 
power or over of light when 
so desired, and can be made 
to operate with a current of 
from six to nine amperes and 
a pressure of about 50 volts. 
A very common use for 
incandescent electric lamps 
is for electric signs. Lamps 
for such 'purposes are gen- 
erally connected in series. 
The lamp bulbs are made 
either of clear or colored 
glass arranged in groups 
having the shape of the let- 
resistance ters to be represented. They 
lamp are either mounted on a 
single board covered with 
white or other colored paint which is 
brightly illumined when the lamps are 
in operation, or on wooden supports 
cut to the outline of the letters that 
the group of lamps is intended to repre- 
sent. By painting such supports strik- 
ing effects are obtained by the brightly 
illumined wooden letters provided at the 
center with the bright surfaces of the in- 
candescing lamps. Of course as is some- 
times done the ordinary incandescent lamps 
are employed for this work, connecting them 
in multiple. 

Electric incandescent lamps are now uni- 
versally employed for the lighting of street- 
railway or trolley cars. The current re- 
quired for their operation is taken directly 
from the trolley circuit. In such cases the 
filaments are designed so as to be able to 
use the trolley pressure, which is generally 
in the neighborhood of 500 volts. This is 
done by connecting a number of lamps in 
series across the main to ensure the desired 
current strength. 

Smce the vibrations of an ordinary street 
railway car are marked, where, as is gener- 
ally the case, loop filaments are employed, 
it is necessary to employ anchor wires to 
prevent the filaments from being broken. 



194 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The attachment of anchor wires for double 
and single loops has already been described. 

In what are known as double-filament 
electric lamps two separate filaments are 
placed in the same lamp chamber. One of 
the uses to which a double filament lamp can 
be put, consists of a device by means of 
which it is possible to vary the quantity of 
light the lamp is capable of producing. 
This device embodies a switch arranged so 
as to produce the maximum quantity of light 
by connecting the two filaments in parallel 
and smaller amounts of light by connecting 
them in series or by cutting out one of the 
filaments. 

Another method, sometimes adopted for 
turning down an incandescent lamp so as 
to obtain a smaller amount of light, is by 
the introduction of resistance into the lamp 
circuit. Such a method is far from economi- 
cal, since too large a percentage of electric 
energy is expended in the useless production 
of non-luminous radiation. A lamp of this 
character is known as the Edison night 
lamp. Here, the filament is provided with 
an electric resistance so placed in the base 
of the lamp that the turning of the small 
screw introduces the resistance into, or re- 
moves it from, the lamp circuit, as may be 
desired. 

The length of life of an incandescent 
electric lamp depends primarily on the care 
taken in its construction, and the extent to 
which it is possible to maintain a vacuum 
in the lamp chamber. But it does not de- 
pend only on these circumstances. Any 
lamp can readily be caused to emit a greater 
quantity of light by supplying it with a 
greater amount of electric energy, and the 
extent of its useful life depends on the amount 
of this energy. By increasing this energy 
a lamp that is capable of producing either 
sixteen or thirty-two candle power when pro- 
ducing the larger quantity of light is subject to 
a marked decrease in its length of life. 
Such a lamp when constructed to produce 
sixteen candle power under conditions in 
which its life will have a value of 800 hours, 
might have its life reduced to 200 hours or 
even less by using an excessive amount of 
energy. 

Another form of lamp the. chamber of 
which contains two separate filaments is 
called a twin filament lamp in order to dis- 
tinguish it from a double filament lamp. 
The twin filament lamp is employed in 
places where it is a matter of considerable 



importance that the light shall not be 
accidentally extinguished, since such a fail- 
ure might occasion considerable damage. 
This is the case in the lighting of the side 
lights, headlights, stern light, and signal 
lights of ships. By the use of a twin fila- 
ment lamp the separate filaments can be so 
connected to the lamp circuits that should 
one fail the other may continue burning. 
The same result is sometimes reached by 
the employment of two separate lamps. 

A general belief exists that it is true 
economy to use an electric incandescent lamp 
as lr,o.g as its filament remains unbroken. 
This is a great mistake. While such a 
lamp will continue to give light yet the 
amount of this light is so small, that it would 
be far more economical to purposely break 
the lamp, or remove it from the circuit as 
soon as its loss of efficiency has reached a 
certain point known generally as its smash- 
ing point. 

One of the many interesting stories to be 
found in that great book known as the 
Arabian Nights Entertainments, relates the 
manner in which the wicked African magi- 
cian succeeded in obtaining Aladdin's magic 
lamp by offering to exchange new lamps for 
old lamps. At first sight such an exchange 
naturally strikes one as extremely foolish, 
yet the General Electric Company advises 
central station managers to offer as soon 
as their lamps show a certain fall in effi- 
ciency, to replace them by new lamps. 

In a circular letter the company alludes 
to the necessity that exists for frequent lamp 
renewals; that this necessity exists regard- 
less of the cost of power and whether the 
new lamps are charged for or furnished 
free; that no matter how excellent the con- 
struction and operation of the lighting plant 
may be, it is impossible to furnish satisfac- 
tory light unless all dim lamps are periodi- 
cally removed from the circuits. 

Generally speaking, it is evident that the 
removal of the dim lamps can not be left 
to the customer. Consequently, such re- 
newals must be made without charge, or at 
a merely nominal charge, by the lighting 
company. The decrease in the cost of in- 
candescent lamps has reached such a 
point that it should be possible for all sta- 
tions to furnish free lamp renewals at but 
slight expense. The advice in the com- 
pany's letter in this respect is as follows: 

" With free renewals, one of the following 
methods should be adopted: 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



195 



" i. Periodically remove all lamps from 
the circuits one to four times per year, ac- 
cording to conditions, and replace them by 
new ones. Photometer the lamps removed 
and save those measuring above a prescribed 
limit (say 13 candle-power) for use at high 
voltage points, or locations where reduced 
candle-power is of slight importance. Scrap 
the remaining lamps. 

"2. Give a new lamp in exchange for 
an old one, for, say, every three dollars 
worth of current supplied, or for any fixed 
amount determined by the meter rates and 
conditions. 

"The second plan is an excellent one, in 
that it offers a bonus for the use of current 
and regulates renewals on the correct basis 
of number of hours of lamp service: It can 
be profitably adopted wherever meters are 
in use. A station attendant should visit 
customers quarterly and install the number 
of new lamps due each, removing and re- 
turning to the station an equal number of 
old lamps. 

"In cases where lamps must be charged 
for, some measures should be adopted to 
induce customers to renew their dim lamps: 
as, otherwise, dim lamps will be continued 
in service as long as they will burn. 

"A good method is to offer new lamps 
in exchange for dim ones (not burned out) 
at a reduction in price of one-quarter or 
one-half cost. A customer, for example, 
would save by paying, say, half-price for 
the renewal of a dim lamp, instead of wait- 
ing and paying full price when the lamp 
burns out. 

"Another method is to offer lamps for 
renewals at less than cost, say 15 cents 
each, and reserve the right to say when 
lamps shall be renewed. Such a plan works 
well, as no customer can justly complain 
when the company renews lamps at less 
than cost. 

"The price of lamps to the customer in 
any case should be made as low as possible 
— cost price or below cost — for the reason 
that profit on the sale of lamps is secondary 
in importance to the sale of current and im- 
provement in quality of lighting service." 

The failure of an incandescent electric 
lamp to produce the quantity of light for 
which it was constructed, is due to many 
causes. Perhaps the commonest cause is 
found in the fact that in various ways the 
carbon filament undergoes a gradual dis- 
integration, that results in a decrease in 



diameter and a consequent increase in elec- 
tric resistance. 

If the resistance of an electric lamp is in- 
creased and no increase is made in the 
voltage applied to the lamp terminals, the 
current supplied to the filament will be so 
cut down that the lamp will give off a much 
smaller quantity of light than otherwise. 
This is one of the commonest causes of the 
decrease in the amount of light emitted. 

Another cause is to be found in the black- 
ening of the lamp bulb due to the deposition 
on the inner walls of the lamp chamber, of ' 
the carbon that has been disintegrated, by 
the breaking down of the filament. 
(To be Continued.) 



Are Dynamos Understood? 



How far the popular understanding of 
electrical terms and electrical devices has 
advanced during the last two decades may 
be inferred from an interview in regard to 
the principles of dynamo-electric machinery, 
held a little over twenty years ago. It was 
given to a correspondent of the New York 
World by Prof. Moses G. Farmer who was 
the first in this country to make sucessful 
experiments with electric lights, being the 
inventor of one of the earliest types of arc 
lamps. Said Prof. Farmer: 

"The electricity for the purpose of 
illumination is produced by the movement 
of coils of copper wire in the neighborhood 
of magnets. Electricity is developed in 
condition whenever it is moved across the 
lines of force streaming from a magnet. 
The electricity is more powerful the more 
rapid this motion; more powerful the longer 
the wire and more powerful the greater the 
intensity of magnetism in the magnet. 
These are the fundamental facts that under- 
lie the construction of all magneto-electric 
machines. Any more technical description 
of the process of producing electricity would 
scarcely be understood by the general reader." 

That satisfied the public of his time. 
But today who that pretends to have any 
education would be put off in that way? 
Now the progressive man and his bright 
sons all revel every month in a great 
variety of detailed information on such mat- 
ters, for the intelligent reader of today un- 
derstands many times more about electrical 
devices than was dreamt of by the experi- 
menter whose most noted work dates back 
some fifty years. 



The' Non-magnetic Yacht Carnegie' 



The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 
of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 
D. C, has undertaken the gigantic task of 
making a magnetic survey of the world and 
to accomplish it within the next fifteen years. 
The results are to be published in the form 
of magnetic charts, from which the naviga- 
tors of the world may read at a glance the 
error of the compass in any particular spot 



Constructed throughout of non-magnetic 
materials and designed especially for a float- 
ing observatory in which to do the marine work 
of the magnetic survey of the world, the non- 
magnetic brigantine "Carnegie" — the first 
of her kind — has just completed her first 
season's work in exploring the magnetic 
field of the North Atlantic Ocean. 

The Carnegie was designed by Mr. Henry 




THE CREW OF THE CARNEGIE 



which is due to the action of the forces of 
nature. The work will not be a national 
one, but will prove a boon to mankind and 
thus subserve the avowed object of the 
Carnegie Institute: "to contribute something 
of definite value to man." This work was 
commenced in the Pacific Ocean in 1905, 
when the Institute chartered the brigantine 
"Galilee" of San Francisco. Sufficient data 
was obtained by this experiment to convince 
the bureau that the work was worth doing 
well, and it was decided to construct a vessel 
built, as far as possible, of non-magnetic ma- 
terials and designed with special reference to 
the facilities for taking magnetic observations 
under any and all conditions of sea and 
weather. 



J. Gielow of New York, architect of the Ger- 
man Kaiser's yacht "Meteor," and was built 
by the Tebo Yacht Basin Company of 
Brooklyn. She is essentially a brigantine of 
568 tons displacement, 155 feet six inches 
over all; length on load water line 128 feet 
four inches; beam, moulded 33 feet; depth 
of hold 12 feet nine inches; mean draft 12 
feet seven inches. Her lines are fair and 
easy, running in an unbroken sweep from 
stem to stern, showing great strength and 
seagoing qualities. 

The hull is constructed according to the 
standards of the American Bureau of Ship- 
ping, combining the grace of a yacht with 
the staying qualities of a cargo vessel. 
The keel, frames, knees, stern post and 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY ) 



197 



deadwood are of white oak; the deck beams, 
planking and ceiling are of yellow pine; and 
the deck is of comb-grained Oregon pine. 
All fastenings are of locust treenails, copper 
and Tobin bronze bolts and composition 
spikes, all through bolts being riveted over 
rings both inside and out. All metal deck 
fittings and the metal work on spars and rig- 
ging are of bronze, copper or gunmetal. 

She spreads 12,900 square feet of canvas. 
Her spar plan measures 122 feet from fore 
truck to water line and 210 feet from bow- 
sprit cap to after end of 
main boom. She measures 
48 feet from head booms 
to cut- water; cutwater to 
foremast 35 feet; from 
fore to mainmast 48 feet. 
The rigging is of Russian 
hemp. 

Auxiliary to her sail 
power, the Carnegie is 
equipped with a four- 
cylinder, Craig internal 
combustion engine of 150 
horse power, which alone 
is capable of giving her 
headway at the rate of 
six knots an hour. The 
necessity of some auxili- 
ary power independent 
of the wind for close 
handling, accurately plac- 
ing the vessel on a given 
magnetic heading and for 
use in calm weather or 
head winds is apparent. 
Additional interest is at- 
tached to the installation 
of this machinery in the 
Carnegie from the fact 
that all parts of the en- 
gine except the cast-iron 
pistons and the steel cams necessary 
for operating the valves are made of non- 
magnetic material. 

Consideration of the available fuel for 
such a motor resulted in the elimination of 
gasolene and oil, not only on account of 
cost, but also because they would be quite 
unavailable in the zones to be covered by 
the Carnegie, as well as being unsafe in the 
quantities that would have to be stored for 
the long cruises which are contemplated. 
A careful investigation showed that a gas 
producer for marine purposes could be built 
which would generate a gas suitable for use 



THE CARNEGIE 



in an internal combustion engine from 
bituminous or anthracite coal, coke, wood 
or charcoal, and that such a plant could be 
constructed almost entirely of non-magnetic 
materials. In the actual accomplishment 
of this feat the Carnegie is again a pioneer, 
in that she is the first vessel of any size in 
which producer gas has been utilized for 
propulsion. The cruising radius of the 
Carnegie at six knots an hour on 25 tons of 
coal is 2,000 miles. 

Of especial interest in her construction 
are the vessel's observa- 
tories where the bearings 
of celestial bodies are 
taken and the compass 
declination and dip and 
the intensity of the earth's 
horizontal force are meas- 
ured. The standard com- 
pass is set up in the chart 
room directly below the 
bridge compass, and two 
others are located on the 
main deck under glass- 
covered domes forward 
and abaft the standard. 
At these two stations ob- 
servations can be made 
in any sort of weather, 
the observers being under 
cover of the domes. 

In all forms of com- 
pass azimuth circles hither- 
to used the bearing of a 
celestial body had to be 
taken from whatever point 
the card in its oscilla- 
tions to and fro as the 
vessel rolled had momen- 
tarily reached. In the 
under full sail Carnegie's work, however, 
a special form of "ma- 
rine collimating compass" invented and 
constructed by the Department of ' Ter- 
restrial Magnetism is used. The basis of 
the instrument is an eight-inch Ritchie 
liquid compass with card removed, and an 
optical collimating system with scale intro- 
duced. This enables the observer to note 
the arc oi motion of the magnet while sight- 
ing on the sun or star, hence knowing pre- 
cisely to what part of the arc the stellar 
azimuth applies. The angle is next deter- 
mined between the circle setting and some 
mark, or the true meridian, and the declina- 
tion is finally deduced. 




198 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The non-magnetic character of the Car- 
negie was found to exceed the most sanguine 
expectations when she was swung for com- 
pass deviations in Gardiner's Bay, Long 
Island, just before she started to sea last 
August. On arrival at Falmouth, England, 
her compass errors were again tested out 
with most satisfactory results and were found 
to agree exactlv with the observations taken 



sail was set on the 28th for New York. On 
the run up the coast the Carnegie had ample 
opportunity to display her remarkable sea- 
going qualities. She encountered nearly 
three weeks of very stormy weather in the 
Gulf Stream and was five times driven across 
the lattitude of Cape Hatteras by the same 
weather which swamped the unfortunate 
Naval Tug Nina. One of her crew was 




SECTION AND PLANS OF THE CARNEGIE 



on shore at the Falmouth Magnetic Obser- 
vatory. 

During the voyage across the Altantic 
Ocean the vessel was hove to at intervals 
and the magnetic elements of different local- 
ities determined by a series of careful ob- 
servations. The efficiency of the new in- 
struments was effectually established on this 
voyage, for although gale after gale was en- 
countered, observations were taken with 
regularity on every day save one. From 
Falmouth the little vessel carried her work 
down the European coast to Funchal, 
Madeira, about 300 miles off the African 
coast, and from there she re-crossed the 
Atlantic, arriving at Hamilton, Bermuda, 
January 7. 

After re-occupying the Bermuda stations 
and again testing out the ship's instruments, 



thrown from the topsail yard as the vessel 
took a violent lurch, but saved himself by 
clinging to the rigging. Another was swept 
overboard by a boarding sea, but was hauled 
back by a staysail sheet. After vainly try- 
ing to make the port of New York, the little 
vessel was obliged to lay a course for Mon- 
tauk Point, and, on the 15th of February, 
sailed into Long Island Sound. 

The results of the Carnegie's work for the 
season show that the charts used to. navigate 
the North Atlantic Ocean are in error along 
the transatlantic steamship routes by from 
1 to 1 J degrees, and, when published, will 
not only enable navigators to lay their 
courses so as to save time and distance, but 
to feel sure that they are not likely to be set 
down on the Sable Island shore and lose 
their ships. 



Electrical Securities 



By "CONTANGO' 



HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS AND THEIR FUTURE — IRRIGATION UNDERTAKINGS AND THEIR 
CONNECTION THEREWITH IN THE WEST — THE SECURITIES OF SUCH ENTER- 
PRISES IN THEIR RELATION TO THE PUBLIC. 



The next form of electrical development 
to be taken up is the hydroelectric plant, 
that is to say, the use of water power for 
producing electrical energy which may be 
used right at hand, as in the case of a small 
installation or as is more usually the case 
distributed far afield by means of transmis- 
sion lines extending many hundreds of miles. 
It is with the public service plant of such 
kind that this article will briefly deal from 
the point of view of its securities. 

The use of water powers, great and small, 
is now being developed east, west, south and 
north wherever they may be found in the 
least degree accessible, and the natural 
tendency is towards a combined management 
covering large areas. To a certain extent 
the hydroelectric plant goes hand in hand 
with the irrigation project. The most 
notable example of such a combination is 
the Roosevelt dam at Roosevelt, Arizona, a 
government undertaking just completed, 
and practically the largest of its kind in the 
world. By controlling the water in a very 
narrow and very deep gorge at this point, 
a vast territory has been turned from desert 
into a most productive and fertile region, 
while the large water power obtained is 
producing energy for towns and villages 
throughout the entire district. It may then 
be noted that once established the future of 
such a system is ultimately only limited 
by the amount of power that can be furnished. 
There is in point of fact no waste and if 
the affair is conducted in a business-like 
way there should be no difficulty in bringing 
in handsome returns on the capital outlay. 
Naturally financial experts, bankers and 
the like look with particular favor on securi- 
ties of such companies. The cost of main- 
tenance is comparatively small and the ability 
to generate current at low cost corresponding- 
ly great. As a final word Frank A. Vander- 
lip, the well known banker of New York, 
may again be quoted on this latest phase 
of the generation, distribution and sale of 
electricity: 



"If a layman might venture an opinion 
it would be that the next era of distinct de- 
velopment in the electric lighting field will 
come as the result of the utilization of the 
great water powers of the country, and the 
progress that the technical experts will make 
in long distance transmission. With great 
power stations located in the heart of the 
coal districts on the one hand, or drawing 
their energy from the great power plants on 
the other, the problem of cheap production 
would seem to be pretty well solved. If 
current thus produced can be economically 
distributed over a very large area, as indeed 
it is now being in many sections, the way will 
be open to securing the economies of a 
concentrated management and the advan- 
tages of large corporate issues of securities, 
and such combination should result in a 
large profit to the business venture and in a 
high degree of efficiency and satisfaction 
to the stockholders." 

In other words, by the development of the 
hydroelectric plant will come more perfect 
centralization of the whole business of dis- 
tributing electric current. 

The largest and most efficient hydro- 
electric plants of the day in this country are 
those at Niagara Falls. They demonstrate 
excellently the practice of selling and dis- 
tributing electricity in bulk — selling at a 
wholesale price to users of power far and 
near. It will have already been grasped 
by the readers of these articles that the pro- 
duction and sale of electricity as a com- 
modity in large quantities, that is on a whole- 
sale scale, is one of the greatest commercial 
assets of the times, and when its source 
is from an almost unlimited water power it 
may readily be seen that the possibilities 
are enormous. Now while Niagara is by 
far the greatest producer of power, it was 
not until the value of long distance transmis- 
sion of energy in bulk had been proved in 
the West and Mexico that the water power 
from the Falls reached its greatest value. 
The Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and 



200 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Manufacturing Company started the ball 
rolling in a small way in 1895, and now 
there, are five important companies distribu- 
ting electricity in bulk to far distant places 
and selling to countless manufacturing plants 
in Niagara Falls, in Buffalo, and throughout 
the district surrounding the Falls. 

Engineers for years looked longingly at 
the tremendous power in the Falls. It 
was estimated that theoretically there was 
7,500,000 horsepower capable of develop- 
ment. The power was there, but to use 
it economically and in commensurate quan- 
tity — that was the question. Then came 
the development in the use of electricity for 
factories and railways and in electrochemical 
processes, and the perfecting of economical 
long distance transmission systems. Today 
electricity is distributed in bulk from the 
Falls to Toronto, Syracuse, Tonawanda, 
Buffalo and numberless lesser towns. Within 
the last year or two the progress made with 
this bulk distribution has been wonderful 
and today something like 575,000 horse- 
power are derived from the Falls. The 
principle is the simplest — water power opera- 
ting turbo-generators. It is now in use 
through the country. 

In the South, for example, there is the 
great hydroelectric plant at Hale's Bar on 
the Tennessee River, 33 miles below Chat- 
tanooga. This is one of the largest in the 
country aside from Niagara. There is an 
installation of about 50,000 horsepower at 
Hale's Bar. 

Or turning to such a central point as 
Chicago it will be found that the waters of 
a river of a very modest size into which the 
waters from the drainage canal discharge are 
utilized for power development at Joliet, 
111., and points below that city, while the 
Sanitary District, the corporate body oper- 
ating the drainage canal also has a hydro- 
electric plant at Lockport at a point where 
the drainage channel's waters pass into the 
Desplaines River. 

The financing of the hydroelectric central 
station plant is on precisely the lines of 
other large central station undertakings, 
only there is this advantage that the ability 
to produce at lowest cost gives corresponding 
ability to furnish current at lowest rates 
and therefore the field is more quickly cov- 
ered and the public more readily uses elec- 
tric, in preference to any other form of 
power. It is very evident then that the 
securities of a well thought out, well situated 



hydroelectric company are justly entitled 
to the confidence of the public and the finan- 
cial world as being among the most sub- 
stantial and solid form of property known. 

As to the combination of irrigation and 
hydroelectric or the simple irrigation com- 
pany — such securities have the position of 
a mortgage on the property of the users. 
That is to say, the average irrigation bond 
of which a great many issues are now being 
offered, particularly throughout the West, 
is guaranteed by the land holdings of the 
users of the water. The water itself creates 
the value of the land, and the mortgage on 
that land is the security given the company 
selling the water, therefore the bonds of 
such a company which are bought by the 
public have back of them these land mort- 
gages. 

The supplying of water for irrigation pur- 
poses is a form of public service of its own 
kind, differing materially from the service 
of transportation, light or power. Without 
the water the land is to all intents and pur- 
poses nonexistent, but with light, power and 
transportation it is another matter. This 
position makes for the irrigation bond, a 
special form and security of its own. 

But the securities of all public service 
or utility corporations should rightly be 
regarded as of the highest value, for the 
simple reason that they are based on the 
sale of public necessities, the use of which 
extends and grows year by year. The vil- 
lages, towns* and cities of the United States 
are growing at a tremendous pace, the arid 
spaces of the country are fast being brought 
into cultivation and when the tale of the 
new census, just taken, shall have been 
told, there will be found one of the most 
convincing arguments as to the solidity and 
tangibility of investments in all these pub- 
lic undertakings. The general use of elec- 
tricity has only just about started. Take 
the growth in the population of any city or 
state in the years to come and consider what 
the then necessities must be. To meet 
such demands of the future, even year by 
year, must mean a constant and ever in- 
creasing expansion in the business of supply- 
ing them, and those who have the present 
sagacity and courage to invest in the securi- 
ties of concerns whose business is meeting 
the public needs have an assured present 
and guaranteed future of profitable return 
not presented, with the same degree of ab- 
solute certainty, in other forms of securities. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



201 



Sufficient advice has already been given 
as to the necessity for dealing with bond- 
houses and financial agents of known reputa- 
tion and integrity, and where there is time 
and inclination, for personal investigation 
into the character of the management, of 
all such companies. The man at the head 
of such an undertaking of trained experi- 
ence who has proved his works by results 
is naturally most to be depended on, for he 
has a very personal interest in the success 
of all he undertakes. 

Perhaps the most remarkable example of 
results from irrigation known to the business 
world today is found, not in this country at 
all, but in far away Egypt, where the opera- 
tion of the Assouan dam, confining the head 
waters of the Nile, has proved the salvation 
of that country. This was a government 
enterprise and by its completion the ruler 
of that country and his family and Egyptian 
landholders generally have been placed 
among the rich men of the world. In the 
United States it is good to say that the people 
who benefit most by irrigation enterprises 
are the plain people. Not only those who 
take up the land but the people at large who 
have the faith to invest their money in such 
enterprises. Yet even so their opportunity 
has still to stand the test of time, whereas 
the electrical undertaking can now at this 
time stand on its proved merits. 
(To be Concluded) 



High Speeds and Signals 

In 1 901 on the Berlin-Zossen (Germany) 
military railway an electric car reached a 
speed of 115 to 125 miles per hour. 

Now a mechanically operated railroad sig- 
nal cannot be depended upon to act with 
reliability at a longer distance than 2000 
feet from the operator. If with a train 
velocity of 60 miles the signals are disposed 
at 2500 feet from the block tower to give 
time to the engineer to stop before entering 
the block ahead, a velocity of 115 miles 
requires for the. same purpose the signals 
to be 6600 feet from the tower, a distance 
which renders their operation very difficult 
if not impossible. 

One hundred and fifteen miles per hour 
means 168.6 feet per second, and if we sup- 
pose that in clear weather the signals can 
be seen 1600 or 1700 feet before reaching 
them, the engineer has nine or ten seconds 
in which to realize the conditions of the 



block ahead and act accordingly. Now if 
the weather is foggy this time must be re- 
duced and in some cases the engineer may 
have from two to three seconds in which to 
decide if he can run ahead safely or if he 
must stop. 

This high speed question may be dis- 
cussed from many other points of view — but 
actually 125 miles per hour is only to be 
reached safely on a special right of way, 
with specially ballasted track and at a very 
high cost. 



A "Magic Mirror' 



Suppose you saw a little framed mirror 
at a conveniently tempting height in a show 
window and you stopped to look at yourself 
— for who of either sex would resist the 
temptation? Then suppose your reflection 
suddenly vanished while an advertisement 
appeared in its place: would you not be 
surprised? And if your image reappeared 
shortly, would you not stay and wait again 
and again for the interesting change to re- 
peat itself? 




MAGIC MIRROR 

That is exactly the effect produced by a 
novel type of electric sign in which the adver- 
tisement, or a part of it, is placed back of 
the thin film of silver on a mirror. The latter 
reflects just like an ordinary looking glass as 
long as the light shining on it is more in- 
tense than that behind it. But if a strong 
light is lit behind it, the reflection will vanish 
and the advertising matter will show right 
through the thin film of silver as shown in 
the picture. An ordinary sign flasher turns 
on the hidden electric light, thus effecting 
the changes in the "magic mirror" much 
to the amazement of any who happen to 
come upon the mirror when the light behind 
the same is turned off. 



Talks With the Judge 

A "HEATED" DISCUSSION 



"Although I don't believe you could put 
me down as a Bowser, as far as self-conceit 
goes," said the Judge as he clung to his strap 
and looked longingly at the full seats, " still, 
I give myself credit for being mighty careful 
and far-sighted for an advertising man." 

"You are quite right," I said, "your look 
of profound wisdom would have prevented 
any one from trying to sell you a lightning 
rod even in the hal- 
cyon days." 

He looked at me 
gloomily for a moment 
and then continued: 
"My wife is set on 
having a lot of electri- 
cal things to cook with 
— the whole blooming 
outfit, range, perco- 
lator, disk stove, 
cereal cookers, chafing 
dishes and (sic) a 
shaving water [heater 
for me, and I don't 
know what all. Now 
I am one of the best 
husbands a woman 
ever entrapped, and I 
propose to let her have about what she 
wants, but before I get these things I 
am going to know something about them. 
As we sway from .side to side in this car I 
want you to give me a little dissertation on 
electrical heat. How can electricity make 
heat when it also runs refrigerating ma- 
chines ?" 

"When we rounded that last curve, 
Judge," I replied, "and you flew outward 
on that strap with a force that made it give 
out a plaintive creak, you almost burned 
your hand against the leather didn't you? 
At least it was a trifle warmer. That heat 
you say was caused by friction. Well, 
frictional heat is nothing more than the 
manifestation of a whole lot of energy ex- 
pended in a small space — in this case the 
little area between your hand and the strap." 

"Electricity is a form of energy and when 
you concentrate that energy in a very small 
space it is bound to manifest itself in the 
form of heat. Take for instance the incan- 
descent lamp. Current flows to it along a 




wire from the main circuit through the fila- 
ment and back through another circuit wire. 
The circuit wires are comparatively large and 
offer very little resistance to the flow of cur- 
rent and no noticeable amount of heat is 
generated in them. It is the same as if you 
were to move a heavy book across a large 
smooth surface — no perceptible heat would 
be generated. Let that book pass over the 
head of a match so 
that all the energy 
were concentrated at 
the little point of sul- 
phur and enough heat 
would be generated to 
light the match. In 
the incandescent lamp 
when the current 
comes to the little 
hair-like filament it is 
forced through by 
the pressure behind 
it. The energy re- 
quired to force the cur- 
rent through is about 
six one-hundredths of 
a horse power, all con- 
centrated in that little 
filament, so of course the latter gets very 
hot — white hot. 

"This same principle is embodied in all 
electric heating and cooking utensils. They 
contain what is known as a 'heating ele- 
ment.' This is located somewhere within 
the utensil. It is made in various forms, 
sometimes removable, and always consists 
of a fine wire or metal ribbon which pre- 
sents a high resistance to the current which 
is passed through it. Then as in the case 
of the lamp filament the energy expended is 
turned into heat and the temperature of the 
heating element and the utensil is raised. 
"The particular advantage of the use of 
electric utensils lies in the fact that the heat 
is all generated at the point where it is to 
be utilized. There is almost no waste of 
energy as the heat all goes into the heating 
or cooking process and does not have a 
chance to be radiated to the surrounding 
atmosphere as in the case of a cook stove 
where there are twenty or more square feet 
of surface giving off heat to the air." 



Some Railways of France and Norway 



Connecting points of interest along the away between the mountains in the fore- 



borders of France is the electric railway 
operating between Martigny and Chatelard. 
Never in the history of electric railroading 
has a line penetrated a region more beau- 
tiful, more impressive in the grandeur of 
mountain scenes which burst into view at 
every turn. Reference 
was made in a pre- 
vious issue of Popu- 
lar Electricity to 
the beauties of this 
mountain route, but 
some later photo- 
graphs, depicting 
scenes even more en- 
chanting, are here 
presented. 

Over the gorge of 
the Triege are three 
viaducts spanning a 
cleft in the solid rock. 
The lower one is a 
mere foot bridge of 
stone — an 
unassuming 
little arch 
built nobody 
knows how 
many years 
o r perhaps 
centuries ago. 
The middle 
bridge is a 
stone arch by 
which the 
wagon road 
crosses the 
chasm. Above 
the others is 
the Triege 
Viaduct of 
the electric 
line with a 

main arch the triege bridge 

spanning a 
distance of over a hundred feet. 

A little farther along is the "Viaduct des 
Torrents," near Finhaut. The combina- 
tion of the most wild and rugged moun- 
tain scenery and the pleasant warmth of a ing page is but one of scores of examples of 
sheltered valley furnishes at this point a the harnessing of brawling upland streams 
contrast wonderfully pleasing. Looking miles of Norway to produce electric current for 




ground may be seen famous " Glacier du 
Trient" suspended as it were from the steep 
slopes of the mountain. 

It is hard to imagine a more picturesque 
spot than the station at the little village of 
Les Marecottes, which is nothing more than 
a small group of cha- 
lets. It is one of the 
central attractions of 
the thousands of tour- 
ists who come to this 
region every summer. 
One of the four- 
motor cars which 
operate over this di- 
vision is shown at 
the station and pre- 
sents a marked con- 
trast to the type of 
interurban seen in this 
country. 

The scenes pre- 
sented to the traveler 
who rides on 
an electric 
r ai l.w a y in 
Norway are 
totally differ- 
en t from 
those of sun- 
ny France; 
no less pic- 
turesque, 
however, and 
no less satis- 
fying. Nor- 
way is a land 
of wild and 
rugged moun- 
tains, a land 
of plentiful 
water - power 
and the de- 
scendants of 
the Vikings 
are rapidly making use of this form of 
energy for purposes of transportation. The 
Skienald water fall, with its power station 
seen at the left in the picture on the follow- 



204 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




SKIENALD WATER 

FALL AND POWER 

STATION 

railways and industrial 
purposes. 

The Thamshavn-Lok- 
ken electric railway in 
operation between the 
mines at these two cities 
on the Orkedald Fjord is 
the first line to be oper- 
ated in Norway on what 
is known as the single 
phase system. It extends 
inland nearly 20 miles, 
skirting the River Orkla 
as far as Svorkmo. From 
this point it rises rapidly 
to the Lokken copper 
mines which are among 
the most important of the 
vast mining interests in 
Norway. 



Electric locomotives are 
employed to draw the trains 
as will be seen by the view 
of the train on the bridge 
over the Svorka Canal. 
The closed-in appearance 
of the locomotive, like a 
box car, in much different 
from that of electric loco- 
motives seen in this coun- 
try and indicates that the 
engineer is in need of ade- 
quate protection from the 
frigid climate. These 
locomotives weigh 20 
tons each, and the 
nominal rating of only 
80 horse power for the 
two motors makes pos- 
sible a speed of only 
about ten miles an hour. 
But then, perhaps the 
people of Norway are 
not in such a hurry as 
they are in this coun- 
try. 



FINHAUT BRIDGE AND GLACIER DU TRENT 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



205 




MARECOTTES STATION OF THE MARTIGNY-CHATELARD ELECTRIC RAILWAY 



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THE THAMSHAVN-LOKKEN ELECTRIC RAILWAY 



206 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Episodes in Electrical Invention 

Mr. Charles A. Brown, one of Chicago's 
prominent patent attorneys, familiar with 
early electrical patent contentions which 
have now become historic, recently ad- 
dressed the Electric Club of Chicago on the 
subject "Episodes in Electrical Invention 
and Patent Litigation." 

Among other things Mr. Brown men- 
tioned Mr. Edison's early work in con- 
nection with the telegraph. Edison de- 
voted his attention to a system of duplexing 
which he patented and which to all intents 
and purposes was identical with the system 
used today. At the same time an inven- 
tor by the name of Stearns devised a system 
along somewhat similar lines. When Mr. 
Edison was asked as to the difference be- 
tween the two duplexing systems he replied, 
laconically, "Mine works." 

The Edison patent was sold to the West- 
ern Union. As a matter of policy it was 
thought best at the time to put forward a 
co-inventor and a man by the name of Pres- 
cott was selected. Edison was to receive 
$100,000 and Prescott as co-inventor was 
to receive $100,000, said $100,000 given to 
Prescott to return to the strong box of the 
company. But politics went wrong and 
Prescott calmly pocketed the $100,000 and 
it never went to building telegraph lines. 

Field in his early telegraph work invented 
what he called an "expert relay." Today 
it is known as a "neutral relay." Such a 
relay embodies an armature of soft iron 
which is not magnetized, as distinguished 
from a polarized armature. When asked 
to describe his relay Field humorously re- 
plied: "An expert relay has a tongue 
adapted to lie on either side with equal 
ability according to influences." 

The greatest patent case ever fought in 
the courts was that to determine who was 
the inventor of the telephone. On the same 
day Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha 
Gray filed in the United States Patent office 
almost identical descriptions of a method 
of transmitting human speech electrically 
over wires. So far they may have been 
said to have had equal rights. But Bell 
looked direct to the transmission of human 
speech whereas Gray in the beginning in 
his own mind, and upon the advice of his 
friends, never believed that the device 
would work to that end and sought to apply 
it to multiplex telegraphy. The thing 



drifted on. Bell worked doggedly at the 
telephone idea and at last brought it to a 
practicable stage. Then Gray waked up 
to what he had been losing in working on 
the telegraph application. Then came the 
lawsuit which was fought for years in the 
courts, Bell being finally given the credit of 
the invention principally from the fact that 
he had first fully grasped its significance 
and developed the idea. 

Thomas A. Watson, a mechanic who 
worked in Bell's shop was the first man in 
the world to hear a word spoken over .a 
telephone. Money was scarce with Bell in 
those days and he induced Watson to 
accept a little stock in part payment for his 
services. Today that little block of stock 
is worth just $6,000,000. 

In the famous litigation between Edison 
and Brush regarding the compound wound 
dynamo there were 7000 pages of type- 
written testimony taken. Both had worked 
out practically the same scheme of placing 
two windings on the field magnets but 
Brush didn't know that by so doing the ma- 
chine could be made self regulating as to 
the voltage. He simply described his sys- 
tem as a device to prevent reversal of polarity 
of the dynamo. Edison, however, knew of 
the regulating principle. Brush went so 
far as to deny that the compound winding 
could be used to regulate voltage. But the 
other side had rigged up a dynamo with 
the two windings in place and demon- 
strated by taking off and adding on lamps 
to a circuit fed by the dynamo that it would 
so regulate and the lamps would burn at 
proper brilliancy no matter what the load; 
so Brush lost the suit. 



Graveyard of the Atlantic 

How much electricity is doing and in the 
future will do to save and prolong human 
life can not be given in figures. What has 
been accomplished by wireless telegraphy 
in saving ships and passengers is fresh in our 
minds. The "graveyard" of the Atlantic 
is said by sailors to be located off Cape 
Hatteras and is known as the Diamond 
Shoals. To warn ships of the danger when 
near these, two huge megaphones will be 
used, the diaphragms of which will be oper- 
ated by electricity just as is the electric auto- 
mobile horn. Tests show that the sound 
from these devices is able to penetrate fog 
and be heard for miles. 



Where Electricity Stands in the Practice 

of Medicine 

By NOBLE M. EBERHART, A. M., M. S. f M. D. 



CHAPTER VII. — GALVANISM AND FARADISM 



We are inclined to overlook the medical 
value of the galvanic and faradic currents 
in view of the great popularity of some of 
the newer electrical methods. The galvanic 
current is a "chemical" current and it does 
some things which none of the other cur- 
rents do and some which it does better than 
the others. For instance, it is the current 
necessary in electrolysis; lights diagnostic 
and therapeutic lamps; heats the blade of 
the electro-cautery, etc. Do not lose sight 
of the fact that its effects are chemical effects 
and that the prime essential to keep in mind 
is the difference in the action of its poles; 
for "polarity is everything." 

In contrast to this the action of the faradic 
or induced current is mechanical; it pos- 
sesses no chemical properties, and polarity 
is an indifferent matter. 

Reverting to the primary wet cell of the 
galvanic battery the positive pole is the end 
of the copper element outside of the solution 
and the negative, the zinc element. To 
those who are not familiar with this fact I 
will give the method I use in my classes of 
enabling students to remember it. 

The letter P, standing for positive, oc- 
curs only in copper and N, standing for 




HARD RUBBER NEEDLE HOLDER 

negative, only in zinc, so by spelling the 
words with a p and an n capitalized we have 
the letters for the corresponding poles, thus: 
coPper, ziNc. 

The polar effects of galvanism depend 
upon the attraction which the poles have for 
elements of the opposite polarity, thus the 
positive pole attracts oxygen, which is, itself, 
negative, and since oxygen is a necessary 
element in acids, the positive pole has there- 
fore an acid reaction. 

The characteristics of the two poles are 
herewith summarized, and by contrasting 
their properties and keeping them, well in 
mind, the physician will have no difficulty 



in selecting the suitable pole for the purpose 
sought, and it will serve as a therapeutic 
guide. 

Positive Pole 

Acid 

Corrodes 

Oxygen found at this 
pole 

Contracts blood-vessels 

Coagulates albumen 

Stops bleeding 

Soothing 

Relieves pain 

Hardens tissues 

Acts as an acid caustic 

Leaves a firm unyield- 
ing scar 



Negative Pole 
Alkaline 

Attracts hydrogen 
Does not corrode 
Dilates blood-vessels 
Does not coagulate al- 
bumen 
Increases bleeding 
Irritating 

Increases sensitiveness 
Softens and liquefies 

tissues 
An alkaline caustic 
Soft pliable scar 



In the electrolysis (electric analysis) of 
water the negative oxygen is attracted to the 




FIBER CAUTERY HOLDER 

positive pole of the battery while the hydro- 
gen which is positive is drawn to the negative 
pole. Thus, the fluid is electrically sep- 
arated or analyzed. 

Electrolysis in medicine is applied prin- 
cipally to the removal of superfluous hair, 
moles, warts and other small growths. For 
this purpose the negative pole is employed 
because it forms an alkaline caustic and be- 
cause the slight scar produced is soft and 
pliable. 




CAUTERY ILLUMINATOR SET 

A simple experiment to show the compara- 
tive action of the poles may be made by 



208 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




attaching a steel needle to the positive pole 
and plunging it into a piece of raw meat. 
After the current has been passed (say one 
of 10-15 milliarivperes) for a moment it 
will be found on attempting to withdraw 
the needle that it sticks in the meat; that 
there is a dark area around it and the needle 
itself is corroded or oxidized. There also 
will be found a deposit of the oxide of the 
metal composing the needle in the tissues 
surrounding it. When the negative pole 
is attached the needle comes out easily and 
is not blackened or corroded. 

In measuring the current an instrument 
called a milli-amperemeter is used, which 
measures the current in thousandths of an 
ampere. 

In removing the 
superfluous hair, the 
needle is attached to 
the negative pole, us- 
ing a special needle 
holder. Some of 
these have a switch 
in the handle with 
which to turn on 
the current. The milli-amperemeter 
positive pole is con- 
nected to a large pad, moistened in salt 
water and in contact with the upper part 
of the back, the patient lying on it, or it 
may be placed at some other indifferent 
point, as on the breast with the patient's 
hand lying on it. 

The needle is passed down alongside of 
the hair shaft into the root or follicle. This 
is an average of about 1-16 of an inch. A 
current of from two to five milliamperes 
is then allowed to pass for possibly 20 
seconds, when the current is turned off and 
a gentle pull given to the hair. If it has 
been destroyed it will pull out easily, if not, 
turn the current on for a short time again, 
as hairs occasionally curve abruptly in a 
different direction from that which they 
take at the surface. A reasonable percent- 
age of them will not be destroyed, and fin- 
ally the caustic produced by the current 
burns the shaft through but does not kill the 
root and the hair will ultimately return. The 
bubbles which arise about the needle are 
produced by the hydrogen gas evolved. 
After the treatment is over a little peroxide 
or simple antiseptic solution should be 
applied to the skin. 

Physicians usually employ the current 
derived through a wall plate, affording both 



galvanism and faradism. Dry or wet cell 
batteries may be used with equal success. 
Space forbids discussing many of these 
points. In removing moles, warts, or small 
growths the needle is attached to the nega- 
tive pole and the growth transfixed through 
its base, on a level with the skin, by the 
needle. A current of five milliamperes (oc- 
casionally up to 20 or 30 in large growths), 
is employed and passes for 30 to 60 seconds, 
and then the needle is passed through at 
right angles and ,he process repeated. 
Sometimes I have found it convenient to 
withdraw the needle almost to the point of 
entrance and then thrust it back in another 
direction. Thus without turning off the cur- 
rent I still am able to transfix the whole 
base of the growth. 

The object is to destroy the blood supply 
to the growth and thereby cause it to shrivel 
up. The growth whitens out as the cur- 
rent passes, but later turns dark. I seldom 
make a second application under five days, 
should a second one be required. Growths 
that have a small stem or pedicle to them 
are removed usually by one application, but 
flat growths with a wide base may require 
several applications before their blood supply 
is entirely obliterated. 

Cataphoresis or as it is frequently called, 
phoresis, is the carrying of substances into 
the tissues by means of the electrical cur- 
rent. This also depends upon the attrac- 
tion or repulsion which the poles possess, 
for the various elements. A solution is 
placed on a sponge or a small electrode made 
by covering the metal electrode with ab- 
sorbent cotton and after immersion in the 
solution, frequently with gold-beaters' skin. 

If this is attached to the positive pole as 
the current passes, all positive elements will 
be repelled from it and drawn through the 
tissues toward the negative pole. The 
converse is true if the solution is on the 
negative electrode. 

If we wish to carry a certain substance 
into the tissues we must consider the pole 
to which that particular substance will be 
attracted. - For example in using a saturated 
solution of potassium iodide in treating 
goiter, our object is to drive the iodine into 
the goiter. Now the potassium is electro- 
positive and will travel toward or remain at 
the negative pole, while the iodine, being 
negative, travels toward the positive pole. 
Therefore, to utilize the iodine the solution 
is placed on the sponge attached to the nega- 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



200 



tive pole. As the solution is broken up, 
the positive potassium remains at the nega- 
tive pole while the negative iodine travels 
through the tissues toward the positive pole. 

Cocaine solutions are used from the posi- 
tive pole, for local anesthesia. Massey 
destroys cancers by treating with a zinc 
electrode amalgamated with mercury. The 
electrode used is the positive and it is intro- 
duced or plunged into the tissues. 

It is well to remember, then, that oxygen, 
chlorine, iodine and acids are electro-nega- 
tive, while hydrogen, alkalies, and most 
metals are positive. 

A simple method of determining the poles 
of the battery is by immersing both in a 
glass of water containing a little salt. Bub- 
bles (hydrogen) gather at the negative pole. 

A few therapeutic applications of galvan- 
ism are enumerated. Others, which the phy- 
sician will readily understand, have been 
omitted in this discussion. 

NEURALGIAS 

Apply positive pole over painful spot; negative 
to spinal origin of nerve or to an indifferent point, 
and allow the current to pass from three to five 
minutes, of a strength of one to five milli-amperes. 

CONGESTIVE HEADACHES 

Apply positive pole over the forehead and nega- 
tive to the back of the neck. One to five milli- 
amperes, three to five minutes 

GOITER 

Negative sponge electrode moistened in saturated 
solution potassium iodide placed on one side of the 
goiter; positive sponge on the other side. Two to 
five milli-amperes, five to ten minutes. 

ARTICULAR RHEUMATISM 

Solution of lithium citrate on sponge attached 
to the positive pole, over joint, negative on abdomen 
or some indifferent point; twenty milli-amperes, 
ten minutes. 

Diagnostic lamps are made in many 
styles and sizes. Some are used to reflect 
light into the mouth, nose, ear, etc., while 
others are so small that they may be intro- 
duced into the various cavities of the body. 

Still others are used to show by the de- 
gree in which the light penetrates or shines 
through the tissues (transillumination) the 
presence or absence of a diseased condition, 
and finally we have the high candle-power 
lights used for the heat or chemical effects 
they produce when shining on a diseased 
surface. All of this must be left for con- 
sideration later in a separate chapter. 

In using the electro-cautery there are 
platinum blades and points of sundry styles 
and sizes. I have employed the electro- 
cautery successfully not only in the minor 
conditions in which the cautery is indicated, 



but in operations of a major or semi-major 
character. 

A point of the greatest importance is the 
degree of heat to which the cautery blade or 
point is subjected. It is at first a dull red; 
then a bright red and finally a white heat, 
as the current is increased. The white heat 
will cause the blade to cut through the 
tissues as smoothly as a knife, but as it 
does not stop the amount of bleeding it 
really has no advantage over the knife and 
is more clumsy, hence unsuitable for the 
physicians' use. On the other hand, the 



ST 




CAUTERY ELECTRODES 

blade showing a red heat, cuts slowly, but 
seals up the bleeding vessels on either side 
and thus leaves practically a bloodless field 
of operation. It is this which gives it its 
great value. Also, in sealing up these blood 
vessels and lymphatics there is no oppor- 
tunity offered for the entrance of septic or 
malignant matter. 

If the skin be incised by this form of 
cautery the adjacent sides will heal to- 
gether as readily as after an incision made 
by a knife, and furthermore, because there 



210 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



is no loss of serum or especial damage to the 
tissues there is practically no swelling of the 
cauterized wound. 

As the blade comes in contact with the 
tissues it cools down quickly and it is de- 
sirable to remove it every few seconds until 
it glows again, when it is re-applied. 

The electro-cautery is especially valuable 
in nasal surgery, in orificial surgery, etc. 
It is employed frequently to destroy as much 
as possible of a cancer or other malignant 
growth which is so situated that complete 
surgical removal is impossible or inadvis- 
able. 

The faradic current shows practically no 
difference between the effect of its poles 
because it is an alternating current and the 
poles change too quickly for chemical 
effects to be manifested. I am referring 
now to chemical effects only. As regards 
the physiological properties of the two poles 
there is a perceptible difference between the 
positive and negative pole and the negative 
pole is more irritating because the negative 
wave is more abrupt, being the wave that 
occurs with the breaking of the current. 

The faradic current possesses absolutely 
no electrolytic properties and cannot be 
used to remove superfluous hair, growths, 
etc. Ludicrous letters are often received 
from physicians who state that they have 
been unsuccessful in following the directions 
given for removing small growths with their 
battery and on further investigation it is' 
found that they have been trying to do so 
with the faradic battery. 

The feature which gives this current its 
true value is its ability to cause muscular 
contractions with each make or break of 
the current. The result of these contrac- 
tions is the exercise of the muscular tissues 
and consequent improvement in all of the 
various bodily processes. There is an in- 
creased oxidation of the tissues and an in- 
creased elimination of the poisons or waste 
products. Therefore, we think of the fara- 
dic current as a "massage" current, and 
find that in common with the high frequency 
and sinusoidal currents it increases metabo- 
lism or cellular activity, and is indicated in 
all conditions where increased nutrition 
either locally or generally is desired. 

There is a method of applying the cur- 
rent called general faradization, which is 
accomplished by placing the feet upon a 
plate connected to one pole of the battery 
and a moistened sponge electrode attached 



to the other pole, moving back and forth 
over different parts of the body, usually dwell- 
ing for from one to three minutes over the 
head, neck, back, abdomen and extremities. 
The patient may sit on the plate instead of 
placing it under the feet, if so desired. 

The galvanic and faradic currents may be 
combined and thus the advantage of both 
currents made use of. The method of 
doing this is the connecting of the negative 
pole of the galvanic current to the positive 
pole of the faradic battery. 

One method of administering faradic 
currents and which also may be employed 
for sinusoidal or galvanic currents, is by 
means of the electric bath. In giving this 
the poles of the battery end in good sized 
copper plates, one of which is placed at the 




ELECTRIC BATH 

head and the other at the foot of a porcelain 
bathtub, partly filled with water. Orainarily 
the feet touch the lower plate, but the other 
plate is kept from contact with the head or 
shoulders by interposing a cushion or other 
obstacle. The size of the plate used for 
the head is usually about 12 by 16 inches; 
the other possibly 10 by 12 inches. Another 
way is by means of special electrodes as 
shown in the diagram. 

The patient is placed in the bathtub be- 
fore the current is turned on; when it is 
allowed to pass for a varied length of time 
according to the case, the strength of cur- 
rent being governed by the toleration of the 
patient. This form of faradic bath may be 
given with the ordinary home battery. 
(To be continued.) 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



211 




ELECTRIC POWER BOAT THAT MAKES 24 MILES AN HOUR 



Speed and Pleasure with Elec- 
tric Boats 



The use of electricity as a means of pro- 
pelling pleasure boats or launches is a matter 
of common knowledge. But it will no 
doubt be a surprise to many, especially those 
who are enthusiastic over high-speed boats, 
to know that power boats capable of making 
24 miles an hour are now being run by stor- 
age batteries and a motor driven propeller. 
One of these high speed boats making fast 
time on Lake George, New York, is shown 
in one of the illustrations, the boat being 



40 feet long and carrying a 70 horse-power. 

Electric pleasure boats are also becoming 
more popular every year. The one shown 
seats 40 passengers and for its purpose is 
built, in contrast to that of the high speed 
boats, for making only six or seven miles 
an hour. 

The cost of current to run a 30-foot boat 
is placed at about four cents an hour by 
the Electric Launch Company, Bayonne, 
New Jersey. The furnishings are almost 
equal to those in a small modern home, 
while electric light is used in the cabin and 
for the headlight. 




ELECTRIC PLEASURE LAUNCH, CAPACITY 40 PEOPLE 



First Electrically Propelled Balloon 




ELECTRICALLY PROPELLED BALLOON OF THE TISSANDIER BROTHERS 



The continued suc- 
cessful nights of the 
dirigible balloons de- 
signed and piloted by 
Count von Zeppelin 
recalls the much earlier 
French effort in that 
direction, the first in 
which electricity fur- 
nished the motive 
power. Remarkable 
as it may seem, this 
was over a quarter of 
a century ago, long 
before the invention 
of the storage battery, 
hence the source of 
current had to be pri- 
mary batteries. In 
1 88 1, one of the fea- 
tures of the Exhibi- 
tion of Electricity in 
Paris was a small di- 
rigible electric balloon 
designed by Gaston 
Tissandier, who was 
then (as he is still) 




CAR OF THE TISSANDIER BALLOON 



editor of the clever 
French scientific week- 
ly "La Nature." 

Having developed a 
bichromate of potash 
pile which promised 
to be more powerful 
in proportion to its 
weight than the bat- 
tery used in this small 
balloon, M. Tissandier 
and his brother Albert, 
(who had meanwhile 
started a .balloon fac- 
tory at Auteuil) built 
a much larger dirigi- 
ble balloon, measuring 
36 feet in diameter 
and no feet from tip 
to tip. The balloon 
proper was of the 
double pointed shape 
developed by Dupuy 
de Lome in 1872 and 
was filled with hy- 
dro gen gas. The 
motor was of the 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



213 




BATTERY USED ON TISSANDIER BALLOON 

Siemens type, wound to run at a maxi- 
mum of 1800 revolutions per minute 
and connected to the propeller through 
a 1 to 10 gear. Current was furnished 
by 24 bichromate of potash batteries 
arranged in four groups, each of which was 
connected by a flexible tube to a light hard- 
rubber pail which contained the liquid. 
When this pail was raised by means of a 
block and tackle, the liquid entered the 
battery and started the current. The 24 
cells were connected in series and controlled 
by means of a mercury commutator. 

At the very first ascension the two Tis- 
sandiers remained up over Paris for an hour 
and a quarter, and while they were limited 
in their evolutions by an incomplete control 
of the rudder, they found the motive power 
fully equal to the air currents which they 
encountered. Indeed, Gaston Tissandier 
promptly reported in "La Nature" (to 
which we are indebted for our detail cuts 
of the car and the battery) that "electricity 
furnishes a balloon with one of the most 
favorable of motors, the management of 
which in the car is extremely easy." He 
also adds what some of our contemporaries 
have waited a quarter of a century to de- 
monstrate: "Aerial navigation will not be 
created all at once, for it necessitates numer- 



ous trials, multiple efforts and a perseverance 
that is proof against anything." 

This historic ascent of the first electrically 
guided balloon occurred on October 8, 
1883, and seems to have been appreciated 
by the leading periodicals of that time, to 
one of which (" L 'Illustration") we owe our 
illustration of the Tissandier balloon. 



Recorders on the Berlin Cars 



Since 1908 the Berlin traction companies 
have equipped their cars with an electric 
recorder which consists of a clock which is 
automatically started or stopped every time 
the motors are started or stopped. 

The motormen have, as everywhere else, 
a certain fixed time to complete a round trip. 
This time is determined experimentally. 
Those recording instruments make is pos- 
sible to observe if the normal loss in time 
due to stops is exceeded or not. The re- 
sults of those observations are noted on the 
crew record cards— and if for a certain period 
of time they are unfavorable the crew is 
detailed off to a new period of training. 
If after that there is no improvement . the 
men are discharged. 

For 3000 conductors the control service 
is looked after by 13 employees and the 
clocks cost $10.00 each. Nevertheless the 
resulting economy is considerable. 

It was found out, however, that soon after 
the device was installed the cars began to 
come in ahead of time and it was possible 
to increase the average speed by about 
10 per cent and so it was found necessary to 
buy 80 new cars, which increased number of 
cars required the employment of 300 more 
men. But the resulting service was better. 

More, the repair cost of motors and brakes 
has decreased about 20 or 30 per cent. 



Tunnel from Sweden to Denmark 



A project is on foot to build a tunnel be- 
tween the Southern extremity of Amajer 
Island in Denmark and Schonne in Sweden. 
The length of the tunnel would be about 
20 miles. It would contain two tracks; the 
power for running the trains would be elec- 
tricity, and the tunnel would be built with 
great iron sections that would be deposited 
on the bottom of the sea. The tunnel would 
be used for the transportation of freight and 
passengers. 



214 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Brilliant Flaming Arcs 



The first installation in the Northwest of 
18-ampere flaming arc lamps was made in 
front of the National Guard Armory at 
Minneapolis, for service during the first 
annual electrical show held by the North- 
western Electrical Association, March 26th, 
to April 2nd, 1 910. 

One of the difficult problems to be solved 
by the Association was the illumination of 



ture suns, attracting considerable attention 
for a great distance in all directions. 

The Early Days in Texas 

One ring of the bell: "Short of ice;" 
two rings: "Need more beer." 

Such was the signal code used in an en- 
terprising Texas town long before the pro- 
hibition wave struck that section, and in- 
deed long before the telephone was gener- 




TWO FLAMING ARCS LIGHT THE WHOLE FRONT OF THE MINNEAPOLIS ARMORY 



the exterior of the Armory and its grounds. 
After giving the matter due consideration 
as to the best methods of illumination, it 
was decided to install the new 18-ampere 
General Electric flaming arc lamp. 

As an experiment, two of these lamps 
were placed at the top of a fifty-foot pole, 
approximately 75 feet in front of the Armory. 
Much to the surprise of those interested 
these two lamps not only gave a brilliant 
golden light, sufficient to illuminate the en- 
tire building and street in front, but proved 
to be the best possible advertisement for 
the electrical show. As the lamps swung 
high in the air, they resembled two minia- 



ally introduced. At that time most of the 
saloons in the town were controlled by a 
brewer who tried to save expense by carry- 
ing only a limited supply of both beer and 
ice at each place. By having his head- 
quarters connected with each saloon through 
an ordinary annunciator call system he was 
able to keep in touch with the urgent needs 
at each point. The saving in ice alone is 
said to have paid for the installing of the 
system in a single summer, but with the 
general introduction of telephones it was 
outclassed some years later. However, the 
method was typical of the many uses of 
even a simple electrical annunciator. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



215 



Who Will "Invest" Him? 



The Montefiore Prize 



That the Japanese are interested in the 
new electrical developments, and have an 
eye for a good money-making proposition, 
is evidenced by the following letter. Per- 
haps someone with a little money to invest 
would like to go into the lecturing business 
in Japan:. 
Editor Popular Electricity: 

I am afraid to ask you these questions, but allow 
me to inquire you. I have an ambition on elec- 
trical business. I am a Japanese boy who have 
an interest in electricity. Well, few years ago 
when our country first time saw the telephone, we 
were surprised to see it (we saw the telephone in- 
strument by the traveling telephone show man) 
and he operates instruments everywhere he went 
(especially in school) and he made about $20 to 
$35 every day by operating instruments and he 
made his fortune with his pair of telephone instru- 
ments. 

Now I would like to be a one of traveling man 
with the wireless telegraph instrument. There is 
no one tra'veled yet with the sample wireless instru- 
ment, so I would like to go to Japan with pair of 
instrument but I can't devote all my expense in 
this present time so I would like to know if there is 
someone would invest me in business. Few 
months ago I wrote to Manhattan Electrical Sup- 
ply Co. and Mr. J. J. Duck, Ohio, but they can't 
do anything but give the percent if I would take 
order for their Company. 

Please let me know where I can find the man 
who would invest me on this business. 
Yours very truly, 

Thomas Uchiyamada. 
Care The Escalante, 

Ash Fork, Ariz. 

P. S. I am the student of the I. C. S. Electrical 
Engineering. 



Electric Traction on Bavarian Roads 



From an official report published on the 
eventual electrification of the Bavarian 
railroad the amount of power necessary for 
the transformation would be about 600,000 
horse-power. 

There is enough hydraulic power in the 
country to permit of the electrification, which 
would be particularly convenient in the 
southern part of the country where the 
traffic is comparatively light and where 
most of the waterfalls are situated. In the 
northern part for economical electrical 
operation the traffic should be twice as 
heavy as it is in the southern part. The ex- 
pense for the three lines to be equipped first 
is counted to be about 8,000,000 marks. 
The speed of express trains is to be 50 miles 
per hour and single phase alternating cur- 
rent is to be used. 



The Administrative Council of the Asso- 
ciation of Electrical Engineers connected 
with the Montefiore Electrical Institute in 
Liege, Belgium have announced the giving 
of a prize which will bear the name of 
"Fondation George Montefiore Levi." Thir- 
ty thousand dollars invested in three per 
cent Belgian bonds furnishes the means for 
offering a triennial prize which amounts to 
$4,000 and which will be available for the 
first time in 191 1. This money is to be 
given for the best original work on the 
progress, advancement and application of 
electricity in modern life. The papers 
will be passed upon by a body of judges 
consisting of ten electrical engineers, five 
Belgians and five foreigners, presided over 
by the president of the Institute. The papers 
may be in either French or English, printed 
or written. Each manuscript must bear an 
assumed name and also a sealed envelope 
in which the writer on a card gives his real 
name and address. Contributions must be 
in on or before March 11, 191 1, and should 
be addressed to the secretary of the Fonda- 
tion, George Montefiori Levi, 31 Rue St. 
Gilles, Liege, Belgium. 




THE AERIAL BURGLAR 

The field of usefulness of the lightning rod 
is to be presently extended. 



Under-running Trolleys in Paris 



By EMILE RUEGG 



It is unquestionably a fact that trolley 
wires spoil the good looks of any elegant 
city. Paris knows it, too. But can we do 
without them? The picture proves that the 
Parisian is able to do so. The scene 
represented is at the Etoile, one of the most 
beautiful places of the picturesque city. 
Here the Thomson-Houston system has 
found the largest application. 

In the centre between the two rails we find 
a slot about ij inches wide and rather deep 



carry three slides which glide constantly 
upon the pavement, from time to time mak- 
ing connection with these plugs. The dis- 
tances between these plugs are measured 
very exactly so that some of the slides are 
always upon plugs which is essential for a 
regular current supply. 

The loss of current in this system is quite 
considerable, it is said, especially during 
rainy weather and in winter when the 
humidity acts as a conductor. The plugs are 




UNDER-RUNNING TROLLEY CAR AND TYPE OF CONTACT BUTTON USED IN PARIS 



(about one yard). Instead of having a. 
trolley upon the roof of the electric cars 
reaching up to the wires, we find here a 
trolley reaching down into the slot where 
it takes the current below the surface of the 
earth. This system is the most perfect one 
of its kind and hardly ever gives rise to 
any disturbances or irregularities. 

The small view shows a current tap of 
peculiar shape. Such plugs are buried at 
regular distances from each other in the 
pavement between the two rails in some parts 
of Paris. The electric cars are long and 



weii insulated from the ground but losses 
occur just the same, caused by moisture. 
It is also a peculiarity of this system that 
during night time there may be seen tre- 
mendous flashes like lightning. This is 
especially true during rainy weather or 
when some sand or stone causes the slide 
below to be lifted from the plugs, thus in- 
terrupting the current. Many a horse has 
been frightened by such sparks and accidents 
have occasionally been reported. The news- 
papers also reported occasional accidents to 
horses during rainy weather, which have 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



217 



been caused by a contact of the hoofs of the 
horse and the iron wheels of the wagons, etc. 
But such accidents are fortunately but 
very seldom and happen perhaps every one 
or two years. Pedestrians are not harmed 
because to step on one of the plugs will not 
permit of a shock and they are too far apart 
to enable one to touch two of them at the 
same time. 

The cars carry a trolley pole in addition 
to the "under-running trolley." While the 
cars are running in the city the trolley is 
hooked down, but as soon as they leave the 
city walls behind them, the trolleys are set 
upon the trolley wires above and without 
a moment's delay may run under another 
system. There are, however," many sub- 
urban electric cars which run in the city 
as well as also in the country on such plugs 
only. 



Testing Copper-Clad Steel Wire 



When selecting wire for carrying electric 
current, the mechanical strength as well as 
the conductivity must be considered. Al- 
though copper wire is a better conductor 



used in making steel and copper wire and 
comes out copper-clad steel wire. To test 
this wire two poles are set some distance 
apart. In the illustration a No. 10 hard- 
drawn copper wire and a No. 12 copper-clad 
steel wire are suspended side by side be- 
tween the posts and weighted uniformly by 
pieces of lead, the total weight on each wire 
being 109 pounds. The sag is measured 
from a third wire drawn between the posts 
the test being carried in some cases to the 
breaking point of the wires. 



Batteries Large and Small 



Nowadays when we light our way at 
night on country paths with pocket size 
batteries, it is interesting to look back at 
some of the experimental batteries of exactly 
two centuries ago, when various investigators 
were using batteries of enormous size with- 
out even dreaming of producing light from 
the same. Several experimenters of that 
period reported their using batteries com- 
posed of at least twenty cells, each cell having 
a pair of zinc and copper plates and the 
plates themselves being two feet wide and 




THE WIRE IS PUT UNDER TENSION BY HANGING ON LEAD WEIGHTS 



than iron and steel wire, the latter is much 
used for telegraph and telephone purposes 
because the copper wire lacks tensile strength, 
a copper wire large enough to stand the 
strain on long spans costing too much on 
account of the increased size of wire neces- 
sary. 

To secure both conductivity and strength 
a steel wire covered with a coating of copper 
is now made by welding molten copper on 
a billet of steel. The bar is then sub- 
jected to a process of rolling similar to that 



four feet high. The favorite solution at 
that time was a diluted mixture of nitric 
and sulphuric acids, which must have con- 
sumed the plates rapidly. But the more 
remarkable point was the size of the plates 
and therefore of the cells, some of which 
held over a hundred gallons of solution. 
Think what a supply of energy we would 
have today if we were to fill the same size 
of tank or jar with the modern high-ampere 
dry cells as used for our portable flash- 
lights! 



218 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The Electric Semaphore 



"Stop, Look and Listen!" are words sig- 
nifying danger to those who cross railroad 
tracks guarded by a crossing signal. To 
the locomotive engineer who must cross the 
, track of an- 
other road or 
run into the 
railway station 
of a big city 
where trains 
are arriving 
and leaving 
every hour of 
the day and 
night the arm 
attached to the 
top of the pole 
as shown in 
the picture 
spells "stop" 
when in its 
horizontal po- 
sitio n and 
"clear" when 
it swings up 
to a vertical 
position. 

In the little 
iron case on 
the pole is a 
motor, the 
wires of which 
run down the 
pole and to a 
watch tower, 
where, by the 
simple opera- 
tion of closing 
a switch, the 
motor is start- 
ed and swings 
the semaphore 
into the proper 
position ready 
to deliver its 
message. On 
many railroads 
these signals 
are still oper- 
ated by hand 
from a system 
of levers in the 
signal tower 
and metal rods 
along the track 





THE INTERIOR OF AN ELECTRIC SEMAPHORE 

to the signal pole, but the illustration shows 
the same thing accomplished by the elec- 
trical equipment of the General Railway 
Signal Company. 



Three Centuries of Electric Bells 



ELECTRIC SEMA- 
PHORES GUARD 
THE WAY 



What is probably the earliest available 
reference to an electric bell is found in a 
rare volume to which the catalog of the 
British Museum assigns the date of 1600, 
though it more likely was issued some ten 
years later. It was published in Nurem- 
berg, the famous toy center of Germany, by 
Janus de Sunde under the title: "Secret, 
Magic and Natural Arts of Communica- 
tion." In this book de Sunde tells of a 
wonder worker as calling up a friend by 
ringing a bell through the means of a bar 
magnet — in other words, he vaguely de- 
scribes a magnetically operated bell. 

Another of the secret and magical means 
of communication described by the same 
author consists of needles moved by bar 
magnets so as to indicate letters by one or 
more strokes of the needles to the right and 
the left — a simple needle telegraph . Thus we 
find among the mysteriously magical of three 
hundred years ago the basis of the magnetic 
boys' play of more recent years. Fifty years 
later another philosopher of Nuremberg 
described a bell in which the clapper was 
moved by the armature of a magnet. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



219 



Insulating Materials 



VULCANIZED FIBRE 

The very extensive use of this material 
is due more to its mechanical properties and 
to its easy shaping in all required forms than 
to its insulating qualities. This material is 
nothing more than wooden fibres which, 
treated by some chemical agents, dissolve 
and are solidified by drying after being sub- 
mitted to a very high pressure. 

The manufacture of this insulating fibre 
requires the right kind of wood, very ac- 
curate workmanship in making the paste, 
in drying and in its compression. Particular 
attention is also paid to the humidity in the 
surrounding atmosphere and its tempera- 
ture, and powerful machinery is required. 

To obtain it in workable quantities and 
conditions it is necessary to have recourse 
to American manufacturers. Germany has 
tried to manufacture it, or just as good a 
substitute, but has now given up hope of 
ever succeeding. It is put on the market 
in sheets 44 by 66 inches. The thickness 
varies from thousandth of an inch to one 
inch and a half, in rods or in tubes. 

The color (black, red or gray) does not 
involve any difference in the ' properties, 
and the price is satisfactorily low. 

But while this substance has high mechani- 
cal resistance to vibration, is not sensibly 
affected by acids or solvents and oily mat- 
ters and can be easily worked, its dielectric 
strength is not high and it is very sensitive 
to humidity and can give trouble by absorb- 
ing water up to 10 per cent of its own weight. 
It is true that it regains some of its good 
properties by drying, but the drying process 
must be natural and the fibre must not be 
exposed to a high temperature — otherwise 
it will lose its elasticity. 

The proper precaution to take is to use a 
very high grade waterproof varnish to pro- 
tect the fibre. 

The fibre is a poor conductor of the heat 
and burns with difficulty and also under 
operation gets better the older it is. 

WOOD 

Wood, especially when hard and seasoned 
in a dry place, owing to its comparatively 
low price, its abundance, and the ease with 
which it is worked, is used very largely in 
electric machinery, i. e., from bases for elec- 
tric bells to the largest three-phase motors. 
In theory the price should not be considered 
at all when looking for some scientifically 



perfect insulating material. Practically, the 
price is one of the most important factors, 
and this gives wood a preference except 
where it cannot absolutely be used, as in 
case of high electric tension. 

Often wood is used for the bulk of the 
insulating device, to give it strength, and is 
lined with porcelain, asbestos, etc., in 
holes where electric conductors go through. 

Wood is highly hygroscopic and when 
wet loses all its dielectric power. Its texture 
is not uniform, and burns easily, and its 
dielectric power is not high. 

To obviate this the wood used is very hard 
and dry, is coated with varnish or impreg- 
nated with preserving matter. But if for 
this purpose the usual solution of paraffine 
or vegetable resin is used there is a*n increase 
in the possibility of fire. It is preferable to 
use a good varnish which will preserve the 
wood from water and will not increase the 
danger by heat or short circuit. 

When wood comes in contact continuous- 
ly with heavy oil the danger of humidity de- 
creases, moreover the wood will enjoy the 
advantages of being continuously in contact 
with a substance which is by itself a good 
insulator, without any increase in its com- 
bustibility. So wood can be used without 
inconvenience in oil switches and in cer- 
tain parts of transformers. Wood cellulose 
is moreover largely the foundation for the 
manufacture of many other insulating ma- 
terials like fibre-insulating paper, etc. 



Tungsten Lights Up First 

Have you ever noticed how much more 
quickly a tungsten lamp lights up after the 
current is turned on than does a carbon 
lamp ? This effect is due to the difference 
between the hot and the cold resistance of 
the two filaments. A piece of tungsten wire 
having a resistance of one ohm at o°C in- 
creases its resistance to seven ohms at 
iooo°C. In the carbon lamp the resistance 
of the filament cold is twice as great as when 
it is at an incandescent heat. Now if we 

E 
apply Ohm's law, C= — , with these two 

R 
conditions in mind and remember that the 
heating effect is proportional to the current 
squared, we see that the heat generated in 
a tungsten lamp when first lighted is very 
great, while in a carbon it is correspond- 
ingly small at the start. 



220 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



It Sparks Under Water 

Nothing so quickly tells on the action of 
an induction coil used for ignition as the 
presence of moisture in its windings. The 
water soaks through the insulation, short- 
circuiting the coils and preventing a spark, 
liijjSs^ and to repair 
a coil so dam- 
aged requires 
the services 
of an experi- 
enced work- 
man. 

The illus- 
tration shows 
a Perfex ig- 
niter consist- 
ing of a coil 
and spark 
plug com-' 
bined operat- 
ing under 
water, as ex- 
hibited at a 
recent motor- 
boat show. 
Operation 
under such 
co nditions 
speaks well for the quality of the insu- 
lation used in the coil. 




light lamps of practical sizes with the same. 
Besides, the voltage of these bichromate 
batteries is considerably higher than that 
of the dry batteries used in the flashlights 
now on the market both here and abroad. 
It therefore is not surprising that a revised 
form of this familiar bichromate battery 
should be offered on the European market 
for temporary or intermittent lighting, such 
as may be needed in a sickroom, closet or 
cellar. In this commercial form the lamp 
is fastened directly to the screw cover of the 
jar, while the zinc is lowered into the liquid 
by merely depressing the top of a sliding 
rod which normally holds the zinc out of the 
solution. The latter is made by adding 
clear water to a chromic salt which is sold 
in packages to users of the battery. Each 
filling is said to last about fifteen hours with 
intermittent use of the battery; that is, if the 
light is used fifteen minutes daily. The battery 
should run about two months before the 
liquid ne^ds renewing. The same battery 
lamp is also said to make a convenient ruby 
lantern for photographer's uses when a ruby 
globe is placed over the lamp. 



COIL AND PLUG 

OPERATING 

UNDER WATER 



Ornamental Pendant Pushes 



Return to Battery Lamp 



Centuries of use have made the old 
fashioned bell pulls such a familiar part of 
European interiors that many people in- 
sist on still maintaining them, partly for 



Thirty years ago the experimenter's 
favorite source of electric current (as hun- 
dreds of our readers can 
testify) was a battery in 
which carbon and zinc 
electrodes were used with 
a solution of bichromate 
of potassium and dilute 
sulphuric acid. Such a 
battery gives a fairly 
steady current for 15 or 
20 minutes and could be 
used on a play scale even 
for temporarily lighting 
low voltage miniature 
lamps. In recent years 
the development of tung- 
sten and other metallic fila- novel battery 
ment lamps has made the lamp 

lighting power of such a 
battery thrice as great as before, so that in- 
stead of the toy miniature lamps we can now 





ornamental pendant pushes 

their artistic effect. This is particularly 
true of hotels and inns which like to keep 
up their time honored appearance. In these 
we still find bell pulls, but instead of the 
clumsy cords and tassels of fifty years ago. 
we now have dainty flexible cords with 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



221 



ornamental forms of what we generally call 
pendant or pear-shaped pushes. Some of 
these imitate fruits or nuts, such as apples, 
pears or acorns. Another has a sparkling 
glass column set in a gilded metal frame- 
work, while still another has a miniature 
figure of a maid of Munich. 



Old Coffee Roaster Resurrected 



Hiding the Lamps 



The old adage about not hiding one's 
light under a bushel seems to be set at naught 
by the developments of recent years, for a 





large variety of interiors 
are nowadays lit by lamps 
which themselves are hid- 
den from view. By pro- 
jecting the light to the 
ceiling and letting that 
diffuse the light, we get 
rid of the direct glare of the lamps, so we are 
practically getting our illumination from 
lamps hid under. a bushel. 

Where such a method of lighting is ap- 
plicable, the present problem narrows it- 
self down practically to a choice of the re- 
flecting and concealing fixture, which may 
be highly artistic or decidedly homespun. 
For instance, two such indirect lighting fix- 
tures were recently advertised in the same 
month's issue of a European and an Ameri- 
can technical journal. Both designs 
are here reproduced, leaving each reader 
to make his own comments. 



Electricity from the River Jordan 



It may seem sacrilegious but nevertheless 
a company is being formed to build a light 
and power plant at the falls of the Jordan 
between Meron and Lake Gallilee. The 
river at this point makes a descent of 700 
feet and it is planned to build the plant large 
enough to supply all of the large towns of 
Palestine. 



As long as coffee is " green" or unroastea, 
the oils in the beans preserve its freshness 
so that it will keep not only through the long 
voyage from 
Guatemala o r 
Brazil, but also 
for months and 
even years af- 




ter reaching the 72 
northern coun- 
tries. Roast- -3= 
ing the beans 
removes these preservative oils, hence the 
roasted coffee loses rapidly in strength and 
flavor unless kept from exposure to the air. 
The average dealer gets his supply only 
once or twice a month, and it may have been 
roasted for weeks before being shipped to 
him, so the consumer often suffers from the 
flat taste of the old coffee. 

Having had this experience once too often, 
a shrewd German with a fondness for a 
good cup of "Bliemchen Kaffee" decided 
to roast his own hereafter. So he resurrec- 
ted a neat little coffee roaster which his 
grandmother had tucked away in the attic 
years ago. This he fastened to an electric 
hot-plate, so that the heat of the plate would 
gradually roast the beans in the drum, which 
is slowly turned by hand. A Yankee prob- 
ably would have fastened this to an electric 
toaster, but toast is not a German dish. 



Instrument to Detect Gas Leakage 



An Italian professor has invented a very 
simple instrument adapted to any locality 
to detect gas leakages. It is very strong 
and makes an electric bell ring long before 
sufficient gas has accumulated to endanger 
people by fire or suffocation. 

The gas molecules to get into the surround- 
ing atmosphere have to pass through the 
sides of a small porcelain cylinder which 
contains air at a normal pressure. These 
gas molecules enter the chamber much more 
quickly than the inside air can escape and 
make place for them. This is due to the 
"osmotic" properties of the gas. 

The pressure inside is so increased that 
a small column of mercury is moved and 
closes a circuit setting a bell to ringing. 
The bell is kept ringing also after the normal 
pressure is restored inside the cylinder by 
a special disposition of the circuit. 



Statuary Authenticity Determined by X-Rays 



By DR. ALFRED GRADENWITZ 



Dr. Bode, director of the Royal Museum 
at Berlin, purchased in England, a short 
time ago, a wax bust called "Flora," sup- 
posed to be a production of Leonardo da 
Vinci (XVI Century). Immediately after- 
wards the authenticity of this bust was 
questioned by an English art expert, and 
The Times published a letter from a South- 




THE FLORA OF LEONARDO DA VINCI 

ampton antiquarian and auctioneer, Mr. 
Cooksey, in which the writer declared that 
an English sculptor, Mr. R. C. Lucas, who 
died in 1883, was the author of the work. 
This sensational assertion did not fail to 
have its effect, and new proofs of the recent 
origin of the bust were sought for and found 
every day, which naturally induced the 
purchaser, who believed in the authenticity 
of the bust, to search for counterproofs. 

Though the artistic value of the wax bust 
itself, which has been placed at the Emperor 
Frederick Museum, cannot be affected in 
any way by the issue of this discussion, the 
different methods used for ascertaining the 



age of the bust are of more than passing 
interest, as all the resources of modern 
engineering were drawn upon in this con- 
nection. 

The principal reason for considering 
Lucas as the author of the work was a 
photograph said to have been taken by the 
sculptor in his studio from a wax bust, and 
which bears the following inscription written 
in pencil by Lucas himself: "The 'Flora' of 
Leonardo da Vinci." This photograph 
showed a female figure, draped in a shawl 
and dressed in a light garb, which, apart 
from the hands, that are wanting in the wax 
bust, bore a striking likeness to the latter. 
Dr. Bode compared this photograph with 
some pictures taken from the bust he had 




X-RAY PHOTOGRAPH SHOWED THAT THE 
HEAD WAS STUFFED 

purchased and came to the conclusion that 
the busts represented in the respective 
photographs could not possibly be identical, 
some striking differences being visible at 
first sight. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



223 




MENTS FOR MELT- 
ING THE WAX 



However, in spite of 
this visual evidence an 
accurate photographic 
measuring process en- 
abled Dr. Miethe to ob- 
tain a perfect coincidence 
of the Lucas picture and 
the recent photographs. 
In view of the absolute 
identity of measurements 
in all parts of the bust, 
Dr. Miethe pronounced 
himself in favor of the 
English hypothesis. 

Needless to say, those 
of the other party were 
not satisfied with this 
negative result, and called 
in the aid of chemical 
analysis. The melting 
point of some wax 
samples taken from vari- 
ous portions of the bust special instru 
was determined and 
found to be somewhat 
lower than that of the 
usual wax as used by modern artists. 
Other chemical factors failed to yield any 
definite evidence. 

The most sanguine hopes however were 
attached to the use of X-rays for examining 
the structure of the bust. In fact, some 
persons, among whom was the son of the 
supposed author, affirmed that Lucas, in 
order to save some material, had practised 
the strange habit of filling up his wax 
figures with old rags, pieces of clothing, 
etc. Now, as X-rays enable substances of 
different densities in the interior of an object 
to be distinguished on the photographic 
plate, an X-ray examination of the bust 
was made. 

This interesting operation was carried out 
on November 13th, last, in the photographic 
studio of the Museum, in the presence of a 
committee composed of the foremost Ber- 
lin art experts. 

One of the X-ray pictures so obtained is 
illustrated herewith. It shows without any 
doubt that the interior of the bust does 
contain substances of different densities, 
and the same result was obtained by visual 
X-ray inspection. In order further to in- 
vestigate the nature of the material con- 
tained in the bust, the committee had an 
electrical manufacturer construct a special 
electrical instrument for melting an opening 



into the wax, without marring the appearance 
of the bust. This instrument, as shown in 
the picture, was somewhat on the principle 
of the electric cauterizing instrument used 
by dentists and surgeons. 

After thus melting some holes into the 
bust, the experimenters succeeded in re- 
moving some tissue samples, which were 
submitted for further examination to special 
experts. In order to leave no doubt as to 
the possible origin of the fabric, a sample 
was even sent to London, where the officials 
of a museum found them to belong to the 
Victorian Age. 

In spite of this apparent evidence in favor 
of the recent origin of the bust, those who 
believe in the opposite hypothesis are still 
left the possibility of considering Lucas 
not as the author but as the restorer of this 
masterpiece. 



The New York and Paris Subway:; 



The New York and Paris subway sys- 
tems are of about the same length (31 miles) 
in two cities of about the same population. 
The Paris subway is a double track system, 
the New York four track one with two ex- 
press tracks. Paris has many branch lines, 
New York one main line and very few 
branches. 

The average speed of trains in Paris is 
about 12 miles per hour and the maximum 
36. The corresponding values for New 
York are 15 miles for local and 25 miles for 
express trains, and a maximum speed of 
40 miles. 

The average distance between stations in 
Paris is about three miles, against four 
miles for local and several miles for ex- 
press service in New York. 

The fares are three cents and five cents, 
with transfers, in Paris, and five cents and 
no transfers in New York. 

The following figures give an idea of the 
traffic intensity: 

New York Paris 

Number of cars 837 951 

Total seating capacity per car. . 52 28 

Total car kilometers (3280 ft.) 

in millions of km 70 56 

Total of passengers in millions. 200 282 

Passengers per track mile 2 2.9 

Passengers per car mile 2.85 5.1 

The difference in the figures is easily ex- 
plained by the fact that the distribution of 
the population is more uniform in Paris than 
in New York and the distances are shorter. 



224 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



The Work of the Crane 



Power of Electric Locomotives 



To handle the tons and tons of metal in 
the form of beams, and girders stored in the 
structural steel yards of today would be an 
impossible task were it not for lifting cranes. 

Electrically driven traveling hoists capable 
of lifting tons are much used for this pur- 
pose and hasten the loading and unloading 
of cars and long hauling wagons. Parallel 



From the latest experiments in Italy on 
the state electric railways it has been estab- 
lished that a three-phase electric locomotive 
can pull 5.45 times its own weight, while a 
single-phase locomotive can only pull a 
train of 2.7 times its weight. Other 
conditions being equal it takes a single- 
phase locomotive twice as heavy as a three- 




TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANE IN A STRUCTURAL STEEL YARD 




CRANE PILING STEEL RAILS 



tracks of heavy I-beams are supported on 
posts as shown and across this span is 
placed a heavy girder which is electrically 
propelled back and forth while the load lifted 
is carried from one place to another. 



phase to do the same amount of work. As 
the price per ton of the two kinds of engines 
is not very different in the calculations for 
electric operation of railroads this will prove 
quite an important factor. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



225 



Line Construction in Elfland 



Every age develops its share of folklore, 
though some generations may pass before 
this becomes current enough to be classic. 
The fairy tales so ably gathered for the bene- 
fit of our grandparents and of all succeeding 
times by Grimm, Andersen and Hauff 
relate to folk with much simpler customs 
and surroundings than we have today. Our 
own times and habits will play their part 
in the folklore of another century, and will 








**-— _ r\ v-"\. V< ' v*--^>J 



LINE CONSTRUCTION IN ELFLAND 

no doubt reflect some phases of electrical 
development. 

Or it may easily be that the vague and 
erratic memory which helps to create such 
vividly beautiful tales, will transplant some 
of our customs to the fairy folk of much 
older times, so that the same fascinating 
people will occur in new roles. One artist 
has already been embued with this idea. 
He has let his fancy roam to the time when 
Elfland has felt the wave of electrical progress 
and when the little gnomes or elfmen have 
started to erect pole lines from the water 
falls Way up in the wooded mountains to 
their capital on the little knoll by the sea. 

Will they use single phase or three-phase 
transmission? Ah, how prosaic we are! 
The artist, like the moulders of the word- 
pictures in our fairy tales, sees the more 
artistic points. What matter how the cir- 



cuits run, or what rate of alternations is 
adopted, when flashes like this appeal to 
him: "And the other gnomes crowded 
around him, for no more had he touched 
his magic auger to the ground but it bored 
itself deep and straight into the earth, just 
where the first pole was to be set." 



Electric Engines on Italian Railroads 



Following is some data on the 40 electric 
engines that the Italian State Railroads are 
going to use on their new electric lines. 

The engines have two motors fed by a 
three-phase current of 3000 volts, 15 cycles. 
The motors have eight poles and connected 
in series run at a speed of 11 2.5 revolutions 
per minute, giving the trains a velocity of 
14 miles per hour. Connected in parallel, 
with a speed of 225 revolutions per minute, 
the train velocity is 28 miles per hour. 

The total length of the engine is 31 feet 
four inches between bumpers. The dis- 
tance between the rail and trolley contact 
is 19 feet eight inches, and between the rail 
and roof, 13 feet. The trolley contact can 
be lowered to a distance of 14 feet from the 
rail to take care of the different heights of 
the trolley wire. There are five pairs of 
driving wheels 40 inches in diameter and 
the total weight of the engine is 165,000 
pounds with ballast. 

The total horse-power is about 2000, at 
300 amperes. For the operating conditions 
this was required for two engines to be able 
to pull a train of 840,000 pounds net weight 
at a speed not to exceed 28 miles per hour 
on a grade of 35 per 100c and with curves of 
1350 feet radius. 

The motor temperature after an hour run 
at 117 amperes and 3000 volts does not ex- 
ceed by more than 75 C. the temperature 
of the surrounding atmosphere. 

The continuous run tests were especially 
fitted to the peculiarly mountainous country 
and very thorough. An 84,000 pound train 
had to be started and brought up to a velocity 
of 14 miles per hour 30 times per hour on 
a three per 1000 grade with curves not to 
exceed 600 feet radius without any of the 
engine parts getting out of order by heating. 

The trolley contact is made up of two 
bronze cylinders on ball bearings and a 
steel axis. The trolley is kept in place by 
a spring actuated by compressed air. If 
the air pressure in this mechanism is released 



226 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



from the engine cab the trolley pole falls 
by its own weight. 

The net weight of the locomotive being 
67 tons, the horse power per ton is about 
30, which gives a fair idea of the advantages 
in regard to power per ton weight of this 
electric locomotive over a correspondingly 
powerful steam engine. 

It is to be noted that all Italian electric 
railroads use alternating high tension cur- 
rent with overhead conductors and that the 
third rail system has been used very little. 



First Wireless Telephone 



In 1879, long before the day of the Hert- 
zian wave and modern wireless telegraphy, 
Alexander Graham Bell devised and operated 
a "wireless telephone." Starting with Clerk 
Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory of light, 
he undertook to impress phonetic distur- 
bances upon the light waves and reproduce 
them in a telephone receiver by means of a 
bit of selenium, which has the remarkable 
property of changing its resistance to an 
electric current when under the influence of 




Battery 
FIRST WIRELESS TELEPHONE 

light. A cell made of two narrow strips of 
annealed selenium attached to a block of 
brass alters its resistance from 300 to 150 
ohms when brought from darkness into the 
sunlight. 

A beam of bright light was directed upon 
the surface of a silvered mica diaphragm which 
reflected it to a parobolic mirror at the re- 
ceiving station. Here the light was again 
reflected by the inner surface of the mirror 
so that it converged through a lens upon a 
small selenium cell at the focus of the mir- 
ror, and in series with a battery and the 
telephone receiver. 

As the voice waves of the sender impinged 
upon the silvered diaphragm it vibrated to 



and fro, altering the amount of reflected light 
according as it became convex or concave 
toward the receiver. With each variation 
of the intensity of the transmitted light the 
selenuim cell or "detector" offered a cor- 
responding variation in its resistance to the 
receiver current; and since each variation 
of current causes a sound in the telephone, 
the voice of the sender was accurately re- 
produced. 

At first the apparatus was called a "photo- 
phone," but it was afterwards found that 
when a black solution of iodine in carbon 
bisulphide was placed in the path of the 
beam of light the instrument would still 
work, for though the solution is quite opaque 
to all light visible to the eye the long, in- 
visible infra-red rays pass through unhin- 
dered. From this circumstance the name 
was changed to "radio-phone." 

Of course with the old arrangement speech 
could not be transmitted over any consider- 
able distance, but that is because the wave 
length used was too short to penetrate many 
obstacles and too refrangible to maintain its 
individuality in the presence of interference. 



Tungsten Not a New Metal 



While the metal tungsten has been used 
only during the last few years as a material 
for making incandescent lamp filaments, it 
is not in itself a new article. Indeed it is 
practically as old as this republic of ours, 
for it was in 1781 that Joseph and Fausto 
d'Elhujar discussed the properties of tungsten 
in a Spanish treatise. 

Even at that time they recognized its 
unusual density and hence unusual weight, 
which make the name tung-sten (heavy 
stone) so appropriate. For, instance, a bar 
of tungsten of a given size will weigh about 
two and a half times as much as a similar 
bar of iron or steel. This implies that the 
particles composing the metal tungsten 
must be packed much more closely together 
than those forming iron or steel. Is it a 
wonder then" that the addition of tungsten 
to steel makes it harder and more tenacious 
so as to adapt it to tools for use at higher 
speeds? This so-called "tungsten steel" 
was first made in Germany fifty years ago 
and embodied the chief use of tungsten 
until the latter proved itself to be the most 
suitable of all known materials for making 
lamp filaments of high efficiency. 



FORPMCTICAL ELECTMCALWORKERS 

//OW TO MAKE AND OPERATE ELECTR/CAL DEV/CES 



Electric Soldering Iron 



Numerous inquiries have been sent in 
asking about the construction of electric 
soldering irons. As much money and time 
have been spent by manufacturers in this 
field with more and often less satisfactory 
results, and as such a device is somewhat 
more complicated than the amateur would 
care to undertake, we have not heretofore 
given space to this matter. However, a 
subscriber sends in this sketch and de- 
scription of an iron which he states operates 
very satisfactorily on either no volts direct 
or alternating. The more essential features 
are here given, from which by referring to 



steel (N) shouldered at (F). The coil 
spool (S) is threaded at the left end, and 
into it. is screwed the soldering copper (G) 
which has a flange as a shoulder. A 1-32 
inch brass shell (H) protects the heating 
coil. Mica washers (M) held in place by 
a steel washer (O) assist in keeping the heat 
from reaching the handle. The wires from 
the coil are brought out through holes 
drilled in the mica, the iron washer being 
cut away as shown in Fig. 2. 

In winding the heating coil, first insulate 
the spool (S) by wrapping it with a layer 
of sheet mica, and also with two mica 
washers (W1W2), (WJ being reinforced by 
an iron washer (K). Then wind on 70 




SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRIC SOLDERING IRON 



the illustration, details can be worked out 
by the builder. 

Provide a brass tube (A), \ inch outside 
diameter, f inch inside, and threaded at 
both ends. One end of this tube is screwed 
into a nut (B) in the hard maple handle 
(C). The open space at the left of this nut 
affords room for the knot which serves to 
anchor the heater cord. A smooth steel 
bushing (E) forms the outlet at the handle, 
and a brass ferrule (D) is fitted over this 
handle at the other end. At the right, the 
brass tube (A) is screwed into a neck of 



turns of bare No. 28 iA iA resistance 
wire, separating each turn from the last a 
distance equal to the diameter of the wire. 
Over this wrap another layer of mica, and 
upon it wind a second layer of resistance 
wire. Six layers of wire should thus be 
put on, and the final coil insulated from the 
brass shell (H) by mica. Glass beads are 
strung on the bare wires from the coil to 
the cord in the handle. Our correspondent 
says that in from five to ten minutes after 
current is turned on the iron is ready for 
use. 



228 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Electric Stove and Toaster 



Quite a number have asked how to make 
a small electric stove or toaster. Although 
it would be difficult to make one of these 
devices which would be as efficient and long- 
lived as the commercial types which have 
required years of experiment to develop, 
by exercising a little care and ingenuity one 
can be made which will work fairly well. 




FIG. I 

One of the readers of Popular Electricity 
has written in and explained how he turned 
the trick, which may be of interest to others. 
Here is how he went to work : 

The first thing to do is to get a piece of 
asbestos board one-half inch thick and cut 
out a circle 12 inches in diameter. This 
is the part (A), Fig. 1. To the bottom of 
this screw three one-inch porcelain insulators 
for feet. 




FIG. 2 

From a piece of f-inch asbestos cut a ring 
(B) Figs. 1 and 2, 12 inches in outside diam- 
eter and nine inches inside diameter. 
Screw this down on (A) with three or four 
screws. 

Get about No. 19 German silver wire and 
wind it on the blade of a table knife, taking 
it off as you wind. 

To find out when you have the right 
amount stretch the wire out on some bricks 
and join the electric circuit wires to each 
end, and if the wire (German silver) does 



not get red move one of the circuit wires 
along down the loose coil till the latter gets 
red hot. If it gets red quickly move the 
circuit wire back till the coil comes up to a 
red heat slowly, then you will have the 
correct amount. 

However before doing this be sure to 
anneal the heater wire by passing it through 
a flame till it gets red hot, this makes the 
wire softer. 

To put the wire in the heater start from 
one side, Fig. 2, and nail the wire down to 
(2) by small copper staples so that the wire 
will not work loose and make short circuits. 
Carry it back and forth as shown. Fasten 
the two ends to binding posts (1) and (2), 



IV/ne Co\yer> A 



In 



Or^TI 



Circuit Wines 



fig. 3 

going through to the bottom. To these 
posts connect the two terminals of your 
circuit as shown in Fig. 3. 

The last step is very easy, get a piece of 
wire netting, made of No. 16 wire, and also 
made without solder, cut this to fit the top 
of the stove, screwing it down over (B), with 
small washers to keep it firm. 

Instead of the German silver wire you 
might use some of the well known resistance 
wires, such as "Nichrome," for instance, 
using about No. 21 or 22. This is known as 
non-oxidizing and will not burn out as 
quickly. 



The Door Bell Circuit 



The article that appeared on page 59 
of the May issue on how to operate a bell 
from a lighting circuit by means of a lamp in 
series with the bell has been justly criticized 
from the point of view of the possible dan- 
ger of fire. Of course while the lamp is 
intact and if the wiring is done in a manner 
to enable it safely to carry the no- volt 
current no harm would result. But some 
might get the impression from the article 
that ordinary bell wiring could be used, 
which would be highly dangerous. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 
Vest Pocket Wire Gauge 



229 



A convenient pocket or key ring wire 
gauge is here illustrated', the pointer being 
Divoted so as to swing over a scale as the 




WIRE GAUGE 

device is applied to the wire. The pointer 
stops at the proper point to give in direct 
reading the size B. and S. gauge of any wire 
from No. oooo to 18 inclusive. The scale 
is made of hardened finished steel. 



How to Make a Warming Pan 



When Dickens, in one of Mr. Pickwick's 
celebrated speeches, laid emphasis on warm- 
ing pans, he little dreamt that even these 
might some day be classed among electrical 
devices, yet such is the case. Any mechanic 
can make a simple type such as we are 
picturing, which consists of a flat and pre- 
ferably curved tin case with an opening at 
one end through which an ordinary incan- 
descent lamp can be introduced. The 
opening is closed by a flange bolted to the 
end, which flange supports both the lamp 
socket and the receptacle for an attachment 
plug through which the patient can discon- 
nect the device from the circuit without 
reaching for a switch. 

Of course this arrangement is neither as 
convenient nor as adaptable as the more 
recent heating pads made of resistance ma- 
terial imbedded in a flexible mat or webbing, 
but it is easily made by any mechanic and 
has proven helpful in many forms of stom- 
ach troubles. Indeed it is one of the elec- 
trical appliances for which the summer 
with its severe strains on our digestive ap- 




ELECTRIC WARMING PAN 

paratus brings no less a demand than does 
the winter. 



Wiring Through Joists 



Here is a job in electrical wiring that often 
comes up; that is, to run wires parallel 
with a ceiling and through the floor joists. 

Anyone who has 
■ ever tried knows 
that this is about 
the most awkward 
place to bore holes imagin- 
able, yet with the standard 
boring machine now on 
the market the boring be- 
comes a simple matter. 

A rigid standard, which 
may be lengthened or 
shortened as desired, car- 
ries the auger or bit in a 
position at right angles at 
the upper end. The bit is 
driven by a little pulley 
which in turn is revolved 
by the rope belt which the 
man has in his hands. 
Over and over, down one 
side and up the other, 
goes the belt and the hole 
is bored quickly and no 
step ladder needed. 




BORING 
MACHINE 



Results of Imperfect Wiring 



By GEORGE RICE 



Recently I saw a workman nail his in- 
sulator firmly to a tree, adjoining a building 
into which the wires were to carry elec- 
trical current. I observed that the tree 
swayed to and fro. I wanted to remark 
about it to the workman, but he seemed to 
be in a hurry. Not long after I had occasion 
to pass that way and the insulator was hang- 




ing loose as at (A) Fig. i. The motion of 
the wind in swaying the tree back and forth 
had pulled the fastenings out. This sort 
of thing is of remarkably frequent occur- 




rence. You can find similar examples about 
manufacturing plants where electrical wires 
are installed by workmen of the plant. 
Sometimes green electrical helpers do this 
way. 

Then again we find wires so securely at- 
tached to projecting parts of buildings that 
the vibrating motion is exceedingly detri- 
mental. In one case a workman attached 



the wire to a bell tower. The tower swayed 
a little, as it was constructed of steel. The 
vibrations soon tore the wire fixing free. 
Then the same man went to work and at- 
tached stronger fastenings. These again 
ripped out and finally he rigged an ingenious 
system of fastening by which vibrations 
could be allowed for. He fixed up special 
fastening wires, something like the plan 
shown in Fig. i at (C). The steel spiral wire 
was wound on a metal spindle in a turning 
lathe. A number of such pieces were made 




and carried in stock for convenience. The 
wire carrying the electrical current passed 
through the eye in the spirally wound wire 
support as shown, the spirals being con- 
nected to insulators. A device like this can 
be employed readily on trees as at (B) in 
Fig. i. In this way, the tree may rock and 
sway as much as it likes and the spiral coils 
will give in the one direction, while the 
strand slipping through the wire gives free- 
dom in a longitudinal direction. 

The other day I saw a man put a bore 
straight through a tree as at (D) Fig. 2. 
He inserted a wire through this hole. It 
seemed to be an odd manner of doing the 
job to me; While I never learned the con- 
sequences, I am convinced that it is better 
to adopt the scheme presented in the same 
view, consisting of the driving of two ring 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



231 



pins one each side of the tree as at (FF). 
Then secure your insulator as at (E) and. 
attach the wires to the ring pins as shown. 
Thereby the tree can move back and forth 
with the wind without ripping down your 
fastenings. 

I see that they are utilizing cement poles. 
Fig. 3 is a drawing of one. Some of the 
poles are made in round form, closely re- 
sembling the common pole in shape. Other 
poles are hollow and some are flat. The 



■ I.'.'. 1 





Portland cement is mixed with sand and 
water and you can, if you desire, watch the 
workmen mould the poles in long wooden 
flasks, in a simple and quick way. Then 
the flasks are opened and the long stretch of 
cement is allowed to # harden in the sun. 
The pole is watched closely during the hard- 
ening operation to make sure that it settles 
out straight, as a warped cement pole would 
be rejected. 

Then there are the steel poles with cross 
arms as in Fig. 4. I refer to this steel pole 
because of an incident. Steel poles have 
many merits as all know. But in this in- 
stance the steel pole failed in its work, due 
to carelessness of the workmen. 

The pole was set up in a soft bottom. 
It settled and swung to one side. The usual 
bracing did not help matters. The pole 
kept going. Then the workmen excavated 
the ground on the off side of the pole, re- 
lieving the pressure of earth on that side. 
Next a block and tackle was rigged to pull 
the pole up straight. As fast as the pole 
straightened under the pull, sand was 
packed on the inside. Then the base of the 
pole was filled in with cement and the pole 
hardened in place perfectly upright. 

I often observe insulators torn from cement 
and brick walls of buildings. A certain 
party made his fastenings to walls with 



split pins like (H), Fig. 5. The same figure 
shows one of the pins driven at (G). Now 
then, sometimes the expanding point of the 
pin would cling and hold and then again it 
would not. Considerable of this man's 
work pulled off. Finally he used a threaded 
bolt in places and in other places bolts with 
fastening nuts on the inner end, thereby 
making sure of a strong joint. 



Protecting Lead Cables 



In underground circuits the buried cable 
is usually covered with a lead casing which 
protects the insulation from the damaging 
effects of any chemicals pervading the soil. 
When used in this way, the lead serves its 
purpose admirably so long as it is not 
damaged by an accidental cut from a pick 
or shovel. To guard against such a me- 
chanical damaging of the lead, underground 
cables are sometimes protected by a trough 
or sheathing which may be of wood, clay or 
iron. 

One form of such protecting sheath is 
made of cast iron of a somewhat better 
grade than that used for the so-called " soil 
pipes" of the plumbers, and is made in two 
sections so that the cable can be laid in the 
lower half before the cover is slipped over 
it. The upper and lower parts are laid 
" staggering" so as not to have their joints 
come opposite each other, and the spread 
of the upper half is so narrow that it pinches 

the under part 
and makes a tight 
joint. This cover 
part is driven in- 
to place with 
wooden mallets. 
To remove it, the 
over- lapping lips 
are first sprung 
Outward by spe- 
cial screw clamps 
as shown in one 
of the cuts. 
Both parts are 
tarred or as- 
phalted before 
being laid, so as 
to guard against 
their rusting, and 
are commonly 
tool roR kemovmg o*rpiN& ma de in lengths 

LEAD-CABLE of 20 to 25 feet. 

sheaths The weight of 




232 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



the cover and the spring grip of the 
overlapping parts is sufficient to keep 
them tightly together, but for severe con- 
ditions a steel clamp may be placed around 
the whole sheath. For turns, similarly split 
elbows are used with ends large enough to 
slip over both of the connected sections. 



Telephone Magnets in the Making 



By Frank L. Whitaker 



Though the bit of steel, which, properly 
shaped comprises a telephone generator 
magnet, looks insignificant in itself, it re- 
quires a lot of skill and patience to bring it 
into its proper state, so that it may perform 
the intended function. And not only this 
but that it may be able to retain its proper 
state or strength almost indefinitely. This 
retentiveness lies in the grade of steel used 
in the make-up of the magnet. Commercial 
or American steel is most commonly used as 
it is very easily worked and not at all expen- 



DLL 





FIG. I. CUTTING THE MAGNET BAR 

sive. Magnets made from this steel must 
be carefully tempered otherwise the result 
will be anything but satisfactory. 

Thousands of dollars are wasted each year 
in the' telephone business just from this one 
thing and it goes without saying that a little 
study along these lines will be of benefit to 
many in almost any branch of the electrical 
business in which permanent magnets are 
used. I do not see any reason why good 



workmen in telephone exchanges or elsewhere 
should not be able to take old apparatus 
which has been discarded for loss of magnet- 
ism, retemper and remagnetize the magnets 
therein just the same as the workman in the 
factory does. 

Probably the following brief outline will 
throw some light on the subject. Fig. i is 
an illustration showing the first operation 
used in the construction of a telephone gen- 
erator magnet. Steel of the right width and 




FIG. 2. THE FORMING DIE AND PUNCH 

thickness is procured from the manufac- 
turers, so it does not have to go through any 
forging or drawing after it reaches the maker 
of telephones. A bar is first heated to a 
light color and placed in a jig under a heavy 
shear as shown, which descending rapidly 
cuts off each piece the required length. 
These are immediately thrown back into the 
fire and reheated for the next operation 
which is illustrated in Fig. 2. Here is 
shown what may be termed the forming die 
and punch. The magnet bar when again 
brought to the proper temperature is placed 
in a jig which exactly centers it across the 
forming part of the die ready for the down- 
ward stroke of the punch which is shown in 
Fig 3 where it is just entering the die, taking 
the magnet bar with it. Fig. 4 shows the 
finished stroke, the magnet bar now being 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



233 



brought to the desired shape. For the sake 
of clearness the cuts show each operation 
separately, and while it is a slow process it 
is a very good one. Many manufacturers, 
however, cut and form their magnet bars 
in one operation, one heating and one hand- 
ling being all that is necessary to complete 
the shape. 



PUNCH 



FORMING DIE 




FIG. 3. ENTERING THE DIE 

Next comes the most important part of 
magnet making — tempering — and herein lies 
the secret of successful apparatus, for if the 
temper be poor likewise will be the mag- 
netism. The magnet bar after having been 
formed as shown in the illustration is put 
back into the fire and again brought to a 
light color. It is then immediately plunged 
into a bath of water which chills it very 
quickly and which causes it to become very 
hard and brittle. It will be well to explain 
here how this tempering process can vary 
enough to cause trouble in the finished mag- 
net. As stated above, the temper determines 
the quality of the magnet, so the heating and 
chilling of the steel must be perfect in every 
detail. Most of us have watched a black- 
smith tempering his tools and know how 
little he seems to be concerned about the 
piece he is working. To an onlooker it 
would seem that he merely heats the steel 
and puts it into the water tub, but never- 



theless he knows exactly what color to heat 
it to and how it should be manipulated in 
the water. Experience and practice enable 
him to do this apparently without thinking, 
and perfectly to meet the requirements of 
his tools. As stated, magnets must be very 
hard and brittle but there is a limit to this, 
as a piece of this steel heated to a whiteness 
and plunged into cold water will come out 
cracked and worthless on account of the sur- 
face cooling and contracting too rapidly. 

The best method for tempering any steel 
for this purpose is to find out how much heat 
it will stand and then adjust the heat source 
to that temperature. Ordinarily this is very 
hard to do — but experience, again, will 
finally result in perfect magnets every time. 

Factories usually have a gas furnace which 
can be adjusted to the proper heat. Some- 
times in making magnets in large quantities 
the temperature in the furnace falls just 
enough to render the temper too "soft" 
after it falls into the water. The work- 
man who has grown tired from a hard day's 
work does not notice it and so goes on tem- 




FIG. 4. THE END OF THE STROKE 

pering just the same, not knowing that the 
work he is doing may mean dollars loss to 
the company later on. Experience is a good 
thing but it must be experience supplemented 
with constant carefulness in every stage of 
the process. 

The water used in tempering should be 
moderately cool as the metal requires a cer- 



234 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



tain suddenness in chilling to bring about 
the desired results. Large numbers of bars 
tempered in the same tub will often get the 
water too hot for first class work. Heavy 
magnets do not temper as perfectly as light 
ones, as the center does not cool rapidly 
enough. This is why compound magnets 
are found in some makes of instruments. 

When the hardest temper that it is possible 
to obtain in the steel has been reached the 
finished bars are ready to be charged with 
magnetism, or, to use the common term, 
"magnetized." This is a simple operation 
and is shown in Fig. 5. The magnetizing 
power comes from the two cores of an elec- 
tro-magnet which are wound with a suitable 
size of copper wire, the ends of which are 
shown connecting with a switch and battery. 
Closing the switch at (X) causes battery cur- 
rent to flow through the windings of the two 
coils and the two cores become heavily 
charged with magnetism. At (Y) the mag- 
netic circuit is broken, until the magnet bar 
is placed in position as shown. The mag- 
netism now completes its path through the 
steel resting on the pole pieces. If the cur- 
rent flow from the battery is great enough 




FIG. 5. MAGNETIZING THE BAR 

the bar becomes heavily charged and is now 
a magnet, for when the switch is thrown 
open enough magnetism will be found re- 
maining in the piece to enable it to pick up 
several times its own weight. This is called 
saturating a magnet. The perfect temper in 



the magnet retains the magnetism, provided 
the magnetizing force is strong enough to 
fully charge it. It would seem that if a 
magnet could be undercharged that it could 
be overcharged, but such is not the case as 
the steel absorbs a charge up to a certain 
point only. A very good illustration of this 
is a sponge absorbing water. It will soak it 
up until it gets full, after which it cannot 
take any more. 

Some magnets have a greater capacity of 
saturation, especially those made from an 
imported grade of steel called "tungsten." 
This steel is very expensive and is not used 
extensively on this account. Its power of 
retaining magnetism is excellent. Manu- 
facturers of high grade automobile magnetos 
use this steel altogether in the making of 
their machines. Makers of telephone ap- 
paratus use it but very little as the demand 
for a strictly high grade magnet is not press- 
ing. Commercial steel magnets will lose 
some of their magnetism in a very short time 
no matter how well they have been created, 
and after several years service it is not a 
bad idea to have them remagnetized. Care 
should be taken when this is done to see 
that the magnetizing force is sufficient to 
demagnetize the magnet and to charge it in 
the opposite direction. This is done by 
placing like poles of the magnet against like 
poles of the electro-magnet and cutting in 
the battery for an instant. 

The time required to fully charge any mag- 
net is a period just long enough to obtain a 
good fat spark at the switch points, not over 
one second in any instance, as no amount 
of soaking would render the magnet any 
better. 

When placing magnets back on the pole 
pieces of a generator it is probably needless 
to say that care should be taken to see that 
all of the north poles are side by side before 
putting them in position. This may be de- 
termined when the magnets are in contact 
with each other and not sticking together. 
Some makers of generators make a slight 
punch mark on one side of each magnet and 
like poles may be determined in this way. 
In remagnetizing care should be taken to 
see that each one is charged in the same rela- 
tive position. Magnets when taken from 
their working position should be handled 
very carefully as the magnetism is easily de- 
stroyed. They should not be brought near 
any heavily magnetized apparatus unless a 
soft bar of iron is placed across the poles. 



ELECTRIC CURRENT ATWORK 

NEW DEVICES FOR APPLYING ELECTRICITY 



^:Jv\ju-^-.\nnrJ\j\rjvv\APJV\jv\f\}^n A/v\ni\rjvvvv\T\nr v vvy i fv 



Electric Crane in the Foundry 



•You recall vividly your first visit to a 
foundry while they were "taking off a heat" 
or "pouring," the white molten metal throw- 
ing off sparks as it flowed from the mouth 




"taking off a heat 

of the furnace into a clay ladle, while two 
workmen stood ready to grasp the iron 
pronged handles and hurry their load to 
the moulders. At each flask the metal was 
poured out into funnel shaped holes to run 
down into the space shaped out to form a 
casting. Many accidents have occurred 
where workmen bearing the ladle have 
tripped and fallen, spilling the hot metal 
and burning themselves and others. 

The picture shows one of these ladles 
arranged so as to be lifted and carried by 
an electric crane, the handles of the ladles 



being used only to tip the ladle and pour 
out the metal. The crane travels back and 
forth along a track on a swinging I-beam, 
the motor being controlled by the two chains 
at the right. Very heavy castings and 
ladles are handled in this way with safety 
and little labor. 



The Making of Ozone 



It is maintained by scientists that an 
ozonizer for the production of purified air 
should be so constructed that the air drawn 
in by the machine shall pass through the 
electric glow in a comparatively brief period, 
thereby treating a large volume of air rather 
than overtreating a small volume. This 
principle is embodied in the Vohr ozonizer. 

This ingenious apparatus is the invention 
of a well-known electro-chemist. The ozone 
is produced by a rapidly revolving fan, which 
is an electrode, placed within a glass dialec- 
tic of circular shape. The apparatus can 
be operated from an ordinary electric light. 




AN OZONIZER 



It has only one unit of production. The 
apparatus can be regulated to produce ozone 
in just the quantities necessary to give the 
proper air content of ozone, such as Nature 
produces in her most favorable locations. 



236 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Abroad, ozone apparatus is absolutely ac- 
cepted, and has passed beyond the field of 
a luxury into that of a necessity. In England 
many of the leading hotels, offices, public 
buildings, have ozone apparatus installed. 
This is also true of Germany, France and 
Russia. In the United States the field has 
been somewhat neglected, but unquestion- 
ably the interest in this form of air vitalizer 
is growing. 



Color Changing Fountains 



The cost of delighting the evening crowds 
by the fascinating color spectacles of an 
electric fountain like the celebrated Yerkes 
Fountain at Lincoln Park in Chicago depends 
on three items: the water supply, the current 
and carbons, and the cost of attendance. 
Where each arc lamp requires a man to 
change the colored glass slides, this cost of 
attendance alone is a large item of expense. 
For more modest installations which would- 
be ample for small parks or amusement re- 
sorts, the cost of attendance can be almost 
annulled by using an electric motor to effect 
the color changes. 

). For instance, in the three-light fountain 
pictured herewith the color screens are 




ARRANGEMENT OF LAMPS UNDER THE 
FOUNTAIN 

mounted in a circular frame geared at its 
outer edge to the vertical shaft of an electric 
motor. The space between the three arc 
lamps allows a larger number of colored 



glasses to be used, thus producing numer- 
ous color combinations, particularly if the 
number of colored slides is not a multiple 
of three. Each lamp has a parabolic re- 
flector to project the light upward through 
the colored glass and through a window of 
clear glass set in the metal roof which covers 
the central chamber. An underground pas- 
sage leading to this chamber allows the 
electrician to make any needed adjustments 
and to recarbon the lamps. For a basin 
25 to 30 feet in diameter fine effects have 
been obtained by using three arcs at 40 
amperes each. The continually changing 
color combinations make such a fountain 
a general source of enjoyment, and the use 
of a motor-driven color changer reduces 
the needed attendance to what can be given 
incidentally by the regular park electrician 
or trimmer, thus bringing the expense of 
such an electric charm within easy reach 
of the average amusement place. 



Electric House Pump 

Those who carried water from the "spring" 
on washday in time past, will be interested 
in the compact Westinghouse alternati g 



L. _ . 



ELECTRIC HOUSE PUMP 

current induction motor and pump shown 
in this illustration and which is adapted 
for household pumping equipments. At 
the right is the motor, and on the left on the 
same shaft is the pump rated to lift 1000 
gallons of water to a height of 50 feet in one 
hour. The length of the equipment is but 
one foot. The threaded hole opening 
toward the reader is the pump discharge 
outlet and takes a one-inch pipe, while 
the connection for the intake pipe is shown 
at the end, projecting downward. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



237 



To Indicate Propeller Speeds 



Rail-cutting Saw 



Suppose the captain of a ship, who is far 
away from the engine room, wishes to know 
how many revolutions the propeller is mak- 
ing. The latest method of imparting this 
information to him is through the Hutchi- 




A LITTLE DYNAMO DRIVEN BY THE PRO- 
PELLOR SHAFT 

son electrical tachometer. A collar carry- 
ing cog wheels is clamped to the propeller 
shaft. This drives, by means of a chain, 
the sprocket wheel on the shaft of a small 
magneto, which is one form of an electric 
dynamo. Now the faster you turn a dy- 
namo the greater will be the voltage or elec- 
trical pressure which it will develop. If 
you connect a voltmeter to the terminals of 
the machine it will show, say 10 volts for 
a certain speed, 20 volts for a higher speed 
and so on up. Therefore, with this magneto 
driven by the propeller shaft and wires lead- 
ing up to a voltmeter in the captain's quar- 
ters he is able to determine instantly the 
speed of the propeller. The scale of the 
voltmeter in this case is marked to indicate 
speeds instead of volts, for the sake of con- 
venience. 



Cutting iron with a saw as shown in the 
illustration is a somewhat unusual sight to 
most people. The saw is mounted on a 




RAIL CUTTING SAW 

pair of trucks and moved from place to 
place on the street car tracks. When in use 
the machine is clamped firmly to the rail 
on either side of the saw and current for 
the motor is taken from the trolley wire. 



Ignition Trouble Finder 



When your automobile 
creeps along or runs by jerks 
or misses fire you may feel 
pretty certain something is 
wrong with the ignition. The 
Phelps trouble finder is a 
small adjustable spark gap 
enclosed in a glass cover. 
It shows you, between the 
two terminals of the spark 
gap, just how the spark is act- 
ing in the cylinder of the en- 
gine, and you can determine 
at a glance whether the 
trouble is in the plug or some- 
where else. 

The device, after it has 
been adjusted to a very small 
gap is substituted for the 
spark plug terminal and the 
terminal is connected to the 
finder. By adjusting the 
thumb screw, you are able to 
see the manner in which 
spark is really acting inside 
the cylinder. 



238 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



A Low-voltage Transformer 



Not so very long ago someone hit upon 
the idea of building a small transformer 
which would take the uo-volt alternating 
current used in most dwellings and step it 
down in pressure to the few volts necessary 
to operate a door bell, thereby saving the 
expense and annoyance of batteries. Now 
there was nothing new about a little trans- 




TRANSFORMER ON BELL CIRCUIT 

former, but it was this particular application 
which made the hit. It was something the 
people needed and it sold like "hot cakes." 
Pretty soon there were a lot of manufac- 
turers putting out these little transformers. 
Rut there are thousands of bells still un- 
rung by the alternating current, so there is 
room, no doubt, for a new-comer in the 
field — the K-B low- voltage transformer. 
The drawing shows the scheme of connecting 
it up to the circuit. It may also be used 
to operate fan motors, toy motors, low-volt- 
age lamps and Christmas tree lighting outfits. 



Waking the Servants 



One of the serious problems of modern 
life, from which the poor man is happily 
exempt, is that of waking the servant. In 
many a household this has proven a bother- 
some task. If an alarm clock is set for the 
servants, they can easily change its setting 
to a later hour, or else claim that they did 
not hear it go off. If a signal bell is rung 
from a button in some other part of the 
house, they may likewise claim that the bell 
did not work. 

To overcome this uncertain condition an 
"answer back" servant call was offered on 
the European market last winter as a "choice 
Christmas present for the Hausfrau." In- 
stead of the usual button, the push was 



in the form of 
an iron shutter 
which closes the 
circuit when 
raised, whereup- 
on a magnet in 
the casing holds 
this shutter in 
place until the 
servant presses a 
button. His do- 
ing so momen- 
tarily opens the 
circuit and drops 
the shutter, thus 
letting the mis- 
tress know that 
he has been 
awakened. Of 
course the an- 
swering button the "answer back" 
in the servant's servant call 

room is placed 

where the sleepy one could not reach it 
without rising. 




A Multi-indicator Switch 



Nothing equals a visual record for giving 
the head of any plant a dependable survey 
of the way any given device has been run, 
no matter whether the readings indicate 
temperature, voltage, air-pressure or still 

other factors. 
But recording 
instruments are 
expensive and 
when a number 
of similar de- 
vices are being 
operated at one 
and the same 
time, the cost of 
a separate re- 
corder for each 
may seem pro- 
hibitive. 

In such a case the next best thing to do is 
to have a single recording instrument note 
the readings of all in rotation. 

To accomplish this, each instrument is 
wired to a special mercury switch, which 
has . a contact connecting the central (or 
recorder) terminal successively with the 
various instruments. The contact arm is 
rotated by a simple clockwork. 




multi-indicator 

SWITCH 



Electrical Men of the Times 



T. COMMERFORD MARTIN 



" The irrepressible and irresistible Mar- 
tin;" so did Andrew Carnegie characterize 
him when paying tribute to his work which 
had so largely to do with the success of the 
great Engineering Societies Building in 
New York. The words fit the man. Irre- 
pressible, but not domineering, irresistible, 
by virtue of a peculiarly magnetic and con- 
vincing personality — 
these qualities have 
assisted Thomas 
Commerford Martin 
to a high position in 
the field of electrical 
development. 

Born in London, 
England, July 22, 
1856, he was educated 
for the clergy, but his 
inclinations did not fit 
him for the work and 
we find him in 1877, 
in this country, work- 
ing in the laboratory 
of Thomas A. Edison. 
Here he stayed until 
1879 and obtained a 
technical knowledge 
of electricity which 
was the basis of a 
broad system of self- 
education which he 
has ever since pursued. 

Being a man of letters and by instinct a 
journalist, Mr. Martin, in 1883, became 
editor of the Electrical World. After 10 
years he became editor of the Electrical 
Engineer. Then when these two publica- 
tions joined forces as the Electrical World 
and Engineer, he was its editor until about 
a year ago, when he resigned to become the 
executive secretary of the National Electric 
Light Association. 

Tn all those 28 years of service with the 
publications which so largely through his 
efforts became to be looked upon as the 
.technical authority in matters pertaining 
to electricity, Mr. Martin was making 
friends and winning praise for his untiring 
work in raising the standard of electrical 
engineering. His efforts were broadly dis- 




tributed. He was president of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1887-1888. 
He served the United States Census Office 
for many years as special expert, collecting 
and compiling a vast amount of statistical 
information relative to the electrical and 
allied manufacturing industries. He was 
made an honorary member of the National 
Electric Light Associ- 
ation and straightway 
it felt his influence , and 
his "Progress Report" 
each year is looked 
upon as a classic in 
the literature of the 
organization. He 
found time to write 
books, among them 
being "The Electric 
Motor and Its Appli- 
cations," "Researches 
of Nikola Tesla" and 
"A Life of Edison." 
Mr. Martin's schol- 
arly attainments are 
readily manifest in his 
writings, and he pre- 
sents moreover that 
happy and unusual 
combination of a man 
who not only writes 
well but is a graceful 
and polished speaker. 
When T. C. Martin addresses any of the 
gatherings common among the engineering 
societies, attendance is maximum. 

It is more than likely that he will find in 
his new work with the National Electric 
Light Association the greatest opportunity 
of all in which to further the interests of 
the electrical industry. A marvelous growth 
has taken place in the field of electric light 
and power in the last few years and the 
Association, as one of the factors which have 
been instrumental in bringing about unified 
effort on the part of the various interests, 
has grown apace. The future of the in- 
dustry is brilliant beyond comparison, and 
the Association has done well to select a 
man who by natural ability and associations 
is so well fitted as Mr. Martin. 



EltCTRICITY IN THE 
HOUSEHOLD 




THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC GIRL 



[Over a quarter of a century ago, when electricity 
was comparatively little used and when women had 
never dreamed of an electric range or a coffee per- 
colator, a poet or near-poet was inspired to pay 
tribute to the "electric girl" in the following lines 
which appeared in the New York Graphic] 



A maiden fair to see, I know, 

Of loveliness the essence; 
Him upon whom her arc-lights glow, 

She turns to incandescence. 

When first we met, a shock I got; 

But held on, just to test her; 
Alas! I'd left at home, forgot, 

My "sole lightning-arrester." 

The keenness of her brilliant mind 
Makes her o'er others tower; 

Who sparks this girl of mine will find 
Two thousand candle-power. 

Her silken tresses rippling flow, 

You ardently admire; 
Her small coquetting dynamo 

Is wound with "thirty" wire. 

Soft as the sweet magneto-bell 
Her influence on you switching, 

Your watch don't know what time to tell, 
Her volt is so bewitching. 

Winds of despair and storms of doubt 
May struggle to benight her; 

Should Fates combine to 'put her out, 
Joy comes with her re-lighter. 

Two pretty feet on equal poles, 
Nimble and quick denote her 

The envy of all rival souls, 
Who else has such a motor? 



When longing nearer joys to taste 
I strive with brave insistence, 

Why will you fix about your waist 
Shunt-magnets of resistance? 

Ah, alternating-current girl, 

No praises can be flattery: 
Short circuit, dear, and cease to whirl, 

Make me your storage-batten'. 

And, dearest, should you rather not 

Accept my offering votive, 
Might I most humbly ask you Watt 

Was your Electro-motive? 

To several circuits hereabout 
You are the Central Station: 

Would I all others could cut-out, 
You lovely installation. 

Soft nestled in your armature, 
Lulled by your soothing brushes, 

Your commutator's drowsv hum 
All earth's excitement hushes. 

No more my carboned heart would roam, 
Sweet girl these wishes grant me, 

Reduce your resistance to one ohm, 
My isolated plant be. 

Were I Am-Pere and she Gramme-Ma, 

With insulation rounded, 
We'd charge some unfrequented star 

And live there till we grounded. 



The Letters of A Bachelor Girl 



BY R. GRACELYN EVERETT 



Dearest Edna: 

Well here I am! If you had told me a 
month ago that I would go to the city and 
take a really good position, I should have 
laughed you to scorn. But such is life. 
As the rooster said, 
"An egg. today and 
tomorrow a feather 
duster." 

My trip was un- 
eventful even though 
a nice looking young 
man did sit a little 
way down the car 
from me. I was 
afraid to look at him 
for fear that he and 
the others would 
wanted to but I was 




Madge 



think me a] flirt, 
"askeered." 

Madge was at the station and took com- 
plete charge of me. She hurried along 
through the crowd in the station as though 
it was an every-day occurrence, and poor 
little me had to hustle to keep up. The 
crowd reminded me of the county fair at 
home and I asked her whether anything 
special was going on and she only laughed. 
Now I know why. I have become so used 
to seeing lots of people that now I would 
not notice it either. 

It seems as though the three days that 
I have been here were not more than three 
hours, and yet when I think of you and the 
home folks it seems months since I left, so 
much has happened in the meantime. 

Madge had found a room for me — a dear 
little one — at a price that just fits my pocket- 
book, and she took me right up there. It 
is with some sort of a cousin of hers, and 
they are simply splendid to me. I spent 
the first two nights unpacking and wink- 
ing back a few tears over the family 
pictures. 

The first morning I went without break- 
fast because I was not familiar with the 
locality, but I became so faint at the office 
that Madge insisted on sending the office 
boy for a malted milk which resuscitated 
me. That evening I was particular to find 
a little place, but it is two blocks from my 



room. Think of it, dear heart, two blocks 
to breakfast. I nearly starve on the way. 

Yesterday it began to rain about noon and 
all afternoon I was dreading to go home to 
the hall bed-room and an evening all by my- 
self. The room is all right but I would get 
lonesome. Strange how lonesome you can 
be with people all around you. Just as I 
was planning on a letter home as an even- 
ing's entertainment Madge came over and 
announced, " Tonight you are coming home 
with me." Needless to say I was more 
than delighted — I bubbled over with joy 
all the rest of the afternoon. 

At five o'clock the rain was coming down 
in torrents, but as it showed no signs of 
letting up we decided to risk a wetting. We 
got a little damp between the office and the 
elevated station and at the other end of the 
line we had two squares to go and ran all 




Winking Back a Few Tears 



242 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



of the way. We splashed through 
puddles of various depths and 
were half drowned when we got 
to her house. We made record 
time getting out of our wet clothes 
and into comfortable dry kimo- 
nos. It was then that I had my 
first chance to look around me 
and marvel at the wisdom of 
woman. 

Madge is almost beautiful in 
her trim tailored suit, but in a 
kimono which was a marvel 
of color harmonies she was 
as dainty and exquisite as 
a daughter of fair Japan. 
The daintiness with which 
Madge surrounds herself 
impressed me even more 
than her pretty clothes. 

On a tea table in one 
corner of the room was a 
beautiful brass electrical 
chafing dish and an elec- 
trical bread toaster with 
some dainty china. Of 
course they took my eye, 
and as I hovered over them 
I could not but think what 
extravagance they were. 
But Madge has explained 
and demonstrated how 
really inexpensive they are 
in the long run. I snug- 
gled up on the couch and ;j 
was so cozy and "comfy that I 
quite forgot we had not eaten until 
Madge asked whether I liked clam 
chowder. I did not know. But the 
delicious odor that came from the 
chafing dish caused me hastily to 
make up my mind. After the chow- 
der, we had grilled sardines on 
toast — made on an electric toaster while we 
were grilling the sardines. Bread and 
butter and jam that Madge had got from 
home completed our feast. 

I had often heard of fixing things to eat 
in one's room, but it seemed such a bother. 
With an outfit like this it was a pleasure be- 
cause of the little trouble involved. Madge 
is engaged to that dashing young chap from 
out West whom you met a year ago, and the 
chafing dish was a gift from him. He had 
wanted to give her a pearl necklace but she 
very wisely took the chafing dish in pre- 
ference. 




Dainty and Exquisite as a Daughter of Fair Japan 

She is making some beautiful things to 
go to housekeeping with — stenciled cushions 
and curtains. She uses dye colors and then 
sets them by pressing them with her electrical 
flat iron. Then they can be laundered with- 
out fear of the colors running. 

She showed me a beautiful gray waist. 
I think I must have looked envious. Then 
she laughingly said, "Do you know this is 
an old white lace waist that I dyed pink 
after the newness had worn off. Not long 
ago I dipped it gray to match my suit." 
The secret is she boils the dye in a little pail 
by setting it on the flat iron turned upside 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



243 



down, which sets firmly into a holder for that 
purpose. Really this iron is fine. While the 
chafing dish is busy, one can boil coffee 
nicely on the iron. 

But I must continue about the dyeing 
operations for I just know you can make use 
of this idea. She filled the lavatory with 
water and poured in dye enough to make the 
desired shade and miracle of miracles, the 
waist came out new and lovely. Sprinkling 
with water in which a little gum-arabic had 
been dissolved, then pressing, and finally the 
addition of fresh coral velvet pipings pro- 
duced a result that was astonishing. Do you 
wonder that I looked envious? 

Before retiring we pressed our skirts and 
waists, and my waist, which looked hopeless 
for another day's wear, was so fresh that I 
then and there decided upon an electric iron 
as an immediate need. 

Madge says many of her jabots and collars 
she does not trust to the laundress and by 
pressing them herself they last much longer. 

It was late before we got to 
bed, there were so many things 
to talk about. I think Madge 
was sound asleep long before 
I stopped asking questions. 

In the morning while we 
were dressing Madge put the 
coffee on the iron, and with 
toast and eggs we had an 
ample breakfast. 

I was lamenting that, in 
the excitement of the evening 
before, I had forgotten to 
do my hair up on curlers, as 
I always have to do to make 
a presentable appearance next 
day. Madge brought out her 
electric curling iron. I always 
said I should never bother 
to curl my hair on an iron, but 
now my views are completely 
changed, for an electrical iron 
is clean, and the even heat 
cannot hurt anyone's hair. 

A curler I must have, for I 
know my beauty sleep never 
could make amends for the 
faces that kid curlers caused 
me to make in my sleep. 

Upon, leaving for the office 
I took a farewell glance into 
the pretty room of this wonder 
girl and made up my mind to 
have some improvements made 



in my own quarters immediately. I found 
what seemed to be extravagance to be real 
economy, and Madge is far-seeing enough 
to know this. 

I' know, dear, you would welcome any 
advancement like a true suffragette, and 
these appliances are doing wonders toward 
making work easier for women. When you 
come up on that visit you promised to make 
me I hope to have quite a complete outfit 
of my own. 

I am sending a flat-iron to mother. You 
know they have a new electrical plant in our 
little city, and, with the hot weather coming 
on, it will be a joy to her to have one. 

My work is becoming easier as I get 
better acquainted with it. There are several 




She Showed Me a Beautiful Gray Waist 



244 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



dandy young fellows in our office. One 
especially, for he has invited Madge and me 
to go -to the opera next Friday. Wasn't 
that splendid of him? I will write and tell 
you all about it. 

Now, write soon, Edna, and tell me all 
about your dear self, and what you have been 
doing. There are lots of things I am keeping 
back, hoping you may make arrangements 
to come to the city sooner. 
Lovingly, 

Vivian 



Planning Home Illumination 

To get the best results from your electric 
current the first wiring of your house should 
be carefully planned. It is a mistaken 
idea to stint on the wiring expense, for any 
outlay here will be amply repaid by reduced 
consumption later when the current is 
turned on. 

When a house is planned spaces are al- 
ways provided suitable for the large neces- 
sary pieces of furniture, such as table and 
sideboard in the dining room, stove and sink 
in the kitchen, beds and dressers, and so on, 
through the house. All these may then be 
provided with the proper light by specifying 
outlets nearby, and it is in this matter that 
the woman who is planning a house should 
be especially interested from the point of 
convenience. 

The bedrooms, clothes closets and bath- 
rooms are probably the most neglected por- 
tions of the house when providing for out- 
lets for electric lighting and for the use of 
current for other purposes. In the bedroom 
usually a one-light fixture is considered 
satisfactory for general illumination with 
one wall bracket near the dresser. If one 
wishes to read in bed a flexible cord and 
lamp connected to an outlet are frequently 
'hung over the head of the bed. The closets, 
too often, are without any light, depending 
upon the reflected light from the bedroom. 
In the bathroom a high candle power lamp 
must be burned when it is desired to light 
the bathroom all night. 

Not only from a point of economy, but 
also from the standpoint of safety and good 
illumination plenty of lamp outlets are 
desirable. It is hardty economizing to turn 
on a lamp of high candle-power at the dresser 
when an outlet near the bed in which a 
small candle-power lamp is used .with a 
shade is entirely sufficient to throw plenty 



of light for reading. The bedside outlet 
will be found useful also for supplying other 
devices such as a heating pad, bottle warmer, 
fan or massage machine. Taking the "cue" 
from actresses who often carry two tall, 
slender portable electric lamp fixtures, one 
for each side of the dresser, to "assist in car- 
ing for the hair, every woman will appreciate 
wall light outlets so arranged that the dresser 
may stand between them. 

All insurance men know that the free 
use of good electric wiring is in itself the 
best kind of insurance and especially is this 
true in the closets of the house. A fixture 
arranged here with *a pendant chain for 
turning on and off the light does away with 
matches, and lighted candles, and assists 
one in putting dresses, skirts and other 
clothing away in good order. 

Bathrooms are usually finished in light 
colors so that small candle-power lamps are 
sufficient here, but at least two or three out- 
lets should be provided for such conveniences 
as a radiator to take off the chill of the room, 
small water heater and curling iron. 



Heating in the Future 



Electricity is an ideal source of heat, as 
there is absolutely no loss in the change from 
electricity to heat. It seems practically 
certain that our coal supply is limited, and 
will be too costly, and that new and better 
ways of obtaining the heat so necessary for 
our lives and comfort must be found in the 
years yet to come. Steinmetz, the genius 
of the General Electric Company, says that 
unless some such discovery is made before 
many years all the water powers will have 
to be harnessed to secure electrical energy, 
and this energy transmitted to various points 
and turned into heat. 

Electric heat can be had on the instant, 
for electricity travels at the rate of 186,000 
miles a second, and in any degree desired, 
from warmth that is barely perceptible to 
the touch, to the terrific heat of the electric 
furnace in which platinum, diamonds and 
firebrick itself melt and run like water. 
Electric heat can be carried anywhere about 
a building and applied just where wanted 
without serious loss through radiation. Con- 
sequently the electric kitchen and the " wood- 
en range" can be operated all day long to 
cook and bake without raising the tempera- 
ture of the kitchen to any considerable 
degree. 



JUNIOR SECTION 





A New Game 

BY "SPARKS" 



Weary and I were sitting on the porch 
talking electricity and magnetism as we 
used to do a lot. Thinking I could have 
some fun with Weary I bet him he couldn't 
float a needle on water. He took me up 
for a quarter which was all I happened to 
have in my house-coat at the time, which 
was lucky for me. We marched out into 
the kitchen and got a soup plate of water 
and I got some needles out of Sal's workbag 
and then we marched in to the dining room 
table. 

Weary took a piece of tissue paper, wet a 
needle with kerosene, laid the needle on the 
tissue paper and the paper on the water. 
Bye and bye the paper got waterlogged and 
sank, and sure enough there was the needle 
floating away just as nice as a chip in the 
brook. Then he took another needle and 
oiled it and rolled it off a fork and it floated 
too. After trying a couple of times to float 
one from his hand, he got one to go. 

Next I took an ordinary dry one and 
made it float. Soon we got so we could 
drop them in, careless like, and make them 
float sometimes, fishing up the sunken ones 
with my knife which I had magnetized quite 
strongly. 

He said, "Let's make a compass." And 
I said, "how in the name of silicon are 
you going to do it?" He said, "Watch," 
and picked up a needle and my knife, and 
with the end of the blade that was one of 
its magnetic poles, he rubbed the needle 
from the eye to the point and then brought 
it back to the eye away from the needle and 
did that several times. He said a physics 
teacher or anyone who knew a lot about it 
would say that it was "magnetism by in- 
duction." 



"Has it anything to do with an induction 
coil?" I said. 

"No!" he replied, kind of snappy, so I 
shut up. 

After we had magnetized the needle we 
floated it, and sure enough it pointed north 
and south no matter how we turned it, 
except when the knife was brought near it 
when it would sail away sometimes and 
turn around and sail back again. It would 
certainly do some funny stunts when we 
moved the knife. 

Then we magnetized another needle the 
same way and they both did all kinds of 
funny tricks and finally they both stuck 
together, as they were both magnets of them- 
selves. 

I said to Weary: "Lets' go and get some 
magnets and develop a game out of this." 

He said, "Good idea, Sparks, we're off." 
So off we went hunting all around my shop 
for magnets that were suitable for our pur- 
pose but as we couldn't find any I decided 
to dig my wireless phones apart. 

We dug out their insides and got three 
permanent magnets that were the right 
shape, and two electromagnets that we didn't 
want. We took the permanents and the 
diaphragm, because we were wondering if 
the latter would float. It did, and just as 
easy as the needle if we were careful. 

We each took a needle and floated it and if 
we moved the magnets above them they would 
follow as if they were on a string. We 
dropped the extra magnet under water and 
then we tried to run each other down with 
the needles. Well, with our magnets and 
the one under water, and being magnets 
themselves, those needles went crazy. I'd 
start my needle straight for his, but it would 



246 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



TO RLOATA NE~ETDLE 




BE SURE /T /S DRY. TAKE /T 
BETWEEN THE THUMB AND 
R/RST R/NGER. LAY /T GEHTL Y 
AND HOR/ZOA/TALLY OAJ THE 
SURRACE E/LAJ OE THE WATER 
REAsfO\/E THE THUAJS AMD 
E/A/GER SL OWL Y 
RRACT/CE MAKES REREECT 



RARARHEEPNAL /A 




-2 OR 3 HORSESHOE -MAG- 
A/ETS , 2 NEEDLES. AND 
/ SOUR f^L A TE OR WATER 



TO RLOAT AD/ARHRAGM 




rlace/t rlat on the 
surra oe: or the wate:r 
/r the tor doesn't get 
wet /t w/ll rloat 



TOUAGNET/ZET A A/EEDLET 




W/TH OA/E ROL.E OR A 
AJAGA/ET RUB THE NEEDLE 
EROAsf THE EYE TO THE 
RO/A/T AA/D BR/AJG THE 

asagave:t BACK TO THE 

EYE A WA Y ERONf THE 
NEEDL.E , RE RE AT. 




A W/A/S 



A \A//AJS 




DRAW 



DRAW 



B 
DRAW 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



247 



go daft and turn tail and sprint or else put 
itself calmly in front of his and wait to be 
run down. Then again his would be sail- 
ing along peaceably when it would stop and 
turn around over the magnet in the middle 
and wait. 
Then we made the rules which follow: 
i. A soup plate of water shall be the 
sea, with a magnetized needle for each 
battleship. A magnet may be submerged 
in the sea if desired. 

2. There shall be two players to each 
sea, each having one ship. They shall also 
have a magnet, each preferably a horseshoe, 
to propel the ships by attraction and re- 
pulsion only, and not by mechanical force. 

3. When both players have said "go" 
the "battle" is on. 

4. If the point or bow of one "ship" 
hits the side or stern of the other, the former 



wins the "battle." If the bows or sterns 
collide it is a draw, also if they come to- 
gether exactly sideways it is again a draw. 

5. If a ship sinks after the word "go" 
it is a victory for the other player. 

6. Mechanical pushing or ruffling of the 
surface of the water forfeits the "battle." 

7. After a "draw" or a victory another 
battle is begun. 

8. Each battle won counts a point and 
the game is of 25 points or any number 
agreed upon. 

Well before we quit Weary and I were 
as daft over the game as the needles were, 
and we made up a fancy set with wood 
boats with magnets on them, and we also 
got some "sporty" magnets, but we came 
back to the soup plates and needles because 
we found that the wood boats were too 
clumsy. 



An Electrical Laboratory for Twenty-Five 

Dollars 



By DAVID P. MORRISON 



PART VII 
CONSTRUCTION OF CURRENT RHEOSTATS 



A rheostat will be needed to connect in series 
with your storage battery when it is being 
charged, and the following simple types will 
be found serviceable. 

Assume that you have a single storage cell 
that has a normal charging rate of five 
amperes and that you want to charge the cell 
from a no-volt direct current circuit. Fig. 59 

shows the con- 
nections of the 
cell (B), rheostat 
(R)and ammeter 
(A), and the pol- 
arity of the bat- 
tery with respect 
to the line. Now 
if 2.5 volts are 
required to cause 
a current of five amperes to flow through the 
cell there remain no — 2.5 or 107.5 volts that 
must be consumed in causing the five amperes 
to flow through the rheostat. By a single 
application of Ohm's Law you can now 



+ 


__ 








A — - 


B 


+ 


c 


R 

> vvww 









FIG. 59 



calculate the value of the resistance that 
must be placed in the rheostat: 
E 107.5 

R = — = =21.5 ohms. 

I 5 

To construct such a rheostat you should 
proceed as follows: — Cut from some J-inch 




248 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



oak two pieces of dimensions given in Fig. 60 

and drill the holes as indicated. Cut two 

other pieces of dimensions in Fig. 61 from 

some \ or f-inch wood. Now obtain seven 

round pieces of wood f inch in diameter and 

16 inches long. Wrap around each of these 

pieces two layers of 

asbestos paper. This 

paper should not 

come nearer than £ 

inch from the ends of 

the pieces of wood. 

One end of all of 

these pieces can now 

be glued in the holes 

of one of the pieces 

shown in Fig. 60. 

Slip the two pieces 

shown in Fig. 61 

down inside of the 

asbestos covered 

strips and then glue the other ends into the 

holes in the second end-piece. The two pieces 

inside of the cage just formed should be so 

placed that the distance between the two end 

pieces is divided into three equal parts. A 

small finishing nail may be driven, and counter 

sunk through the round wooden rods into 

these separators after they are put in place to 

hold them. Cut from some oak a piece 



^4 




<> 



A 



■a 



\ 



<P 



/ 



* 2 



FIG. 62 

one inch wide, f inch thick and 12 \ inches 
long: Cover this piece with asbestos paper 
as you did the round pieces except the paper 
should go to the end of the piece. This 
piece should be fastened at the point marked 
(H) Fig. 60, by means of two screws that 
pass through the end-pieces from the outside. 
Now wind on this cage § of a pound of 
No. 18 B. & S. "Advance" resistance wire, 
manufactured by the Driver Harris Wire Co., 
Harrison, New Jersey. The reason this 
wire is used is on account of its extremely 
low temperature coefficient, and its high 



resistance properties. Fasten one end of 
the wire around one of the round rods about 
one inch from the end and solder. Now 
wind the bare wire around the cage with a 





•*" 






- — tf.— 


(S 


< 

B 

r 


16 

/ 




w 



FIG. 63 

piece of twine of approximately the same 
diameter as the wire. When the winding is 
complete the end should be securely fastened 
and soldered as in the previous case. Two or 
three inches of free wire should be allowed at 
each end for connections. 

The sliding contact with which to vary the 
resistance is the next thing you will want to 



fig. 64 

construct. This should be mounted on the 
top of the cage and arranged so that it can be 
moved back and forth over the entire length 
of the winding. Cut from some hard wood 
two pieces one inch wide, one inch thick and 
14 inches long as supports for the sliding 
contact. Mount 
them in the two 
notches in the top of 
the end pieces. Place 
a piece of 1-3 2-inch 
brass or copper one 
inch wide and 14 
inches long on one 
side of one of these 
pieces so that it will be on the underside when 
the wooden strip is mounted. Decrease the 
thickness of the wooden piece an amount 
equal to the thickness of the brass strip. 
Now cut from some 1 -16-inch brass two 
pieces (A) and (B) as shown in Figs. 62 and 
63 and drill the holes as indicated. Bend (A) 
into the form shown in Fig. 64. Cut a block 
of wood with dimensions given in Fig. 65 as 
a handle to be used in operating the sliding 
contact, and give it the form shown in Fig. 




fig. 65 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



249 



66. Cut from some 1-16-inch spring brass a 
piece of dimensions given in Fig. 67 and 
bend it into the form shown in Fig. 68. 
These various parts can now be assembled 
as shown in Fig. 69. 

Cut from some one-inch oak a piece six 
inches wide and 16 inches long foi a base and 
mount the completed 
resistance coil with 
screws that pass 
through the base from 
the underside. Three 
terminals should now 
be provided by 
mounting binding 
posts on the base and 
making the following 
connections. Con- 
nect two of the posts to the ends of the 
coil with pieces of No. 14 B. & S. insulated 
copper wire and. the third to the brass strip 
mounted on the support for the sliding con- 
tact. By using three binding posts either 
end of the coil can be connected in circuit 
and thus equalize the wear on the wire and 
slides. It might be well for you to provide 
fuse connections in the lead from the sliding 
contact to its binding post. 

The current capacity of this rheostat can 
of course be increased almost indefinitely by 




FIG. 66 




FIG. 67 

increasing the size of the wire and the current 
capacity of the leads and contact spring. If 
it is desired to have a finer adjustment of the 
resistance you can use a smaller cage and 
put on more turns. 

The following form of rheostat will be 
found equally as good for the particular case 
mentioned at the out- c= 
set and may be easier 
to construct. This 
rheostat is to consist 
of a number of in- fjq # 68 

candescent lamps so 

arranged with respect to each other that they 
can be connected or disconnected from the 
circuit by a special switch to be described. 
Obtain 12 porcelain lamp sockets and 12 car- 
bon filament 16 candle power lamps. Cut 





3=F 



f^S=^- 



FIG. 69 



from some one-inch oak a piece five feet long 
and six inches wide. Now mount the lamp 
sockets on one end of this board four inches 
between centers with all the terminals pro- 
jecting to the right and left as partly shown in 
Fig. 70. Con- 
nect one side of 
all these sockets 
together with a 
No. 14 copper 
wire, removing 
the insulation 
from the wire 
only at the 
points it is 
fastened under 
the screws. 

Now cut from 
some well-sea- 
soned close 

grained wood f inch thick, a piece six inches 
square. Drill the holes in this piece as indi- 
cated in Fig. 71. Procure twelve ij-inch 
round-headed brass screws, £ inch in diam- 
eter and file off the top of the heads until 
there is a flat place about 3-16 inch in di- 
ameter. Fasten 



these screws in 
the |-inch holes 
in the board 
with a small nut 
on the under 
side, placing 
brass washers 
on both sides. 

Now cut from 
some 1 -3 2 -inch 
spring brass a 
piece as shown 
in Fig. 72 and 
slit it as indi- 
cated by the dot- 
ted lines. Ob- 
tain a f-inch 
brass bolt 1^ 
inches long, put 
it through the 
hole (H) and 
solder. Now 
make a small 
wooden handle 
as shown in Fig. 
73. The fan- 
shaped piece of 
brass can now 
be fastened to 
the handle with 




250 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



four small screws. Mount a washer one inch 
in diameter and J inch thick with a hole \ inch 
in diameter, in the center of the board with 
two countersunk flat headed brass screws. 
This washer is to serve as a bearing for the 
piece of brass at- 
tached to the \* — 
wooden handle. 
Bend each of the 
segments in the 
fan-shaped piece 
of brass down a 
short distance so 
that they will rest 
firmly against the 
tops of the screws 
when the fan- 
shaped piece is 
held down against the washer on the wooden 
base. A small spring placed on the bolt in the 
back and held by two lock nuts will aid in 
maintaining a constant pressure of the fingers. 
Cut from some §-inch brass a circular piece 
as shown in Fig. 74 and mount it on the 



*", 




FIG. 71 




K 



"* 



FIG. "J2 



FIG. 73 




wooden base so that its upper surface is on 
the same level as the top of the screw heads. 
A stop should be placed in the position 
marked (S) Fig. 70 to prevent the handle 
being turned completely around. 

Now mount this special switch on four 
short pedestals under the corners, on the 
same board you moun- 
ted with the lamp 
sockets, and arrange to 
make the following con- 
nections. Two binding 
posts (T t ) and (T 2 ) Fig. 
70, can be mounted on the main base 
that will serve as terminals for the rheostat. 
Connect one of these binding posts to the 
lead common to all of the lamps. The 
other binding post should be connected to 
the bolt in the center of the switch with a 
flexible lead. The free terminals of the 
various lamps should now be connected in 
regular order to the back end of the screws 
in the special switch base. When all the 
lamps are in place you can vary the number 



FIG. 74 



connected in parallel between the binding 
posts of the rheostat by simply turning the 
rheostat handle. 

You no doubt will want to make a rheostat 
that can be used on your switchboard in 
connection with your transformer and recti- 
fier in charging and discharging the storage 
battery. The construction of the switch for 
this rheostat will differ from the one used 




FIG. 75 

with the lamps and it will be so arranged 
that a more gradual change in resistance 
can be made than in the previous case. 
Assume that it is desired to have a rheostat 
that will give a range of current from one 
half to five amperes when connected to 
circuits whose voltages range from a few 
volts to 50 volts. A convenient way of 




fig. 76 

making such a rheostat would be to connect 
two in series, one in which the resistance 
units are relatively large and the other in 
which the resistance units are relatively 
small. Fig. 75 shows how such an arrange- 
ment should be connected. The total 
resistance of the small rheostat should be 
practically the same or a little greater than 
the resistance of one step in the larger rheo- 
stat. With the maximum voltage of 50 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



251 



volts the total rheostat resistance should be 
ioo ohms to give the minimum, current of 
\ ampere. This total resistance can consist 
of 19 five-ohm units in the larger rheostat 
and 20 one-fourth-ohm units in the smaller 
rheostat. 

Fig. 76 shows a cross section through a 
switch suitable for operating such a rheostat, 
and its construction can be accomplished as 
follows. Cut two pieces, from some |-inch 




fig. 77 

well-seasoned wood, one 10 inches square and 
the other six inches square. Draw a 55-inch 
circle on the larger board with the stationary 
point of the compass in the exact centre of 
the board. Divide this circle into 20 equal 
parts and drill 20 J-inch holes with these 
equally spaced points as centres. Draw a 
four-inch circle on the smaller board and 
divide it into 20 equal parts, and with these 




points as centres drill |-inch holes. Now 
procure 39 |-inch brass bolts £ or one inch in 
length. Fasten 20 of these bolts in the holes 
in the smaller board and 19 of them in the 
holes in the larger board which leaves one 
blank spot and the rheostat will be open 
when the arm (A) is in this particular posi- 
tion. It might be well, however, to fill this 
space with any kind of a blank screw. Cut 
a second board 10 inches square from 
some \ or f-inch stock to serve as a back for 
the rheostat. See (C), Fig. 76. This board 
should have a ^-inch hole drilled in its centre 
for the rod (R 2 ) to pass through. Cut four 
pieces two inches wide and 4^ inches long 
from ^-inch oak that are to serve as supports 
for the switch (S 2 ). Four more pieces three 
inches wide and 7I inches long should be 
cut from some ^ or f-inch oak that are to 
serve as supports for the switch (S t ). Obtain 
a piece of ^inch brass rod iof inches long. 



Thread one end of this rod to a distance of 
about one inch and drill a 3-3 2 -inch hole 
through it \ inch from the opposite end. 
This rod is to be used in operating the contact 
arm (B) of the switch (S 2 ). Cut from some 
1 -1 6-inch spring brass two pieces as shown 
in Figs. 77 and 78 that are to form the arms 

(A) and (B) of the switches. A brass 
washer (R), Fig. 76, should be cut from 
some |-inch brass and soldered to the arm(B) 
and both of them then soldered to the brass 
rod so that the lower side of the washer is 
5§ inches from the threaded end of the rod. 
Now fasten this part of the switch in position 
as shown in Fig. 76. A brass washer (W) 
should be placed on the end of the rod 
before the nut is screwed on. It would be 
best to put a lock nut on the end of the rod 
in addition to the one shown. These nuts 
should be run onto the rod until there is 
quite a little tension in the arm (B), thus 
assuring a good contact between it and the 
heads of the screws. Procure an insulating 
tube, 4§ inches long, with an inside diameter 
a trifle larger than the outside diameter of the 
brass rod (RJ and an outside diameter of 
approximately ^ inch. Next obtain a piece 
of brass tubing (T) 45 inches long with 
about 1 -1 6-inch wall and of such an inside 
diameter that it will fit snugly around the 
insulating tube. Now fasten the arm (A) 
to the brass tube with a brass washer (R x ) as 
you did the arm (B) to the brass rod. The 
lower side of the arm (A) should be i| inches 
from the lower end of the brass tube when 
they are fastened together. A special washer 
(R 2 ) should now be made. Two holes 
should be drilled in the lower end of the brass 
tube and threaded so that they will take the 
screws (S 3 ) and (S 4 ). There should be quite 
a bit of pressure exerted by the arm (A) upon 
the heads of the screws when it is fastened in 
place. 

Two handles (H x ) and (H 2 ) as shown in 
Fig. 76 can be turned from hard wood and 
mounted on the outer end of the brass rod 
and tube. A washer (R 3 ) should be cut from 
insulated material and put in place, to pre- 
vent the brass tube coming in contact with 
the arm (B). Two small uprights (P x ) and 
(P 2 ) should be placed on top of the boards 
(S x ) and (S 2 ) to prevent the arms (A) and 

(B) turning entirely around. 

The elements of resistance connected 
between the screws mounted on the board 
(SJ are to each have five ohms resistance. 
No. 18 B. & S. gauge "Advance" resistance 



252 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



wire has a resistance of .184 ohm per foot so 
that there will be required five divided by 
.184, or 27.17 feet. This number of feet is 
equal to 326 inches. Divide this length of 
wire into two parts. Wind these pieces around 
a round piece of wood with the various turns 
touching each other allowing \\ inches of 
free wire at one end and 2\ inches at the 
other end for connections. Holes may be. 
drilled in the boards (Sj), (S 2 ), and (C) 
through which the free ends of these resis- 
tance coils can be passed, thus giving an easy 
means of supporting them. Two coils can 
now be connected together in series by 
soldering together the ends that project 
through the lower side of the board (C). 
The upper terminals of these coils should 
now be connected to adjacent screws, the 
last screw of one element forming the first 
terminal of the next element and so on. 

The elements for the smaller rheostat are 
to each have a resistance of \ ohm and have 
a total length of 16.3 inches. These lengths 
of wire should of course be increased a small 
amount on account of end connections. 

Two binding posts should be mounted in 
some convenient place such as shown by (T\) 
and (T 2 ). Connect (T\) to one end of the 
series of resistance in the smaller rheostat. 
Then arm (B) can be connected by a flexible 
lead to one terminal of the resistances in the 
larger rheostat and the arm (A) by a flexible 
lead to the terminal (T 2 ). When these two 
rheostats are to be used in series as just 
described there is no need of the insulating 
tube that separates (A) from (B). The 
rheostat was made in this way so you can 
split it up and use either separately if 
desired. 

A hole should be drilled in the front of 
your switchboard of such a size that it will 
allow the brass tube to easily pass through. 
The rheostat can then be fastened rigidly to 
the board with four large screws. 

The rheostats described here may not be 
suited to the particular circuit you want to 
use them in but the general plan of construc- 
tion will be the same. A small booklet 
containing tables giving the resistance of 
different size wires of different kinds of 
materials and their change in resistance 
with a given change in temperature can be 
obtained from the Driver-Harris Company. 
These tables will be found very convenient 
in selecting the size and kind of wire to use 
in your rheostat. 

(To be continued.) 



Electric Clocks as Timekeepers 



Can electrically wound clocks -keep better 
time than those wound by hand, the rest 
of the mechanism being the same? The 
question is an important one, for in the long 
run the device that is more nearly right in 
principle will come out ahead. In our 
hand- wound clocks the rate of movement 
is controlled by an escapement which is 
moved either by a spring or by a pendulum. 
Changing the tension of this spring, or the 
length of the pendulum, alters the speed of 
the escapement and therefore the rate at 
which the hands move over the dial. As 
long as this adjustment of the balance 
spring or pendulum is kept the same, wc 




21-HOUR WIHOINC 



M\N^^M\^^N\l\^w\^^^^^^^^N\ 



HOURLY WINDING 



ELECTRIC W/NO//VC 



I 134 St, 7 e f 10 it a. 1} /y is /* /7 w 19 2» v ix » *j 

HOURS 

FREQUENT WINDING MEANS MORE UNI- 
FORM SPRING TENSION 

generally assume that the clock will run at 
a uniform speed, yet this is not entirely true. 
For while the swing of the escapement may 
have a fixed time, the speed at which this 
escapement catches and releases will vary 
with the pressure of the teeth against the 
same. This pressure depends on the ten- 
sion of the main spring* and is many times 
greater when the clock is fully wound than 
when it is almost run down, so that the 
escapement in a 24-hour clock will act with 
more snap during the first twelve hours. 

The difference is not great, but it explains 
why two clocks which may read alike each 
evening will differ by a half minute or minute 
at other times of the day. Now, if we re- 
duce the difference in spring tension before 
and after winding, we will lessen this varia- 
tion in the hourly speed of the clock. A 
glance at the diagram will show how winding 
the clock every hour would reduce the change 
in spring tension. Electrically wound clocks 
go still further when they wind the spring 
several hundred times each hour. 



Membership in Popular Electricity Wireless Club is made up of readers 
of this magazine who have constructed or are operating wireless apparatus 
or systems. Membership blanks will be sent upon request. This depart- 
ment of the magazine will be devoted to the interests of the Olub, and 
members are invited to assist in making it as valuable and interesting 
as possible, by sending in descriptions and photographs of their equipments. 

Determination of Wave Length 



How can I determine the wave length of 
my equipment? What is the formula? 
These and other questions of like import 
are continually being asked by readers of 
this department. Invariably we have an- 
swered the amateur by telling him to get in 
tune with some station of known wave 
length and thereby determine his own. 
There are of course wave meters which may 
be used for the purpose, but they are ex- 
pensive and generally not available except 
to the commercial station. 

Still, there are no doubt many who may 
think that our customary answer is an eva- 
sion of the question — an easy way of putting 
them off. So for once we are going to side- 
step the "popular" idea of our magazine 
and delve a little into the technicalities. If 
you want the formula here it is. Those who 
understand higher mathematics may make 
use of it. To those who do not we simply 
say: "Do not ask us to explain." We do 
not conduct a correspondence school in 
mathematics. 

W=3.i4i6x2X2 V V~l~c 
in which .... 

W=wave length in meters 

V=velocity of light, or 300,000,000 
meters per second 

L=inductance in henrys 

C=capacity in farads 

Both capacity, C, and inductance, L, 
enter into the equation and except in simple 
circuits are difficult to calculate. The 
capacity of a straight vertical wire of length 
I and diameter d well above the earth and 
away from other conductors is m micro- 
micro-farads found from the equation, 

1 
c= 

4.1454 log (jj) 



When brought near to other wires and 
connected to them, the above value will be 
modified. The capacities of the connected 
condensers must also be considered, but 
this will depend on how the condensers are 
connected, which varies in different systems. 

Stefan's formula for self inductance is: 



L=4"TTn 2 ajlog 
b 2 „ • 



e V b 2 + c 2 



/, 3b 2 +c 2 \ 



+ 



16 a 2 ' 



where L=inductance in micro-henrys after 
being divided by 1000. 

a=mean radius of the coil 

n= number of turns 

b=over-all breadth of the coil 

c=depth of the coil 

y t and y 2 =constants depending on 
the ratio of the quantities b and 
c (always dividing the smaller 
by the larger). For example, 
suppose b=2cm. and c= 
1 cm. 

CI 

—=—=.5 By reference to previously de- 
ls 2 

termined table of constants, for the value 
•5- yi=-796 and y ? = 13066 

This formula is quite exact for square 
wire insulated by a covering of little thick- 
ness, but requires correction in the case of 
round insulated wire. This correction con- 
sists of three parts and is represented by 

£L = 4 IT n a(log e -^- + 0.13806 + a) 

where £ L is the correction in L (in micro- 
henrys after dividing by 1000), a and n are 
radius and number of turns as before, D and 
d are diameters of wire plus insulation and 
.bare wire, respectively, and A is a constant 
depending upon the number of turns of 



254 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



wire in the coil. (The correction 0.13806 
is the increase in the self-inductance of the 
separate turns because the wire is round 

D 
instead of square, log e — is the increase be- 

d 
cause the wire is smaller than the square 



wire assumed in the formula, A is the cor- 
rection due to the difference in the mutual 
inductance of the separate turns on one 
another, being more for round wire than for 
square.) For wireless telegraphy coils the 
correction, A, is small and may be disre- 
garded. 



Transmission of Photographs by Wireless 




We have often wished that we 
could see the party to whom we 
are talking over the telephone. 
From the present outlook there is 
a possibility that our hopes along 
this line may be realized, for a 
Mississippi inventor has recently 
perfected a new system for trans- 
mitting photographs by wireless, 
making it possible for us to talk 
over the wireless telephone and 
then see the face of the party to 
whom we were talking gradually 
traced on the recording cylinder of 
a phonographic looking instrument. 

Victor H. Laughter, the inventor of this 
system, is well known to the readers 

of Popular 
Electricity 
through his 
many con- 
tributions to 
the subject 
of wireless. 
Mr. Laugh- 
ter, who has 
over twenty 
pending 
wireless pat- 
ents, has 
been experi- 
menting for 
a number of 
years along 
this line. 
Transmis- 
sion of photographs by wireless with Mr. 
Laughter's 
system has 
been carried 
out up to the 
present in an 
experimental 
way, although 
he thinks that 
his method 




V. H. LAUGHTER 



r~ 



can be made practicable. The 
principle of transmitting photo- 
graphs by wire or wirelessly is very- 
simple, and not original with Mr. 
Laughter, but the many obstacles 
in the way of small details to be 
perfected have received careful 
study and much experiment on his 
part. 

The inventor refuses to give a 
detailed description of the set 
owing to the patent situation. 

He writes, however, that instead 
of sending out a wave from a 



JL 







^*Jls (X 



spark coil or transformer to correspond with 
the varying 

" . 1 



11 

nam 



1 



portions of 
the photo- 
graph being 
transmitted, a 



"J K/Z/Y\A^Tij^*UMXy generator of a 

fj continuous 

wave is uti- 

. — _ zsm lized and this 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



255 



wave is varied and thrown in and out of the 
regular current to correspond with the pho- 
tograph. At the receiving end a special type 
of coherer is used and for printing the pho- 
tograph a method both electro-chemical and 
photographic is employed. 

The inventor found it next to impossible 
to send photographs with the old type spark 
sending set and coherer, owing to the periodic 
character of the spark and the slow working 
action of the coherer. He informs us that 
the set he is now employing is used in con- 
junction with his wireless telephone system 



and to talk over the wireless telephone, then 
run off a photograph of the distant party 
makes a very interesting exhibition. 

The illustrations herewith were furnished 
by Mr. Laughter as examples of the work 
he has done in this line. 

This system can also be applied to wire 
use and it is expected that it will come into 
use for newspaper work. To be able to 
transmit a photograph from city to city, of 
some noteworthy event a few moments after 
it actually happens would certainly prove 
a great help to the newspapers. 



A High-Power Wireless Equipment 

By ALFRED P. MORGAN 



PART III. — INDUCTION COIL SECONDARY; KEY 



The secondary sections are 50 in number. 
They measure 12 inches outside diameter 
and|three-sixteenths of an inch thick. The 
hole in the center through which the in- 




FIG. 19. ARRANGEMENT OF CORE AND 
WINDINGS 

sulating tube passes is five inches in diameter. 
About 15 pounds of No. 28 B. & S. gauge 



Flancfe 




Pollejl 



silk-covered wire is required to wind the 50 
sections. A sectional view showing the gen- 
eral arrangement of core; primary, insula- 
tion and secondary is given in Fig. 19. 

They are formed on a winder similar to 
that illustrated in Fig. 20. 

The flanges are 13 inches in diameter 
and \ inch thick. The core is 3-16 inch 
thick and five inches in diameter. The parts 
of the winder are preferably made of brass. 




FIG. 20. SECTION FORMER 



Sections nor Effech've increase 

Beveled of insulo-h'on by bevel 

FIG. 21. ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS 

The core is tapered so that the completed 
section may be more easily removed from 
the form. This construction also results in 
better insulation between the sections by 
forming an air space next to the insulating 
tube. This may be better understood from 
Fig. 21. 

The flanges are held tightly against the 
core by means of two nuts which screw on 
the shaft. The shaft may be either placed 
in a lathe chuck or else fitted with a pulley 
and the form revolved by attaching a belt 
which runs to the driving wheel of a sewing 
machine. Those who possess a small work- 
shop may find the suggestion illustrated in 



256 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Fig. 22 of permanent value and useful for 
other purposes than coil winding. 

An old bicycle is adapted in the manner 
shown and should require no other explana- 
tion than that afforded by the illustration. 

The base and uprights of the winder are 
made of wood and may be of almost any con- 




FIG. 22. SIMPLE WINDING MACHINE 

venient size. The bearings are short lengths 
of brass tubing into which the shaft will fit. 
The wire is fed slowly and evenly into 
the winder until the section is 12 inches in 
diameter. Use a great deal of care not to 
pass in any kinks or snarls. The wire must 
be very carefully watched for breaks. 
Oftentimes the wire itself is broken but is 
held together by the insulation. It is a 
good plan therefore to test each section for 
continuity by placing it in series with a battery 
and a telephone receiver. If broken, the 



Fe/f-^ Spoo/ 



To Winder 




iSecA/on <£■ 



A Icohot 
Lamp 



FIG. 23. IMPREGNATING THE INSULATION 

section should be discarded or else unwound 
and mended. The splice should be soldered 
using resin as the flux. 

The wire is passed through a bath of 
melted beeswax and resin before it is wound 
into a section. This operation not only in- 
creases the insulation of the wire but the 
resulting section is mechanically stronger 
as well, and will not fall apart when removed 
from the form. The wax must be kept 
fairly hot and the form revolved rapidly so 
that the wire is wound in before the wax 
has had time to cool and become solidified. 



Fig. 23 illustrates an arrangement for im- 
pregnating the insulation. The wire passes 
from the reel over a small pulley and down 
into the bath, then under a pulley and out 
over another. Before passing over this 
third pulley it rubs against a piece of felt 
which removes the surplus wax. The piece 
of felt requires frequent scraping or renewal. 

A square, cracker tin contains the wax 
mixture and is supported at its four corners 
so that an alcohol lamp may be placed un- 
derneath as a source of heat. The pulleys 
are simply ordinary spools turning about a 
round headed screw and having a small 
washer placed at either end so as to elimi- 
nate friction. 

The separators between the secondary 
sections are circular disks of blotting paper, 
12^ inches in diameter and having a hole 
five inches in diameter cut in the center. A 
template of sheet metal of the same size 
is first made and then laid on the blotting 
paper so that the separators may be cut out 
by scoring around the edges with a sharp 
pen knife. The separators are impreg- 
nated by soaking them in a hot mixture of 
beeswax and resin. They are then hung 
up and allowed to dry before using. 

The secondary is assembled by slipping 
alternately a completed section and then 
two separating disks over the primary and 
insulating tube. The method of connecting 
the sections is indi- 
cated in Fig. 24. 
The direction of 
winding of every 
alternate section is 
not necessarily re- 
versed as the arrows 
at first seem to indi- 
cate but they are 
merely turned around 
as shown by the bevel. 

When the complete secondary is as- 
sembled two wooden flanges 13 inches in 
diameter are forced oVer the insulating tube 
until they come tightly against the ends of 
the secondary. 

The ends of the insulating tube of the coil 
illustrated in Fig. 25 were threaded and 
fitted with hard rubber flanges which screw 
against the wooden flanges and hold them 
tightly against the secondary, but this con- 
struction is no doubt rather difficult for 
amateur coil builders to imitate and im- 
possible with an insulating tube composed 
of several layers. 




FIG. 24. METHOD OF 

CONNECTING 

SECTIONS 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



257 




FIG. 25. COMPLETED SECONDARY 

After assembling, the whole coil is placed 
in a metal receptacle which contains a 
quantity of the mixture of beeswax and 
resin used for impregnating the sections. 
The container should be built up in the 
shape of a cylinder out of sheet tin, and 
of a size just large enough to admit the 
coil so that there will be no necessity to use 
a large amount of the wax. The wax is 
kept hot by a gentle heat and the coil 
allowed to become thoroughly " soaked." 



1 ... ,,— ~ 




f": 


£ 


:::V::™ri~ ::; "" : " ::: 






£ 

O 

d 




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> 


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' £-1 


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v'-' 






Asp'i rotor 



Sink 



flflflflflfi 



Gas 



Flame or 
Alcohol Lamp 

FIG. 26. ASPIRATOR 



The usual method of impregnating the 
secondary after assembling and the one 
followed in the case of the coil in question 
is to solder a tin cover on the top of the 
cylinder so as to render it air tight. A 
small piece of one-quarter inch brass tubing 
is soldered in the top and connected with a 
rubber hose to an aspirator on the water 
faucet as shown in Fig. 26. When the 
aspirator is set in operation it will exhaust 
the air from the receptacle and cause any 
air bubbles in the coil to expand and pass 
out. When the atmosphere is readmitted 
the pressure will force the hot wax into all 
the interstices. 



After soaking in the hot wax for a while 
and under atmospheric pressure the recepta- 
cle is opened and the coil removed. If the 
primary and insulating tube are covered 
with a layer of ordinary insulating tape 
previous to immersing in the wax, they will 
be protected and not become covered with 
the compound. The tape is removed after 
the coil is taken out of the receptacle. After 
cooling the secondary is given several coats 
of wax by painting it on hot with a brush. 
It is then covered with a layer of tape which 
protects the sections and separators from 
mechanical injury and in case the coil is 
set in a solid mass of insulating compound 
when mounted, is easier to remove if ever 
necessary. 

One of the best and simplest ways in 
which to mount the coil is to place it in a 
rectangular wooden box fitted with a cover. 
The case should measure 27 by 15 by 15 
inches inside dimensions. The ends of the 
primary rest on two wooden supports which 
raise the secondary up clear of the bottom 
of the case. The primary terminals lead 
to two large binding posts on the end of 
the case. The terminals of the secondary 
are connected to insulating pillars on the 
top of the case. 

The insulating pillars are made, as in 



j m i 



FIG. 27. INSULATING PILLAR 

Fig. 27, of § inch hard rubber rods, four 
inches long. A J inch brass rod, 5^ inches 
long, is threaded at both ends with an 8-32 
die and passed through a hole bored along 
the axis of each pillar. A binding post 
screws on the upper end of each rod, while 
two nuts on the bottom end serve both to 
secure the pillar and also the secondary 
terminal. 

Small grooves may be turned in the pillars 
to improve their appearance and also to 
increase the effective insulating surface. 

KEY 

The telegraph key of a modern wireless 
equipment is a somewhat important factor 
since the ease with which it may be manipu- 
lated will largely determine the time and 
current energy consumed in transmitting a 
message. 

The ordinary Morse telegraph key is not 
large enough to conduct or break the cur- 
rent required by a large coil or transformer 



258 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



without becoming overheated. However a 
wireless key must not be of such a size that 
it is awkward to operate but rather be de- 
signed so that the weaknesses of a small 
key are avoided. This is accomplished by 
providing auxiliary conductors which relieve 
the bearings of the key from carrying the 
current and by shunting a condenser across 
the contacts or placing them in a magnetic 
field to prevent arcing. 




fig. 28. KEY 

Fig. 28 illustrates a key which is easily 
constructed and entirely practical, it being 
the form adopted by one of the large com- 
mercial companies. 

The lever is seven inches long and is 
formed from a piece of square brass § by f 
inch, by bending one end in a double curve 
so as to bring the key knob nearer the surface 
of the operating table and render it less 
awkward to manipulate than if it were 
straight. 

fc> i; o o 6 6j 



fie 




^-/o-^-f 



/o-z+ 



7"- 



FIG. 29. DETAILS OF KEY 

Fig. 29 is a detail drawing of this key. 
Six holes, (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) 
are located and bored in the positions in- 
dicated in the illustration. (A) and (D) 
pass all the way through the lever and are 
threaded with a 10-24 tap to receive a 
thumbscrew having a similar thread. (F) 
also passes all the way through but is not 
threaded. A 10-24 brass machine screw ^ 
inch long under the head passes through 



rJ> 




this hole and screws into the under side of 
an ordinary key knob. The hole (B) is 
3-16 inch in diameter and passes through 
the lever at right angles to the sides, iji 
inches forward of the rear end. A piece 
of 3-16 inch round brass, 1 \ inches long and 
pointed at both ends passes through this 
hole and forms the pivots of the key. The 
holes (C). and (E) are bored \ inch deep. 
The former is threaded with a 10-24 tap, 
while the other is threaded with a 5-16 
inch tap having 20 threads to the inch to 
receive the contact stub. 

The base, Fig. 30, 
is five inches long, 2§ 
inches wide and \ inch 
thick. The plan and 
elevation may be best 
comprehended from 
the illustration. A 
wooden pattern, 1-16 
inch larger all around 
than the dimensions fig. 30. key base 
here given is made 

and a casting in brass procured from a 
foundry. Smooth the pattern with sand 
paper and give it a coat of shellac. 

The rough casting is finished up to the 
shape and dimensions indicated by filing or 
grinding on an emery wheel. Two holes 
are bored on the center lines of the uprights, 
7-16 inch below the top and threaded with 
a 10-24 tap to fit the bearing screws. On 
the center line of the base \ inch from the 
rear a hole is bored 3-16 inch deep and 
threaded to fit a 5-16 inch brass rod 2^ 
inches long and having 18 threads to the 
inch. This rod forms the rear leg of the 
key and serves both to fasten the key on 
the operating bench and also as a means to 
make connections. 

A \ inch hole passes through the forward 
part of the base \ inch back from the edge. 
This hole is purposely made large so that 
the under contact may be moved about to 
bring it into perfect alignment with that on 
the lever. 

A shallow recess is formed with the point 
of a f inch twist drill, \\ inches back from 
the front edge of the base and on the center 
line. This recess prevents any lateral 
movement of the spiral spring. 

One inch forward of the rear edge and 
on the center line of the base, a hole is 
drilled through and threaded with a 10-24 
tap. A 10-24 machine screw \ inch long 
under the head fits into this hole. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



259 



A strip of No. 25 hard spring brass Fig., 
31, 5-16 inch wide and 2 \ inches long serves 
both as an auxilliary and also to conduct 
part of the current passing from the base 
to the lever. The upper end is clamped 



2? 



"<° 



H' 



3)' kc 



Auxiliary Spring Pivot 



°>[5 



>' 



•I? •--**-*:! 




Thumbscrews 



FIG. 31. KEY ACCESSORIES 

by the screw fitting into the hole (C) in the 
lever. The hole in the lower end is elongated 
as in the illustration so that the tension is 
adjustable. The lower end clamps under 
a small machine screw in the base. 

The spiral spring is formed of seven turns 
of No. 16 hard brass wire and is ^ inch in 



%| 



Le9 

p— "- 



f" ^Ploh num 






Nut Stub 

FIG. 32. CONTACTS 

diameter. The upper end is bent upwards 
at right angles and fits into a hole in the 
lower end of the adjusting screw. 

Four thumbscrews, Fig. 31, are required 
and an equal number of knurled lock nuts. 
All have a 10-24 thread. The bearing 
screws are i\ inches long under the head 
and have a 3-32 inch hole bored in the ends 
to receive the pointed ends of the lever 
pivot. The rear adjusting screw which 
regulates the play of the key is pointed and 



is 1 J inches long. The other screw govern- 
ing the tension of the spiral spring is \ inch 
shorter and has a small hole bored in the 
lower end. 

The contacts, shown in Fig. 32, and their 
adjustment deserve careful attention. They 
must be heavy, perfectly flat across the con- 
tact surface, in perfect alignment and of 
proper material. The points of the key in 
question are \ inch in diameter, 3-16 inch 
long and are platinum-iridium. Silver is 
sometimes used but the first metal is pre- 
ferable. The upper contact is set in a small 
brass stub | inch long and 5-16 inch in 



Bearing Screw 




*OS 



o 



Lever 
Bose Knob 

Bearing Screw 




Adjusting 
Screws 




1 ^tSpnnqs 7 1 



Con foe t 



i Le,a 



Leg 



FIG. 33. METHOD OF ASSEMBLING 

diameter, which screws into the hole (E) 
in the lever. The lower contact is set in 
the upper end of the front leg. The contact 
points are driven into place • and held by 
friction. The leg is 2\ inches long, 5-16 
inch in diameter and is threaded with a die 
having 18 turns to the inch. A similarly 
threaded washer, \ inch in diameter, \ inch 
thick, is placed on the upper side of the base 
and screwed on the upper part of the leg. 
A mica washer of the same diameter must 
be placed between the washer and the base. 
The leg is clamped on the under side by 
means of a large hexagonal nut the dimen- 
sions of which are indicated in Fig. t>3- A 
mica washer is also placed between the nut 
and the base, but a metal washer must be 
interposed between the nut and the mica 
to prevent damage to the latter when the 
nut is tightened. The large hole in the 



260 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



base through which the leg passes permits 
the point to be moved around until it comes 
directly under that on the lever. The 
points must be filed until they are perfectly 
square across and make contact over their 
entire surface, otherwise there will be trouble 
from fusing of the surfaces. 

The bearing screws should be just loose 
enough to permit the lever to move easily 
without side play. The tension of the 
springs and the amount of movement given 
to the lever are matters of individual 
taste. 

A one-half micro-farad condenser con- 
nected directly across the contacts will 
absorb any sparking which takes place on 
a direct current circuit. 

Connections are established to the legs of 
the key by means of two large hexagonal 
nuts on each. 

(To be Continued.) 



Effect of Sunlight on Transmission 



Considerable attention has been directed 
of late to the effect of sunlight on the trans- 
mission of Hertzian waves. A writer in 
Electrotechnische Zeitschrift, in comment- 
ing on this subject, points out that the strong- 
er the sunshine the less the conductivity of 
ether to the Hertzian waves, so that it is 
incorrect to speak of a wireless telegraph 
station as having any definite range; for 
one which has a large radius of communica- 
tion in northern latitudes would have a 
much smaller radius in the warm climate 
of the tropics. 

This would be particularly noticeable on 
vessels sailing north and south, and he 
suggests that it would be desirable to 
prepare a " radio- topographical" map, giving 
the. relative conductivity of the ether .at 
different latitudes. 



Wireless from Coast to Coast 



A new wireless company, formed by com- 
bining several companies now doing busi- 
ness in the United States, has been capital- 
ized at $5,000,000, and will be known as 
the Continental Wireless Telephone and 
Telegraph Company. 

The object of the company is to es- 
tablish a coast to coast wireless transmission. 



The officers include Thomas E. Clark 
of Detroit, General Manager; Walter W. 
Massie of Providence, Rhode Island, 
Vice President, and A. Frederick Collins, 
Technical Director. 



Rockland County (N. Y.) Wireless 
Association 



On April 16 the Rockland County Wire- 
less Association was formed. A system of 
by-laws was voted upon and the following 
officers chosen: President, W. F. Crosby; 
Vice President, E. B. Van Houten; Secre- 
tary, C. Tucker; Corresponding Secretary, 
V. N. Giles. The object of the Association 
is to help wireless amateurs and to prevent 
interference with commercial and Govern- 
ment stations. Meetings are held once a 
month. Anyone living in Rockland County 
and wishing to join will kindly write to 
Vincent Giles, South Broadway, Nyack, 
N. Y. 



Safeguarding Airships by Wireless 

The early attempts to equip dirigible 
balloons with wireless telegraph apparatus 
were made primarily with a view to receiv- 
ing information from the same while aloft. 
Now it is dawning on those interested in 
military airships that the proposition may 
also be reversed, by using the wireless to 
advise the balloonist of approaching storms 
or danger of any kind. With the enormous 
cost of the aerial crafts such a means of 
safeguarding the same may easily pay for 
the whole wireless outfit and this protective 
feature will undoubtedly stimulate the more 
general equipping of the airships used for 
military purposes with wireless receiving 
apparatus. 



Newspaper Establishes Wireless 
Station 



A South American newspaper, La Prensa 
of Buenos Ayres, has had installed as a part 
of its system a wireless telegraph station. 
The hundredth anniversary of Argentine 
Republic will be celebrated this year by 
an exposition which opened May 25th and 
one of the purposes of the station is to keep 
the newspaper offices in constant wireless 
communication with the exposition grounds. 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



261 



WIRELESS QUERIES 

Answered by A. B. Cole 



Questions sent in to this department must 
comply with the same requirements that are 
specified in the case of the questions and 
answers on general electrical subjects. See 
"Questions and Answers" department. 



Sending and Receiving Radii 



It becomes necessary again to call the 
attention of. those who take advantage of 
the wireless queries department, to the 
necessity of definitely stating all the con- 
ditions when asking questions regarding 
sending and receiving radii. It should be 
self-evident to most of you that it is next 
to impossible for us to advise over what dis- 
tance you can receive with a certain set un- 
less We know what kind and how large a 
station is sending at the other end, and what 
the nature of the space is between the two 
stations, whether hilly or level land, or 
water. Moreover, we cannot intelligently 
decide how far you can send with any par- 
ticular transmitting outfit unless we know 
all about the receiving station, and the space 
between the stations. 

In asking questions on this subject it 
will be necessary for you to cover all of the 
above mentioned points, as well as to state 
definitely what instruments are used in each 
station, as one-half kilowatt transformer or 
two-inch coil, straight coil tuner or variable 
coupling tuner, etc., and also the height 
above earth, length, and number of wires 
of the aerials. The shape of the aerials 
is also very important. 

For example, a one-inch spark coil con- 
nected to the aerial of a commercial station 
is very different from the same coil connec- 
ted to an amateur's 40 or 50-foot one, as 
regards transmitting distance to a particular 
station. We have known such a coil con- 
nected to a 100-foot aerial consisting of four 
parallel wires, top of aerial 90 feet above 
earth, to transmit to a commercial station 
over a distance of 12 miles, but we have also 
known of experimenters using a similar 
coil who could nor cover a distance of one 
mile. There might be many reasons for 
the difference in sending radii of these two 
stations, but if we are to decide how far 
such a coil will transmit, we will have to 
know all about both the sending and the 



receiving station, as we have pointed out 
above. 

Every instrument in a wireless station 
has some effect on the radii of transmission 
and reception. For example, a 75-ohm 
telephone receiver will not give as good re- 
sults with an electrolytic detector as will 
a 1000-ohm receiver, both receivers being 
of the same make. Other detectors require 
receivers of different resistances, depending 
on the detector itself. Moreover, the cheap 
telephone receivers cannot be compared 
with the better makes, in regard to sensitive 
qualities. We have had signals come in 
clearly with the better receivers, and yet be 
entirely imperceptible in cheap receivers. 
The make of receiver as well as the other 
instruments should be given in asking these 
questions. 

We therefore urge you to follow carefully 
the above instructions, as otherwise we cannot 
give satisfactory answers. 



Connections for Sensitive Receiving 
Questions. — (A) Please give diagram for con- 
necting a _ variable receiving transformer, two 
slides on primary and one on secondary; a variable 
condenser of the tubular type; a fixed condenser of 
tinfoil and paraffin paper; a pair of 75-ohm re- 
ceivers (Mesco); four detectors (perikon, electro- 
lytic, carborundum and silicon). I wish to use each 
of the latter by use of a four-point switch so that 
the perikon, electrolytic, and carborundum shall 
be connected with battery and potentiometer, while 
the silicon shall be connected without the potentiom- 
eter and battery. I will use a loop aerial consist- 
ing of four wires suspended between two houses, 
250 feet apart, one end 60 feet high and the other 
70 feet. (B) How may I improve this receiving 
set ? (C) With a one-inch coil how far ought I be 
able to transmit, assuming sensitive equipment at 
distant station ? (D) Will condensers improve my 
sending radius? — T. C. C, Jersey City, N. J. 

Answers. — (A) See diagram. To connect 
the silicon detector without the battery, 



Var- 

Coidentr - r 



Acru 



TvieS 








■T/xeJ Cotfdeiiser. 



RECEIVING CONNECTIONS 

merely move the slider of the potentiometer 
down to the end of the resistance rod corre- 
sponding to no voltage. 



262 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



(B) To improve the set, put a single slide 
tuning coil in place of the fixed condenser, 
as shown in answer^to J. G. W. in this issue. 

(C) From two to fifteen miles under ordi- 
nary weather conditions, and over water 
or fairly level land. 

(D) A small condenser, such as a \ pint 
Leyden jar, connected across the spark gap, 
will probably improve transmission. 



Connecting Instruments 

Question.— Please give me a diagram showing 
the best way to connect up the following wireless 
instruments: One double slide tuning coil; i single- 
slide tuning coil; silicon, molybdenite, carborun- 
dum, microphone, ferron and electrolytic detectors; 
i fixed condenser; i variable condenser and i po- 
tentiometer; iooo-ohm head -phone receiver. How 
far can I receive with the above outfit and a 6-wire 
aerial ioo feet long and 95 feet high? — J. G. W., 
San Francisco, Cal. 



/jer/a/ 



JZk£ie£l ye/, -fa 




RECEIVING CONNECTIONS 

Answer. — See diagram. You should 
be able to receive from high power sta- 
tions a maximum distance of about 800 
miles under ordinary conditions of weather. 



Noise in Receiver; Silicon Detector 

Questions. — (A) As I move the slider on my re- 
ceiving tuning coil I hear ticks in my receiver, 
although my aerial is disconnected. Should this 
be the case? (B) Are two silicon detectors better 
than one? — J. S., Plymouth, Wis. 

Answers. — (A) If you do not use a con- 
denser in series with your detector and tun- 
ing coil. The cause of the sound is loose 
contact between the sliders and the wire of 
the coil. If you use a condenser in series 
with the detector and the coil, the cause of 
the sound is probably the same as in the 
above case, but is due to the discharge of the 
condenser each time the slider touches the 
wire. The sliders should always make 
contact with the wire of the coil. (B) No. 



Aerial 

Questions. — (A) Could I use an aerial 25 feet 
high and 20 feet long with telegraph wires about 
20 feet distant? Would they affect the instruments 
and if so how could I stop the trouble? (B) Can 
an aerial be placed between two buildings about 
10 feet from the top?— E. J. T., Chicago, 111. 

Answers. — (A) The telegraph wires will 
diminish the distance of transmission and 
reception to a certain extent in their direc- 
tion, but will not otherwise affect your sta- 
tion. The only way to prevent this is to 
remove the telegraph wires. 

(B) Yes, but it will give much better re- 
sults if placed above the buildings. 



Tantalum and Mercury Detectors; Aerial Wire 

Questions. — (A) Is a detector made of tantalum 
wire and mercury as sensitive as the electrolytic? 
If not, will it do in place of the latter in most cases ? 
(B) Is No. 16 B. & S. gauge bare copper wire too 
small for aerials? — B. A. E., Roseburg, Ore. 

Answers. — (A) The tantalum detector is 
not considered as sensitive as the electro- 
lytic, but over comparatively short distances 
the signals are reproduced in the telephones 
quite loudly, and the detector is satisfactory 
for all around work. 

(B) No. 16 B. & S. copper wire may be 
used for the aerial of a small station. A 
larger wire is, however, to be preferred. 



Microphone Detector; Ferron Detector 

Questions. — (A) What is a microphone detector? 
(B) What is a ferron detector? — C. O, Fennimore, 
Wis. 

Answers. — (A) A microphone detector 
consists of a steel needle supported by two 
sharp edges of carbon. 

(B) A ferron detector consists of a metal 
point so arranged that its pressure on a 
crystal of iron pyrites can be varied. We 
expect to publish an article on this detector 
in the near future. 



Tuning Coil for High Resistance Receiver 

Questions.- — (A) I have a 3010-ohm, head-piece 
receiver. Please give dimensions for a tuning coil 
to be used with same which will receive up to 1000 
miles? (B) Please give wiring diagrams of these 
instruments with a silicon detector. (C) Give di- 
rections for making the tuning coil. — A. A., Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Answers. — We refer you to an article on 
"A Variable Coupling Tuning Coil," in the 
January, 1910, issue, which answers your 
questions fully. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS] 



Use of this department is free to readers of Popular Electricity, but atten- 
tion will not be given to questions which do not comply with the follow- 
ing rules : All questions must be written in the form of a letter addressed 
to the Questions and Answers Department and containing nothing for 
the other departments of the magazine; two-cent stamp must be enclosed 
for answer by mail, for space will not permit of printing all answers; 
the full name and address of the writer must be given. 



Milli-Ampere 

Question. — What is a milli-ampere ? — G. E. L., 
Phillipsburg, Kansas. 

Answer. — The prefix "milli" signifies 
"one-thousandth part." A milli-ampere is 
the thousandth part of one ampere (.001). 



Grounding Transformers and Generators; 
High Voltage Insulation 

Questions. — (A) Should a dynamo or a trans- 
former be grounded? (B) Should wires carrying 
2300 volts and running through a town be insula- 
ted if they are on the top of a 40-foot pole ? J. H., 
Richfield, Idaho. 

Answers. — (A) Regarding generators the 
National Code reads: "Mustwhen operating 
at a potential in excess of 550 volts, have 
their base frames permanently and effec- 
tively grounded. Must, when operating at 
a potential of 550 volts or less, be thoroughly 
insulated from the ground wherever feasible. 
Wooden base frames used for this purpose, 
and wooden floors which are depended upon 
for insulation where, for any reason, it is 
necessary to omit the base frames, must be 
kept filled to prevent absorption of moisture, 
and must be kept clean and dry. Where 
frame insulation is impracticable, the in- 
spection department having jurisdiction 
may in writing permit its omission, in which 
case the frame must be permanently and 
effectively grounded." The Code forbids 
the installation of transformers in buildings 
other than central or sub-stations unless by 
permission of the inspection department 
concerned. When installed in central or 
sub-stations, casings of all transformers 
must be permanently and effectively ground- 
ed. Transformers used to supply current 
to switchboard instruments only need not 
be grounded provided they are thoroughly 
insulated. 

(B) These wires may be bare but should 
be supported on petticoat insulators. 



Connecting Cells of Battery 

Questions. — (A) When cells are connected in 
series what is the voltage and current ? (B) When 
connected in parallel what is the voltage and cur- 
rent? (C) When connected in multiple-series 
how figure the voltage and current? (D) I have 
7 gravity cells in series and each one tests one volt. 
Why will not 7 cells test 7 volts ? (E) About what 
is the amperage and voltage of a gravity cell? — O. 
W. Y., Kennedy, Minn. 

Answers. — (A) If cells are connected 

in series the voltage is that of one cell 

multiplied by the number of cells, and 

the current will be governed by Ohm's law: 

_ Electromotive Force _, . 

Current = — : , Resistance 

Resistance 

being whatever there may be in the circuit. 

(B) If cells are connected in parallel the 
voltage is that of one cell, and the current 
capacity is increased, the cells thus arranged 
representing one large cell having a very 
small internal resistance. 

(C) Cells connected in multiple- series 
give the voltage of one of the series sets, 
and represent a cell, as far as current out- 
put is concerned, having a plate area as many 
times larger than a single cell as there are 
series sets. 

(D) They should show seven volts unless 
you are using connections between cells that 
cause a voltage drop, or are taking measure- 
ments at the terminals of the circuit, in 
which case a drop along these wires would 
have to be allowed for. 

(E) One volt and a little less than one- 
half an ampere. 



Connecting Generators; Horse Power 

Questions. — (A) Will more than two generators 
operate in parallel? (B) Explain how they should 
be connected. (C) Will A. C. generators of the 
same voltage and frequency operate in parallel 
if they are of different make? (D) Do generators 
working in parallel have to be of the same size and 
run at the same speed ? (E) How is the horse- 
power figured for driving generators? — J. S., 
Kansas City, Mo. 



264 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



Answers. — (A) Yes, if each machine is 
raised in voltage to the bus-bar pressure 
before closing the switch connecting the 
generator leads to the bus-bars. 

(B) Compound wound machines are 
usual for this purpose, the positive lead of 
each being connected to the positive bus, 
and the negative lead to the negative bus. 
In addition an equalizer as large as the 
machine leads should connect the series 
coil of one machine to the series coil of the 
next at the brushes and so on. 

(C) Alternators running together so that 
their outputs may be combined must run at 
such speeds that their frequencies are the 
same. They must run "in phase" or "in 
step." The machines may be of any make 
so long as the above is adhered to. 

(D) No. They divide the load auto- 
matically if all are run at the same voltage. 

(E) A generator is rated on the name- 
plate at its output under normal conditions 
of speed and regulation. Taking this rat- 
ing, an additional allowance of from 25 
per cent in small dynamos up to 5 per cent 
in large ones must be made to get the neces- 
sary power that must be put into the ma- 
chine under normal load. 



Electrical Inspection 

Question. — If a building were wired for electric 
lights according to written specifications without 
having the wiring shown on plans, and these wires 
were concealed, would the insurance inspector re- 
quire the floors to be taken up and the walls opened 
in places for the purpose of ascertaining whether 
or not the work was propely done? — H. L. M., 
Clarksville, Va. 

Answer. — The specifications for the in- 
stallation of any electric wiring are satis- 
factory to the insurance inspector when 
these specifiactions comply with the rules of 
the National Code which is the standard 
of the underwriters for such construction. 
However, the inspector will not concern 
himself about such parts of the specifications 
as have to do with installing the wires in this 
or that way so long as the Code rules are 
not violated. The inspector should not 
accept any concealed work unless installed 



under his supervision, or without having 
such openings made in the floors and walls 
as will enable him to know whether the work 
is standard or not. As a rule contractors 
who desire approval of a job notify the in- 
spector when the work is begun, and it is 
then the inspector's duty to follow up the 
job until completed, examining all con- 
cealed work when "roughed in." 



Alternator Exciter; Fuses 

Questions. — (A) Please explain how an exciter 
works in connection with an alternator. (B) Sup- 
pose a set of feeders runs to a point, where a pair 
of branch wires are tapped off with fuses. If these 
latter wires get short circuited, would it blow both 
fuses out, or only one? (C) Would there be any 
danger of getting a shock if only one fuse blew 
out?— C. R., Boonville, Mo. 

Answers. — (A) The exciter of a alternator 
is a direct current dynamo. It is sometimes 
belted to the main shaft of the alternator 
or run by a motor. The two wires from 
the exciter run to the fields of the alternator, 
and in series with one of these wires may be 
a rheostat for regulating the current through 
the alternator field coils. Besides this a 
rheostat in the field of the exciter itself regu- 
lates the exciter voltage. 

(B) Fuses for protecting electrical circuits 
are built to "blow" and open the circuit 
when they carry over ten per cent more than 
their rating. With a fuse rated to carry 
30 amperes, a time limit of 30 seconds is 
permissible before this fuse opens the cir- 
cuit on a 50 per cent overload. On a fuse 
rated to carry 600 amperes, a period of 10 
minutes is allowable before it should blow T 
on 50 per cent overload. Under these re- 
quirements in tests, it can be seen that a 
slight difference in construction, a better 
contact in the fuse block on one side of the 
line than on the other, and the carrying 
capacity are factors w r hich might vary so as 
to cause one fuse to blow, opening the short 
circuit before the second fuse became hot 
enough to blow out. 

(C) Yes, if the fuse on the negative side 
only opened the positive' side w r ould still 
be alive. 



Twenty-five years ago a small 

-i-, J a - 10 i na n i group of men who were inter- 
Electnc Light & ^ . 
Convention esteo - m the then infant 
electrical industry met in 
Chicago and organized the National Electric 
Light Association. As a result of this first 
meeting there were recorded 71 members. 
The idea of the association was probably 
that of George S. BoWen of Elgin, 111. The 
first president was J. Frank Morrison. The 
thirty-third convention of the association has 
just been held in St. Louis, May 23d to 27th. 
That it was the thirty-third is due to the fact 
that the conventions were held twice a year 
in the beginning. At the first convention 
there were a few over 50 present. At the 
last over 2,500 delegates were registered. 

To-day the National Electric Light Associ- 
ation stands as the largest and most repre- 
sentative organization of electric light and 
power interests in the world. Allied with it 
are the principal manufacturers of electrical 
apparatus whose exhibits lend to the con- 
vention the air of a great exposition, a bare 
idea of which is gained from the illustration 
on the next page. The members flock to 
the convention from all over the United 
States, Canada, Mexico, and our island pos- 
sessions. They come to listen to and partici- 
pate in the discussions of papers read by the 
best talent in the engineering, management, 
accounting and business departments of the 
profession; they study the newest and most 
improved electrical equipment there on 
exhibit; they meet old friends and business 
acquaintances; they many of them bring 
their wives and families, who are entertained 
by an endless round of receptions, excursions, 
theaters, etc. Altogether it is a week of 
combined work and festivity, which an 
electric light man will plan on for a year 
ahead, even if he has to "pass up" every- 
thing else. 

The scene of the convention this year was 
the fine concrete-steel Coliseum in St. Louis, 



with ground dimensions of 200 by 300 feet 
The main hall contained the exhibits. At 
one end of the hall is a vast stage, recently 
used by the Metropolitan Opera Company. 
This was partitioned off from the main hall 
by a fireproof curtain, forming a great amphi- 
theater where the principal meetings for the 
reading and discussion of papers were held. 
Other meeting rooms in various parts of the 
great building were utilized by other sections 
so that there were as many as three or four 
meetings being held at once. This year a 
daily paper was issued at the convention, of 
from 16 to 24 pages, which detailed the life 
and heart of the convention day by day. 

On the evening of the 25th, an anniversary 
meeting was held, among the speakers being 
Elmer A. Sperry, one of the organizers of 
the association; Samuel Insull, past presi- 
dent, and known as the dean of the electric 
lighting profession; President Frank W. 
Frueauff; W. W. Freeman, chairman of 
the public policy committee; T. C. Martin, 
executive secretary, and Frank M. Tait, 
secretary and treasurer. 

Interesting and amusing incidents of the 
early days of electric lighting were related by 
Mr. Sperry. "There was abundant evi- 
dence," he said, "that many of us were 
willing to assume great risks at that time. 
Mr. Ridley, the Boston representative, told 
us how he lighted up a queen of light in some 
Boston theater; he told us she had a number 
of incandescent lamps in her hand and three 
or four on her head. He said, 'We took a 
loop from the arc light circuit and brought it 
down on the stage; these six or seven incan- 
descent lamps took the full force of the cur- 
rent.' One can but wonder what would 
have happened to the queen had these 
lamps not taken the full force of the 
current. 

"There was a strong feeling on the part 
of many that the series-parallel distribution 
for incandescent lamps would prove superio r 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



267 



to the multiple system owing to the vast 
amount of copper required in the latter. 

"The first convention reflected very 
strongly the great controversy that was going 
on at this time between the telephone people 
and the arc light people. In many centers 
each had franchises. Complaint was made 
that the telephone people had wires strung 
on both sides of the street, and no place was 
left for the lighting poles and wires without 
too close proximity of the sets of wires pro- 
ducing serious induction. A committee was 
appointed on this matter, and in its report 
are to be found excellent suggestions and 
wise counsel. 

"Think of these earnest fellows struggling 
with high-tension currents with no better 
insulation than "undertaker's wires," as it 
was familiarly called at that time. One 
speaker started his remarks with the comment 
that he did not mean to advertise any wire 
man; another man had difficulty with the 
insulation 'between the rubber covering and 
the wire.' 

"In the discussion of motors, opinions Were 
divided as to what efficiency should be 
expected. Many could not understand how 
it was that as between two similar machines, 
one being operated as generator and the 
other as motor, the efficiency could rise above 
50 per cent, inasmuch as it was apparent 
that half of the total resistance was in the 
generator and half in the motor. There were 
some contemporary writings on this subject 
by Edward Weston that gave force to these 
remarks. I was deeply interested in this 
question of the motor at that time, but my 
talk is not recorded and posterity owes the 
reporter much. The only record that exists 
reads as follows: 'Mr. Sperry went into quite 
a lengthy discussion on this subject which, 
being all technical language, and being 
uttered by him very rapidly, was not under- 
stood by the reporter.' " 

Speaking of the commercial aspects of the 
business Mr. Insull said: 

"How far the commercial development of 
the business has been forced by the work of 



the engineers or how far the necessities of the 
salesmen and the business managers forced 
the technical development it is difficult to say, 
but the fact remains that as the possibilities 
of economical investment and economical pro- 
duction have increased, the business obtained 
and the energy distributed have increased by 
leaps and bounds, so that it is no uncommon 
occurrence for a central-station company to 
double its output every three to four years. 

"In the early days of the development of 
the central-station business, say for the 
first ten years of its existence, from 1881 to 
1 89 1, the customers of the central-station 
companies looked upon our product as more 
or less of a luxury. Partly owing to a lack of 
knowledge of the conditions governing the 
relation of cost and selling price and partly 
owing to the difficulty of getting our cus- 
tomers to make the necessary investment to 
connect with our system, our service was 
used rather as a luxury, or an advertising 
proposition than as a necessity." 

"It was not until the early nineties that any 
of the managers of the large central-station 
properties of the country appreciated the fact 
that if they desired to place their business on 
the basis of a general public necessity it was 
necessary for them to rearrange their rates on 
such a plan as Would give the long time con- 
sumer, the man vvho used the central-station 
company's investment most steadily during 
the year, the lowest possible price; and the 
recognition of the necessity of meeting this 
condition may possibly have had as much 
to do with reducing the cost as have the 
wonderful work of the inventors and the mar- 
velous skill of the engineers." 

" It matters not by what name you may call 
it, — whether you speak of it as the improve- 
ment of your load factor, whether you speak of 
it as creating a day load, — the fundamental 
reason for the success of the business in which 
we are engaged is as much an appreciation 
of the proper method of selling our product 
as the opportunity to use the many brilliant 
inventions which have been made by the 
great technical minds of our time." 





SHORT CIRCUITS 




A little Swede boy presented himself before the 
schoolma'am, who asked his name. "Yonny Olson," 
he replied. "How old are you?" asked the teacher. 
"Ay not know hold ay bane." "Well, when were you 
born?" continued the teacher, who nearly fainted at 
the reply "Ay not born at all; ay got stepm utter." 



"I thank you for the flowers you sent," she said, 
And she smiled and blushed and dropped her head, 
"I'm sorry for the words I spoke last night; 
Your sending the flowers proved that you were right. 

Forgive me." 

He forgave her. 
And as they walked and talked beneath the bowers, 
He wondered who in hell sent her those flowers. 



An editor had died and was, of course, directed to 
ascend to the Abode of the Just. But during the 
ascent the editor's journalistic curiosity asserted itself, 
and he said: 

"Is it permitted for one to have a look at — er — the 
other place?" 

"Certainly," was the gracious reply, and accordingly 
a descent to the other place was made. Here the ed- 
itor found much to interest him. He scurried about 
and was soon lost to view. 

His angelic escort got worried at last and began a 
systematic search for his charge. He found him at 
last seated before a furnace fanning himself and gazing 
at the people in the fire. On the floor of the furnace 
was a plate saying: "Delinquent Subscribers." 

"Come," said the angel to the editor, "we must be 
going." 

"You go on," the editor answered, without lifting 
his eyes. "I'm not coming. This is heaven enough 
for me." 



The schoolhouse had just gone up in smoke, and the 
taxpayers in the crowd looked at one another and 
groaned. 

A small boy, upon approaching the smouldering 
ruin, burst into uproarious grief. 

"Does it grieve you so to lose your school?" asked 
a sympathetic bystander. 

"T'ain't that," howled the boy, "but I left a nickel 
in my desk, and I'll never be able to find it in all that 
muss." 



Mrs. Jones and her neighbor, Mrs. White, were 
talking over the back yard fence and neither of them 
could solve the identity of the new neighbors who had 
just moved in. Presently they saw the garbage man 
approaching and knowing him to be an unfailing 
source of information asked, "Jake, who are the new 
people who have just moved in?" "I don't know, 
mum," replied Jake, "but they have the swellest 
swill in the block." 



Anxious Suitor — But, sir, I thrill at your daughter's 
slightest touch. 

Practical Father — Young man, I find her slightest 
touch is usually for a hundred dollars. 



(A serious accident, in one prolonged, agonizing 
stanza.) 

Of recent date, I met a skate, who left the state in 
'98. His name was Nate, — his surname, Tate. 

I'd really hate to perpetrate the rhymes of "ate" 
that fitted Nate; inebriate, degenerate, profligate and 
turtle bate, — At any rate you'd hesitate to advocate 
the cause of Tate. 

The hour was late, when in walked Tate and calmly 
sate beside my grate. To irritate he took one straight, 
then didn't wait to thus relate: 

"I had a date at Golden Gate to meet my Fate, — 
her name was Kate; no words of 'ate' are adequate to 
illustrate this girl sedate. Affectionate, compassionate 
— it makes my pate coagulate to contemplate. At any 
rate I got there straight and met my mate at 7:08. 
En tete-a-tete, (the lunch was great,) we sat and ate, 
and something fat-al in that bate got next to Kate 
and sealed her fate. It sent her straight— C. O. D. 
freight, a candidate to the pearly gate, — " 

Here, to abate this tale of Kate, I grabbed a plate 
and threw it straight, then chased this Tate from my 
estate. 

* * * 

The village cornetist, who made his living as a bar- 
ber, was massaging a patron's face. 

"That's a peculiar way of massaging the nose," 
remarked the man in the chair. "Some New York 
method?" 

"That? Oh, no, I was just practising the fingering 
of the Second Hungarian Rhapsody." 

Prosecuting Attorney — Your Honor, the bull pup 
has gone and chawed up the court Bible. 

Judge — Well, make the witness kiss the bull pup, 
then. We can't adjourn court for a week just to hunt 
up a new Bible. 

* :£ $ 

"The country is going to the dogs!" shouted the 
agitator at a street meeting. 

"Quit your snarling, then, and wait for your share!" 
said a spectator who sized the speaker up. 

The train was drawing into Baltimore. The porter 
approached a Son of Jove, saying, "Shall Ah brush yo' 
off, Sah?" "No," was the reply, "I prefer to get 'off 
in the usual way." 

* % 5fc 

"Thar's a sign up there, daddy, what says, 'Don't 
blow out the gas'." 

"Well, who blowed it out? I jest hit it a lick with my 
britches an' I haun't seen nothin' er it sense." 



"Mama, do all angels fly?" 
"Yes, Willie, why do you ask?" 
"Cause I heard dad call the hired girl an angel the 
other day. Will she fly, too?" 
"Yes, Willie, tomorrow." 



"Mary," said the lady of the house, "I want you to 
go and see how old Mrs. Jones is." Mary went and 
after she returned the lady asked: "Well, did you find 
out how old Mrs. Jones is?" "Yes, ma'am; she says 
she'll be 60 years old next February, if it's any of j-our 
business." 




TRE MIDNIGHT RIPE 
OF P/jUL REYERE 




Rl/Vtll/G THE 
LIBERTY BEtL 
BY ELECTRICITY 



VfWLY RECAST 
5 THAT I HME 1 - 
BUT OWE LlFEj 

to ewe 

Y LOJNTUr] 




WfttWBTON CRoStiATC 
THE DEL4lYfifiE—> 





WINTER f?T VRLLEy POR^E. ^Vvl*-^ 



W/IVUTe Aj£ft W MWPLE DIST/)tf(£ 

t/Siivc electric curling- irw H/yo 

FLHT IRON • 




1/5 INQ WIRE LEV TELEPHONE 






PATRIOTS ffRMEP WITH PHO/VQGRAPHi 
CH8RGIN& THB BRITISH 




If Our Heroes of the Revolution had Understood the Use of Juice 



ELECTRICAL TERMS DEEINED 

In this age of electricity everyone should be versed in its phraseology. 
By studying this page from month to month a working knowledge 
of the most commonly employed electrical terms may be obtained. 




Atmospheric Electricity. — Static electricity 
present in the atmosphere. The cause is not well 
understood. Atmospheric electricity varies greatly 
in amount and often changes very quickly from 
positive to negative or from negative to positive 
during a thunder storm. The cause for the great 
increase in the potential finally resulting in a 
lightning discharge is attributed to the change in 
the capacity of a cloud by the formation of large 
rain drops from particles of vapor, also from the 
friction between the cloud and air. 

Attachment Plug. — A device to which flexible 
or other wires may be connected so as to plug into 
a receptacle and thus supply current to portable 
lamps, motors, etc. 

Attraction. — The tendency of a body charged 
with static electricity of one polarity to approach 
or be drawn to another body oppositely charged, 
known as electrostatic attraction. Also shown be- 
tween bodies capable of being magnetized, classified 
at electromagnetic or magnetic attraction. 

Aurora. — -Rays and bands of light seen in the 
northern and southern skies at night. Considered 
by some scientists to be due to the electric dis- 
charges in a thin or rarefied air similar to the 
display obtained in a Geissler tube. 

B 

B. W. G. — An abbreviation for "Birmingham 
Wire Gauge." 

Back Electromotive Force.— When a motor 
is in operation the wires of its armature are turning 
in a magnetic field the same as in the case of a 
dynamo. Therefore they generate an electromo- 
tive force or voltage, as in the case of the dynamo. 
This electromotive force is opposite to that im- 
pressed upon the motor from the outside source 
and opposes it — hence the name back electromo- 
tive-force. 

Balanced Load. — An equal distribution of the 
load on a two- or three-phase system, or between 
two generators, or on the two sides of a three-wire 
Edison system, or over five-wire distribution mains. 

Bank of Lamps. — A number of lamps so con- 
nected that they may be thrown on a circuit as a 
load. Used frequently in electrical testing labora- 
tories. 

Bank of Transformers. — Applied to any group 
of transformers connected together to step up or 
step down the voltage. 

Bath, Electroplating. — The solution in the 
vat in which articles are placed while being plated. 

Bath, Electro-therapeutic. — The applica- 
tion of an electric treatment to the body or to a 
portion of the body of a patient by means of suitable 
positive and negative electrodes. Called also an 
electric bath. 

Bath, Stripping. — A term applied to the solu- 
tion in which any electroplated article is placed for 
the purpose of removing this plating. It is the 
process of electroplating reversed. 

Battery. — A term commonly applied to a com- 
bination of a number of cells for the production of 



electrical energy. Used also to designate a single 
cell for producing electrical energy. Applied to 
Leyden jars when two or more , III] 

are connected together. Re I | 1 1 — 

presented by the symbol: I I I I I 

Battery, Aluminum. — A battery having alumi- 
num for the negative plate and aluminum sulphate 
for the electrolyte. Its E. M. F. is .2 volt. 

Battery, Bichromate. — A battery consisting 
of a zinc plate for the positive element suspended 
between two carbon plates forming the negative 
element. The electrolyte is a solution of potas- 
sium bichromate, 1 part; sulphuric acid, 3 parts; 
water, 9 parts. Electromotive force, 2.1 volts. 
For open or closed circuit work. The plates 
should be removed from the solution when not in 
use. 

_ Battery, Bunsen.— A type of two fluid cell con- 
sisting of a bar of carbon immersed in strong nitric 
acid contained in a porous cup, this cup being 
placed in a glass jar containing water, 20 parts; 
sulphuric acid, 1 part, and a cylindrical plate of 
zinc. Potassium bichromate is sometimes sub- 
stituted for the nitric acid which gives off disagree- 
able fumes. Electromotive force of this cell, 1.8 
to 1.9 volts; internal resistance, .08 to .11 ohm. 
This battery is adapted for experimental work, but 
is expensive and requires frequent attention. May 
be used on either open or closed circuit work. 

Battery, Cadmium. — A battery set up like the 
gravity cell and consisting of a cadmium plate for 
the negative element, zinc for the positive and sul- 
phate of cadmium for the solution. Electromotive 
force .3 volt. 

Battery, Closed Circuit. — A battery which 
may be kept on a circuit requiring a steady current 
without serious polarization. 

Battery, Dry. — A battery in which the solution 
is replaced by some form of material which holds 
the exciting fluid by absorbing it. 

Battery, Fuller's. — Battery consists of a cone- 
shaped piece of amalgamated zinc within a porous 
cup. The zinc is connected to an insulated copper 
wire and a little mercury is placed in the cup. In 
other respects similar to the Bunsen cell (see Bat- 
tery, Bunsen) except that the mercury renders it 
unnecessary to remove the plates from the solution 
when not ; in use. Sometimes referred to as the 
mercury bichromate battery. Electromotive force, 
2.14 volts; internal resistance, .5 to .7 ohm. 

Battery, Leclanche.— Consists of a glass jar 
in which is placed a zinc rpd and a strong solution 
of sal-ammoniac. In this solution is placed a 
porous cup containing a carbon slab surrounded 
by small pieces of carbon and manganese dioxide. 
Over the top of this is spread hot pitch only a few 
small air holes being left. The cell is not ready 
for use until time enough has elapsed, usually ten 
or twelve hours, to allow the solution to soak into 
the porous cup. Electromotive force, 1.48 volts; 
internal resistance, 1.13 to 1.15 ohms. Adapted to 
open circuit work such as door bells, electric gas 
lighting, etc. 




Popular Electricity 

IN PLAIN ENGLISH 

HENRY WALTER YOUNG. Editor 




VoL III 



August, 1910 



No. 4 



CONTENTS 



TALE OF THE ENGINE THAT SPINS 271 

Handling Radium "."..' 278 

Fireworks in Arc Lamps 278 

THE FUTURE OF ELECTRICAL AGRICULTURE. 

By Frederic Lees 279 

CURRENT FROM— WHERE?. By Edgar Franklin 284 

For the Abstracted Elevator Passenger 291 

ELEMENTARY ELECTRICITY. CHAPTER 28 

By Prof. Edwin J. Houston 2C2 

ELECTRICAL SECURITIES. By "Contango " 297 

WHERE ELECTRICITY STANDS IN THE PRAC- 
TICE OF MEDICINE. CHAPTER 8. By 

Noble M. Eberhart, M. D 300 

AERIAL LIGHT HOUSE OF SPANDAU 304 

Record in Track Laying 305 

Telephoning from London to Paris 305 

Want Electricity from Sun's Rays 305 

Light as an Aid to Civilization. 306 

Police Tickers in Berlin 306 

A Safe Explosive 306 

Lighting Architectural Models 307 

Billions in the Electrical Industry 307 

Lamps Delivered by Auto 308 

How Many Wires in a Cable 308 

A Miniature Hot Room 309 

Banquet at Long Beach 309 

Russian Electric Railway Exposition 309 

TALKS WITH THE JUDGE 310 

Private Car of President Diaz 311 

Base-Ball Electric Score Board .< 312 

New Philippine Cable Ships ; . . 313 

Use of Army Telephones 315 

SHOOTING WITHOUT AMMUNITION 315 

A Modern Boiler Room 316 

SIX THOUSAND TURNS OF A SWITCH 317 

Myths of Magnetism 318 

"ELECTRIC FARM" 319 

No "Out of the World" To-Day 320 

THE LIGHTNING ROD. By Brother Potamian .. . 321 

Frying Griddle Cakes on a Motor. ..'.'."., 323 

Two Thousand Miles by Electric Car . . . 324 

Electricity in Coal Mines -. 324 

Feeding a Trip Hammer 325 

PREVENTION OF MINE DISASTERS 326 

In the Modern Village Smithy 327 



Page 

Electric Scrubbing Machine 32L 

Egg Beater and Cake Machine 328 

Ingenious Arc Lamp Pole Top 329 

Taxes and Cigar Lighters 328 

An Electric Curfew Wink .' 329 

Locating Flaws in Cables 330 

Making a Hole in Glass 330 

Plain English or Symbols — Which ? 330 

Fastening up Insulators 331 

Protecting the Linemen 332 

Safe Temperatures for Dynamos 333 

Aluminum and Copper Conductors 333 

An Automatic Electric Clock 334 

Electrically Fire Proofing Wood 335 

Non-Explosive Welder 335 

Mail Box Alarm 336 

Magnetic Lathe Chucks 336 

Insulating Materials 337 

ELECTRICAL MEN OF THE TTMES. Frank J. 

Sprague 338 

SWEETS FOR THE SWEET. By Laura M. Warren 339 

Work "Well Begun — Half Done" -. 341 

Truth About Current Cost 342 

Kitchen Stove 342 

Lighting a Home 342 

A Young Experimenter 343 

Model Electric Locomotive 343 

AN ELECTRICAL LABORATORY FOR TWEN- 
TY-FIVE DOLLARS. PART 8. By Dc.vid 

P. Morrison 344 

Wireless in Every Home 348 

Choosing a Pair of Receivers. By C. Brandes 349 

Springfield (Mass.) Wireless Association 350 

Are Wireless Burglar Alarms Possible 350 

A HIGH POWER WIRELESS EQUIPMENT. 

PART 4. By Alfred P. Morgan 351 

WIRELESS QUERIES 357 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 359 

NOTES ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF PATENTS. 

By Obed C. Billman 361 

Book Reviews 362 

ON POLYPHASE SUBJECTS 363 

SHORT CIRCUITS 364 

COMMON ELECTRICAL TERMS DEFINED 366 



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Copyright 1910 by Popular Electricity Publishing Co. 




NEW YORK EDISON COMPANY S WATERSIDE STATION NO. 2 — 8,000 AND I£,000 KILOWATT 

TURBINE-GENERATORS INSTALLED 

: YJ 

: . : . 



VOL. Ill 



AUGUST 1910 



No. 4 



Tale of the Engine that Spins 

The steam turbine-generator has brought about a revolution in power plant practice that many do 
not realize. The pictures show some remarkable turbine-plants of the day. 




When Watt first made a steam engine 
he constructed it with a reciprocating piston 
inside of a hollow cylinder. Steam was ad- 
mitted first on one side of the piston head and 
then on the other, giving the desired recip- 
rocatory motion. At first he manipulated 
the valves by hand, and it must have 
been lively work even with the tea-kettle 
prototype of the great prime movers of today. 
It wasn't long, however, before the sliding 
valve was developed, worked by an eccen- 
tric, which did very well for a couple of 
centuries, giving way in later years to what 
is known as the Corliss valve, which came 
into almost universal use outside of railroad 
locomotives. But the principle of convert- 
ing the energy of the steam into mechanical 
motion remained steadfastly the same — 
the motion of the moving parts was a back 
and forth one. 

The reciprocating engines grew and grew 
in size, until about 10 years ago, when the 
monsters of six or eight thousand horse- 
power were installed in the plant of the 
Manhattan Elevated Railway System in 
New York. They were and are mammoths 
of their kind, standing over 50 feet high, to 
the top of the high-pressure cylinders, and 



the low-pressure cylinders, extending out 
horizontally, would make good-sized living 
rooms. But like the mammoths of glacial 
times they represented the last of their race, 
as far as the production of great quantities 
of power is concerned. A little invader was 
entering the field; as little, in comparison 
of sizes, as was the Monitor which de- 
stroyed the Merrimac, but with "a strength 
out of all proportion to its stature. This 
new-comer was the steam turbine. 

You naturally ask what all this has to do 
with electricity. This much — the turbine 
engine has revolutionized electric central 
station operation where great quantities of 
electricity are generated. Whereas a few 
years ago it was a matter of discussion' and 
much calculation in the building of %" large 
plant whether or not to use the new turbine- 
generators or turbb-generators, as they are 
often called; now they are installed in almost 
every instance without question be^|raised. 
Why is this the case? For 'one / i,ea$on, they 
are more efficient than the reciprocating 
engine; another, they take up but a small 
fraction of the space; third, units of enor- 
mously greater power are possible; fourth, 
they are cheaper per unit output and more 



272 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




o 
o 
o 



8 < 

O w 
of £ 



« es 
W < 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




USINE DE L HARRACH PLANT IN ALGIERS, NORTH AFRICA. TURBINE- GENERATORS 
OF 1,000 KILOWATT ( 1,340 HORSEPOWER) CAPACITY 



easily handled, and besides, will run at a 
50 per cent overload for many hours without 
hurting themselves. 

The first steam turbine generator of the 
Curtis type, which is the type shown in all 
the illustrations, and is made by the General 
Electric Company, was of 500 kilowatts 
capacity (between 600 and 700 horse power). 
It -was shipped in February, 1903, to the 



Newport and Fall River Street Railway, 
Newport, R. I. The first 5000 kilowatt 
(6700 horse power) unit was installed in 
Fisk Street Station of the Commonwealth 
Edison Company, Chicago, and was put 
in commission in October, 1903. This 
latter was the first of the "big ones" and the 
Fisk Street Station, with its later sister 
station at Quarry Street, hold within their 



274 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




o 



2 

, O 

% 2 



8< 

O w 



£ 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



275 




A GLIMPSE IN THE GENERATING ROOM OF THE UNION ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER 
COMPANY, ST. LOUIS. THESE MACHINES DEVELOP 5,000 KILOWATTS \ 

(6,700 HORSE- POWER) EACH 



walls almost the complete history of the 
development of the Curtis turbo-generator 
to date. Beginning with Fisk Street in 
1903, and later with Quarry Street, new 
units were added every year to the constantly 
lengthening stations, which were always 
left unfinished at one end to allow the struc- 
tures to be pushed out farther and farther 
to accommodate new units. 

The steam turbine practically began where 
the reciprocating engine left off — at 5000 
kilowatts. It crept up and up in size — 
eight, ten, twelve, fifteen thousand kilowatts, 
which is about 20,000 horsepower. Such 
are operating today. Within a year units of 
thirty thousand horsepower will be turning. 
Think of it, the power of thirty thousand 
horses equaled by a single engine. The 



power of thirty railroad locomotives all 
produced in a space not much larger than 
a single mogul of our mountain railroad 
lines. 

After all, what is the Curtis turbo-gen- 
erator and how does it behave? Well, to 
use a rough analogy, it is not far away in 
principle from the ordinary windmill with 
which most people are familiar. There is 
a cylindrical steel casing something like a 
big cheese box. Standing vertically inside 
the casing is a shaft on which is mounted 
a tier of disks, one above the other and spaced 
about their own thickness apart. When 
they turn the shaft must turn with them. 
These disks extend outward from the shaft 
to the casing. Then on the inner side of the 
casing is another set of disks extending 



276 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




P OT 



a> as 

£ a 

O Oh 



o 

Ph 

a 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



277 




TWO 1,000 KILOWATT ( 1,340 HORSEPOWER) TURBINES INSTALLED FOR USINE DE LA 

GOULETTE, TUNIS, AFRICA. 



inwardly, and they dovetail in with the first 
set, but are stationary. 

On the outer edge of the disks or wheels 
which drive the shaft are bolted rows of 
curved buckets or blades. They are shaped 
something like the curved blades on some 
steel windmills. In the stationary disks 
under each revolving disk are similar buckets 
called guides, which curve in the opposite 
direction. Now all these things are enclosed 
in the casing and superheated, "dry" steam 
at enormous pressure is admitted through 
nozzles and impinges with terrific force 
against the buckets of the first moving disk, 
setting all the disks to spinning. The steam 
after it has rushed through the first set of 
buckets strikes the guide blades in the sta- 



tionary disk following, and these blades being 
curved in the opposite direction, the steam 
is deflected back into its original line of 
motion and strikes the buckets of the next 
moving disk. In this way the steam 
"worms" its way down through the successive 
stages of the turbine, losing pressure and 
power with each stage until it is finally ex- 
hausted at low pressure into a condenser. 

In the mean time the shaft with its movable 
disks spins like a huge top at 750 revolutions 
a minute. 

The shaft of the turbine is vertical and 
on its upper end, which extends outside 
the turbine casing, it carries the armature 
of an electrical generator or dynamo. This 
armature spins with a low humming sound 



278 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



inside the stationary fields and generates 
its thousands of horse-power of electrical 
energy. 

But the weight of the shaft, and blades, 
and armature, many tons, must be borne 
in some way. This is done in an ingenious 
manner and almost without friction, by 
what is known as the step bearing. The 
lower end of the shaft stands in a receptacle 
and oil is pumped into the latter under high 
pressure, sufficient to lift the shaft bodily 
and support it on a thin film of oil. There 
it spins so easily that the tons of weight may 
be turned by a man's hand. Once started 
the turbine will spin for hours by its own 
momentum, if the load is taken off. 

Such in brief is the nature of the steam 
turbine generator which, within the last 
decade, has quietly usurped the power of 
plunging pistons and ponderous fly wheels 
in the great modern power plants. Most 
of those who read this have heard of the 
steam turbine, but comparatively few outside 
of engineers and mechanicians realize how 
great has been the change. To the popular 
mind a power plant means mighty machinery 
with fly-wheels and reciprocating parts. 
This is not true to conditions in the [large 
plants of today. The pictures here show 
to many of us scenes which are new. To 
step inside one of these palatial generating 
rooms is to be impressed with the almost 
total lack of visible motion, yet, notwith- 
standing, the very air of these places is 
pervaded with a subtle something suggestive 
of mighty forces, and the dull roar bespeaks 
the power of a Niagara. 



Handling Radium 

Because of its great value and also on 
account of its chemical action and its power 
to produce ulcerated wounds hard to heal, 
the traffic in radium is confined to scientitlc 
institutions and physicists. In Austria ra- 
dium is certified and guaranteed by the 
Vienna University and is sold and handled 
in what is called a radium cell, a case of 
nickeled brass in two parts which screw to- 
gether. The bottom of the case is run full 
of lead in which a square hole is made and 
in this hole is placed the radium. Over the 
top is laid a mica plate so that it is not 
necessary to open the cell entirely to use 
the radium ray, which is unaffected by the 
mica cover, but does not readily penetrate 
the lead. 



Fireworks in Arc Lamps 

The reason the long green tubes which we 
call mercury vapor lamps are being intro- 
duced more and more into shops and draft- 
ing rooms is because of their high efficiency 
and their distributing the lighting surface 
of the illuminant so as almost to do away 
with shadows. The reason they are not 
adapted for more general uses lies in the 
strongly green coloring which characterizes 
the mercury arc and which vitiates any red 
tints in objects viewed by this light. It 
gives to flesh tints that ghastly hue which 
even in a lesser degree has been so objec- 
tionable in Welsbach gas mantles. 

Nevertheless the mercurial lamps have 
been introduced in spite of their obnoxious 
coloring and if this could be offset by adding 
a decided red from some other source of 
light, the combination should be more widely 
useful. Attempts to do this by combining 
tungsten lamps with the mercury vapor 
units have already shown fair results, but 
the green really needs a stronger red to 
balance it than can be expected of the tung- 
sten lamp when run at high efficiency. It is 
as if on the Fourth of July a neighbor per- 
sisted in lighting the house fronts with a 
greenish Bengal light, in which case we would 
need not a white light but a "red fire" to 
offset it. 

Now one of the elements commonly used 
in the red Bengal lights is lithium, which 
gives a pleasing red tint to a flame, hence 
if this could be burnt in the mercury vapor 
tube it might serve the purpose. Realizing 
this, that most versatile of our Americanized 
electrical inventors, Mr. Steinmetz, has de- 
vised an arc lamp which is double ended in 
color, having a mercurial green at one end 
of the arc and the lithiated red at the other 
end. To accomplish this he uses mercury 
for the lower terminal of his arc lamp, while 
the upper terminal is a carbon impregnated 
with a salt of lithium. In other words, he 
tinges the arc of a lamp with red and green 
fireworks blending with each other into a 
color effect which is said to be very pleasing 
in its results. 

Owing to the difficulty of getting glass to 
stand the intense heat of an arc confined in 
so small a sealed chamber as is needed for 
the mercurial arc, the new bicolor lamp has 
not yet been placed on the market but its 
practical development will be awaited with 
much interest. 



The Future of Electrical Agriculture 

By FREDERIC LEES 



Use of electricity in plant growing is no 
new thing. Numerous experiments have 
been made in all parts of the world, and 
often with remarkable results. Yet these 
do not appear to have made any lasting im- 
pression on agriculturists. Why so ? Is it 




THE LATE PROFESSOR LEMSTROM 

that practical difficulties stand in the way 
of an economical application of electricity 
to agriculture ? Though the argument may 
hold good in some cases, I do not think that 
it does in all, and I hold with Professor 
Daniel Berthelot, of the Meudon experi- 
mental station, near Paris, that electricity, 
if properly applied, may be found of the very 
greatest utility in the raising of certain 
produce, and at no great cost to the pro- 
ducer. 

But before giving a description of Professor 
Betf helot's recent experiments, let me briefly 
t<j~ upon the various methods which have 
be u u employed in electroculture. One class 
comprises methods which utilize atmos- 



pheric electricity. The apparatus consists 
of a sort of lightning rod, supported by a 
pole in the center of the field, and connected 
with a network of subterranean wires. F. 
Paulin's geomagnetifere was of this type. 
Its use showed rather remarkable results. 
In a case of a field of spinach, there was an 
increase from 43.3 pounds to 53.6 pounds 
for every 57.8 square feet, and at a cost for 
installation of only about $8 for 2.47 acres. 
The use of underground wires, however, 
presents difficulties and the system can 
hardly be recommended to the practical 
farmer. 

Another group of experimenters have 
utilized dynamic electricity — in other words, 




THE LATE MARCELIN BERTHELOT 

an electric current produced by plates of 
zinc and copper placed in the ground and 
connected by metallic conductors, insulated 
or not. 



280 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



A third group have used electric machines, 
and among these investigators was the late 
Professor S. Lemstrom, of Helsingfors 
University. After many years of experi- 
mental work, he came to the conclusion that 
in a large number of cases crops grown in 
an electrified atmosphere are far above the 
average both in quality and quantity. Dur- 
ing the years 1902 and 1903 he had experi- 
mental fields in England, in connection with 
Durham College of Science, in Germany, 
near Breslau, and at Alvidaberg, in Sweden, 
where he grew many plants under electric 
treatment. Strawberries in electrified fields 



stretched across the field a little above the 
surface; and this was then connected with 
an electrical machine placed in a shed at 
some distance. The high potential current 
charged the net and exercised its action on 
the growing plants, in a form known as a 
static or brush discharge; to use a rather far 
fetched analogy it was like "spraying" the 
plants with electricity. As the seeds sprouted 
and the little plants began to grow, the net 
was raised, as on no account must it touch 
them. But this raising of the net, said 
Lemstrom, need not be done more than 
once or twice during the summer. 




GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDENS OF MEUDON 



showed an increase of 50 to 128 per cent 
over those grown in ordinary fields; corn 
showed an increase of 35 to 40 per cent; 
potatoes 20 per cent; beets 26 per cent and 
so on. 

It must be remembered, too, that in many 
of these cases the treatment was merely ten- 
tative, so that even better results are pos- 
sible. In fact, Professor Lemstrom con- 
tended that if his method were rigorously 
carried out an average increase of 45 per 
cent over the normal for all crops grown on 
land of ordinary fertility might be expectedt 

The electric current he applied in the fol- 
lowing way; A wire net was first of all 



On wet days the electrical machine was 
stopped, for through the damp the wire net 
lost its charge directly. He also found that 
it was injurious to the crops to work the 
machine when the sun was shining brilliantly. 
The probable reasons for this electric in- 
fluence are as follows: In the first place 
the positive current passing from the points 
of the wire net to the earth causes the pro- 
duction of ozone and nitric compounds 
which are beneficial to the plant. Secondly, 
the negative electricity passing up from the 
earth to the points of the net tends to draw 
up with it through the plant thenar DU>: rn 
the root, and thus increased circulatfcP- v of 



THE FUTURE OF ELECTRICAL AGRICULTURE 



281 




the juices gives name. Berthelot pointed out in one of his 
increased energy epoch-making works that the use of electric 
of growth. As machines might exercise an invigoration in- 
to the cost of fiuence on certain plants and might bear 
Professor Lem- some resemblance to the action of atmos- 
strom's appara- pheric electricity in stormy weather, but it 
tus, this was was far from resembling the normal action 
rather high, but of the free electricity of the air. He pre- 
he showed that ferred, therefore, to note the growth of plants 
the results jus- placed merely within an "electric field" — 
tified it. "It that is not actually in contact with a current, 
appears to me He was anxious to learn the fundamental 
without doubt," truths that underlie plant growth; not to 
he said, "that make hap-hazard experiments with the ob- 



TOWER OF MARCELIN 
BERTHELOT 

my experiments have led to 
results of the greatest practi- 
cal importance, for the cost 
is small in comparison with 
the advantages." 

The method of growing 
electric influence employed 




PROFESSOR DANIEL BERTHELOT OBSERVING THE RESULTS 
OF HIS EXPERIMENTS 



plants under 
by Professor 
Daniel Berthelot is quite different from any of 
the three systems described above. It is 
that invented by his father, the late Marcelin 
Berthelot, the great scientist who started the 
Meudon experimental station and built 
there the 90-foot tower which still bears his 



ject of proving to the farmer that he might 
increase his crops by the use of electricity 
but to discover some of those secrets of Na- 
ture upon which all true progress must be 
based. After sixteen years of work at Meudon 
he did actually find out some of these 
secrets. He discovered, for instance, that 
certain microbes at the roots of leguminous 



282 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 




ROOM AT THE TOP OF BERTHELOT TOWER 

plants exercised a beneficial influence on 
their growth, and also that the natural elec- 
tricity of the air invariably lent its aid. 
Plants placed at the top of his tower, where 
as he termed it, the potential electricity of 
the air was higher, thrived better than those 
grown at its base. Here was the explana- 



tion of the indefinite fer- 
tility of mountain fields, 
such as those in the Au- 
vergne — fields that never 
receive any fertilizer and 
yet are better producers 
than those in the valleys 
below. 

Working on these lines, 
Professor Daniel Berthelot, 
who has been appointed 
by the French Govern- 
ment to continue his 
father's work, studies the 
growth of plants placed 
within an "electric field." 
A wire net is suspended 
over the plant and con- 
nected with one of the poles 
of the electrical source, the 
other pole being in com- 
munication with the earth in which it is 
grown. Side by side with each experi- 
mental pot or field, he has a plant or 
plants, growing without the aid of elec- 
tricity, so that he can note the relative 
progress made by each. The results which 
he has obtained confirm those of his father 




ELECTRIC STATION AT MEUDON WHICH SUPPLIES POWER 
FOR THE PLANT EXPERIMENTS 



THE FUTURE OF ELECTRICAL AGRICULTURE 



283 







TURNIPS GROWN WITH AND WITHOUT ELECTRICITY 



— nay, they enable him to go further than 
did Marcelin Berthelot, since he has no 
hesitation in declaring that market gardeners 
could profitably adopt the method he has 
employed in a small way at Meudon. Peas 
grown in an electric field are in pod before 
others grown under ordinary conditions have 
done flowering, and the same is the case 
with French beans and other leguminous 
plants. Gardeners whose 
establishments are near 
electric stations or electric 
tramways could easily make 
an arrangement for con- 
necting the insulated wire 
netting suspended over 
their plants with the com- 
panies' overhead wires. 
Electric companies could 
make but a mere nominal 
charge for this privilege, 
which entails no appreci- 
able expenditure of current. 
The only real cost, there- 
fore, would be that oc- 
casioned by the metallic 
net and its placing in posi- 
tion. But wire netting is 



not at all costly. As to insulators, all that is 
needed is a number of jam-pots and posts. 
With this inexpensive outfit and permission to 
attach a wire to a neighboring conductor of 
electric current, gardeners could get their early 
vegetables to market long before less enter- 
prising competitors. Of this M. Daniel 
Berthelot is convinced, and the result of his 
experiments proves that he is right. 




FRENCH BEANS GROWING WITH AND WITHOUT ELECTRICITY 



Current From — Where? 



BY EDGAR FRANKLIN 



CHAPTER VII. 

DOOM SEALED 



There followed a period of days — days 
that ran into weeks. And it was a period 
quite as exasperating, quite as unusual, 
as several other periods had been, in the 
early days of the Bronton Electric Company. 

Race was gone. As regarded complete 
certainties, that was about all that Dunbar 
and Carey could figure upon. 

He had risked his neck by jumping to the 
coupling block of a rear platform, and he 
had climbed aboard apparently sound of 
limb — and where the ensuing dust cloud had 
taken him Heaven alone knew. 

Not that there had been no word from 
Race; so keen a business man could hardly 
have neglected sending back tidings of 
himself. Therefore, on the morning after 
his disappearance, a telegram had reached 
the office. It announced merely: 

"No time to write. 

Race." 

And with the oddly uniform way that 
unfortunate happenings had occurred in 
the neighborhood of the railroad station, the 
sheet bore only the date of sending — and not 
the location. 

Dunbar and his uncle studied it long and 
carefully. In the end, they knew as much 
as at the beginning. Race, indeed, had 
seemed slightly pressed for time at his last 
appearance; evidently business was keeping 
. up quite as briskly — and Mr. Carey hazarded 
the opinion that his nephew's partner had 
gone mad and was confined somewhere 
with or without his three thousand dollars. 

As regarded the apparently deliberate 
omission of the telegraph operator, they 
agreed that investigation would be worse 
than useless. They might be supposed to 
know the whereabouts of their own presi- 
dent; and advertising their ignorance would 
hardly help things. For the message itself, 
they gave over speculation after a little. It 
might have some subtle meaning which they 
were supposed to interpret; it might be a 
plain statement of fact; it might be anything 
else. 



So that, their future wholly in the dark, 
Mr. Dunbar and Mr. Carey gave their 
splendid imitation of two optimistic, close- 
mouthed men attending strictly to business 
— business with which they were wholly con- 
tent — business which made them smile with 
compassionate tolerance, when one or an- 
other citizen of Bronton hinted that maybe 
they wouldn't be ready on time, eh ? 

It was in the second week that Dunbar 
sat staring gloomily at an electrical magazine 
for want of better occupation that Mr. Carey 
looked up from his newspaper and said: 

"William?" 

"Eh?" The nephew turned to him. 

"I " Mr. Carey avoided his eye; 

and then he snapped his fingers and said 
merely: "Bosh!" 

"What is it?" 

The elder man ceased gnawing on his 
moustache. 

"Well, it's just this," he confessed, "if 
any other man but Bob Race had exhausted 
our bank account and disappeared in that 
fashion, I should say that he'd grabbed what 
he could and made the best of a bad job — 
for himself." 

Mr. Dunbar sat up with much energy. 

"See here, uncle," he said. "Did you 
ever know Bob Race to do one crooked act 
in all his life?" 

"I never did, William, but " 

"There are no buts about it. If Bob 
isn't doing what's best for the concern, he's 
gone crazy fretting over this infernal busi- 
ness and landed in an asylum somewhere. 
If you haven't confidence enough " 

"I have confidence enough to have put 
ten thousand dollars in cash in the bank — 
all of which he can draw from anywhere if 
he happens to have a blank check with him," 
Carey suggested quietly. 

"Well, of course you have! And now — " 

The telephone bell tinkled — rather start- 
lingly, too, for the telephone had not over- 
worked itself lately. Dunbar answered 
hurriedly — and when he hung up the re- 
ceiver it was with rather an ugly look. 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



285 



" Baker!" he announced. "He says there's 
freight for us down there. I asked him 
what it was and he said to come down and 
see for ourselves — and rung off." 

Carey smiled faintly. 

"Is there anything — er — pressing to pre- 
vent our taking a stroll in that direction?" 
he asked. 

Their sole piece of mail that day — a cata- 
log delineating styles of portable electric 
lamps — offered no hindrance. They locked 
the office and walked stationward, silently, 
until Mr. Carey murmured: 

"What do you suppose it is?" 

"Some of the little odds and ends we've 
been waiting for," said Dunbar, bitterly. 
"The engines are off in Tahiti now." 

Another five minutes, though, and he 
quickened. That mass of stuff by the 
freight shed was no mere collection of "little 
odds and ends." 

He hustled forward his uncle; he crossed 
the tracks and vaulted to the platform 
while the elder man sought a less energetic 
way of reaching it. And when Mr. Carey 
came up he was staring mociily at as bat- 
tered a collection of freight packages as 
could remain undesired. 

Mr. Caiey reached him with: 
"Anything broken?" 

Dunbar's finger pointed downward. 

"There's a cylinder that's felt a sledge 
hammer since it started on its travels," he 
said tersely. "There's a crank-shaft that 
might do to prop up a fence — it's no good 
for anything else in its present shape — there 
is a crank, too, that's worth — well, whatever 
junk- steel is worth." 

"Out of commission?" 

" Up here, away from anything in the way 
of a big machine-shop, they are absolutely 
out of commission." 

"Any hope of having them put into shape 
on time, if I buy coal for the station?" 
Carey demanded with rising anger. 

A curious calm had come over Dunbar. 

"Not the slightest," he said quietly. 
"These engines were built to specification for 
somebody else — they happened to fit into 
our plans by the wildest kind of luck. The 
things we should have to replace, would 
have to be made to order. Uncle, it is 
absolutely all up now." 

"Well, I " Carey began fiercely. 

Heavy steps behind caused them to turn 
abruptly. 

It was Mr. Bowers — Mr. Bowers, who 



had not taken his wonted interest in their 
affairs of late. And Mr. Bowers said 
heartily: 

"Well, where have you fellows been late- 
ly?' I stopped at the office yesterday ' 

His eyes opened as they fell upon the 
engines. 

"Hello! Got 'em at last, did you?" 
He stepped forward. "Why — say! This 
here's busted, Dunbar!" 

Mr. Race, in all probability, would have 
descended upon the heavy gentleman and 
annihilated him. Dunbar, quiet always, 
almost apathetic under the last blow, 
answered : 

"It is damaged — yes." 

"No thin' you can't fix up, is it?" said 
Bowers, solicitously. 

Something in Dunbar's eye stopped him. 
Mr. Bowers' countenance took on an ex- 
pression of child-like wonder. 

"Good Lord! Don't look at me as if 
I did it!" he laughed. And then, as op- 
pressive silence continued, Bowers hands 
went into his pockets, and he said: "Why 
the dickens didn't you sell out to me when 
I offered to buy you?" 

Dunbar did not answer. 

"It was your only hope." Mr. Bowers 
pursued. "I dunno what a hoodoo is, but 
there's one around you folks somewhere 
or other." 

"There is unquestionably a hoodoo!" 
Carey began forcefully. "And when it 
comes time to put a name on that hoodoo — " 

Bowers stared at him wonderingly; and 
just here Dunbar gave further evidence of 
his tremendous business acumen — for he 
had accepted the fight as lost and he was 
considering what possible raise Bowers 
might make in his offer; and he said: 

"If you'll bid a reasonable figure on our 
plant, Mr. Bowers, it is " 

Bowers started. And his eyes narrowed 
down to a sly slit as he smiled. 

"Reasonable? Good Lord! Wasn't fif- 
teen thousand dollars reasonable? I ex- 
pected to get a couple of good Corliss en- 
gines at that, that I'd use some time or 
other. This here stuff's junk." 

"Bowers!" burst in Mr. Carey. "Before 
this concern would consider selling out to 
you, we'd tear down every pole and wire in 
the city and throw it away! We'd " 

"Hold on!" The other faced him quick- 
ly. "Pardon me, but I ain't talking to you. 
I'm talking t' Dunbar. Them two fellers 



286 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



have their money in it — not you, yet." He 
turned back to Dunbar. "I've been think- 
ing it over," he said, flatly. "T'aint worth 
fifteen thousand to me, son. It was only a 
kind of charitable spasm, that was. All 
the same, rather than see you two stranded 
for money for a new start somewhere else, 
I'll give you ten thousand cash for every- 
thing as it. stands and take a chance." 

"Well " Dunbar muttered. 

"We will do nothing of the sort!" Carey 
exploded. "Don't imagine for a moment, 
Bowers, that your whole scheme isn't known 
to us — that you're planning to light the city 
with our plant — that " 

Mr. Bowers' voice was the heavier, for it 
drowned Carey as he said: 

"I guess you think you know what you're 
talking about, Mr. Carey. I'm sure I 
don't. , Mr. Dunbar, listen here. Your — 
your uncle's excited about something, I 
s'pose. But I'm sayin' to you that that 
offer holds good till noon tomorrow and no 
more! Ten thousand cold money — noon'.'''' 
ended Mr. Bowers as he turned and walked 
abruptly away. 

All but frothing, Carey watched him step 
into his brilliant red automobile at the far 
end of the platform and whirr gaily up the 
grade to the city. Then he turned on 
Dunbar with: 

"William, you're a magnificent electri- 
cian, but — but when I see a member of my 
own family with as little business in 
him—" 

"It seems to me that I've got pretty good 
business sense in this," Dunbar replied, 
with a rather injured stare. "We're licked. 
We know we're licked. Ten thousand dol- 
lars is better than no dollars." 

"But why run up a white flag like that 
before you're absolutely forced to?" 

"Would you rather have ten thousand 
dollars in your pocket tomorrow afternoon, 
or no dollars," Dunbar inquired, gloomily. 

"I " Mr. Carey seemed to wilt. "Good 

God! I don't know!" he gasped. 

"And what's more, if we'd been able to 
finance a fresh plant and coal and all, as 

Keller suggested " Dunbar began, with 

more force. 

Now, between B ronton' s wealthy man and 
his nephew ~ there seemed to be an opening 
for an unpleasant discussion, as concerned 
the risking of large sums, the value of sport- 
ing blood and the wisdom of collecting what 
fragments of currency were in sight. 



It was the ripest kind of time to interrupt 
a conversation — and the interruption came 
mercifully. Down track, a long, shrill 
whistle announced the coming of a locomo- 
tive — and both men started. 

"Nothing due this time of day, is there?" 
Carey exclaimed. 

"Not unless they've put a new train in the 
schedule," said his nephew. 

Curiously, he peered down the cut to the 
curve. The steady rumble of a fast train 
climbing the grade grew louder. A locomo- 
tive poked her nose around and headed for 
them in a cloud of black smoke; and vaguely 
they saw the shape of a box car — a shabby 
passenger coach — another box car, trailing 
behind. 

And then the indistinct figure which had 
clambered down to the steps of the engine, 
took a wild leap to the platform before them 
and: 

"How d'ye do?" said Mr. Race! 

The pair stood petrified! From the pas- 
senger coach, as it stopped, there tumbled 
forth a stream of roughly-clad men — Italians 
at the first glance. Not two or three, but 
ten — twenty — thirty, came pouring out, star- 
ing about and chattering. The door of the 
forward box-car opened, and an even less 
wholesome looking pair of laborers emerged; 
and Race said softly: 

"See the two tough ones? They used to 
work for a man named Pinkerton." 

"Bob! Is — is it " Dunbar was able 

to stammer. 

"My garden party! Look 'em over!" 
Race chuckled excitedly. "Come in here, 
you!" 

He seized Dunbar's arm and propelled 
him into the shadow of the freight-car. 

And a full minute later, when Mr. Carey 
had blinked his way to a realization that 
something extraordinarily odd and mysteri- 
ous had happened, he heard his nephew's 
voice, coming squeakily, in a thunderstruck: 

"Gee Whizz!" 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LIGHT ON THE MATTER 

Little Bronton forgot herself that night. 

For 'probably the first time in its 
history the town was wide awake after 
eleven 6'clock, on the night of June thirtieth. 
People walked the streets in crowds, stores 
were open, watches were consulted every 
second. 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



287 



Mr. Isaac Berg, strolling on the pavement 
before his department store, encountered 
Freel, the big hardware man, and for a 
time they stood chatting animatedly. 

"Funny, ain't it?" Freel was saying. 
"The whole blamed town's excited, and 
they don't one of 'em know what's going to 
happen." 

"Some of them do," said Berg, wisely. 

"Ain't a sign of life over at their office 



office, when I went with my tomorrow's 
advertising, I asked 'em what was going to 
come off tonight — and all they said was that 
their paper was coming off the presses about 
three in the morning, if it didn't set fire to 
the place." 

Mr. Freel nodded. 

"They're a funny bunch, them electric 
chaps. Everybody in town's been saying 
they couldn't get started no way — they'd lose 




"k> Grace Evs-retC 10 



■( ... 



FOR A TIME RACE STUDIED HIS MEDICAL ADVISER 



either," pursued Freel. "I ain't seen any- 
one but old Carey go in there in two weeks, 
and he only stops about fifteen minutes 
and then hustles off. I wonder if they are 
doing anything?" 

Berg cleared his throat importantly. 

"They've put every lamp in its place," he 
stated. "I got Mr. Race's positive assur- 
ance this morning, when they stuck tungsten 
lamps all over my place, that all I had to do 
was wait for twelve tonight. He wouldn't 
tell me no more Then, up to the Herald 



their charter an' everything else — an' they 
go right ahead just the same." 

"But the funny part is what the dickens 
they've been doing. Nobody knows! Here 
this Race goes out of town and nobody 
knows where he's gone; then he comes back 
with a freight train and a lot of machinery 
and Dagoes; and they march the Dagoes 
and the machinery into the power-house — 
and that's all. Nobody's seen anything 
more of 'em since. No Sir! they just 
seemed to vanish utterly." 



288 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



"And you can't even get on old Carey's 
property," Freel pursued. "They've put 
signs everywhere. You can't get in sight 
of the place without somebody coming and 
chasing you off." 

"Well, I tell you one thing," escaped 
Berg. "I give it to the Herald for news, 
so you needn't say it to anyone. Two days 
ago, I got so curious, I sent my Moe down 
at night, to see if he could get a chance to 
look in the power-house. Well, he got 
there and he got chased off, but he also got 
a look inside." 

"Yeah?" Freel grew curious. 

"There wasn't a thing inside but mat- 
tresses and a lot of dirty clothes hanging 
around." 

Mr. Freel straightened up. 

"Well, I don't believe they're working 
their Dagoes nowhere. They ain't bought 
so much as a pair of pincers from me in 
two weeks — and I've the only full line o' 
hardware in town." 

"It's a mystery," Mr. Berg announced, 
thrillingly. 

* * * 

At about the same time, Mr. Robert Race 
was lying stretched on his couch, with a 
light blanket over him, while young Dr. 
Morton lounged unprofessionally in a big 
arm-chair and smoked. 

"I'm going to get up now," announced 
Mr. Race calmly. 

"You are not," Dr. Morton replied, quite 
as calmly. 

"Thomas, were it not for your value to 
the community, I should arise and dis- 
member you," said the president of the elec- 
tric company. "I've slept from nine this 
morning till ten tonight. Now I'm dressed 
and going " 

"You are dressed, only because I chose 
to humor you, Robert," said the physician, 
cheerfully. "You are an all-in man — 
nerves, body and all. You're going to 
stay in bed about one month, I think." 

"But tonight, you " Race cried. 

"Be calm, please," said the doctor, as he 
shifted his cigar. "Otherwise, I shall drive 
a hypodermic spike through your epidermis 
and watch you sleep till the middle of next 
week . . . ." He paused in contem- 
plation of the cigar. Then he eyed Mr. 
Race with, a mysterious smile, and a sig- 
nificant one, too. "And tonight, as you 
were saying?" he murmured. "Just what 
is going to happen tonight ? Everyone seems 



so interested and expectant, and yet no one 
knows. Um." 

For a time Mr. Race studied his medical 
adviser, with a keen, calculating eye. 

"Do I infer from this that you are inor- 
dinately curious?" he asked. 

"It is always a satisfaction to get a whack 
at big news before anyone else hears of it," 
said the doctor, airily. 

"And do I further infer that, if I put you 
wise to some of the mystery, I get up at half 
past eleven and go down to the Square?" 

Morton pursed his lips and smiled. 

"If there. is anything to justify such a 
course, it is possible that we may come to 
some agreement by which we can walk to- 
gether to the Square and back, about that 
time." And he added earnestly: "But if 
we do, Bob, you'll agree to come straight back 
and go to bed and stay there?" 

"Done!" sighed Mr. Race, as he stretched 
his weary legs. 

"It is now nineteen minutes past," sug- 
gested the doctor. 

"Well, you know we were pretty nearly 
put out of business — no coal, no engines, 
nothing but some smashed dynamo stuff?" 

"That's town talk." 

"I know it is," snarled the president. 
"Well, here's something that isn't town talk. 
You know where our power-house stands — 
tight up against the base of the hills?" 

"Yes." 

"Ever been up those hills?" 

"No," admitted Morton. 

"Did you ever hear of anyone going up 
them? No? Well, I never did either. 
As a matter of fact, I doubt if they've ever 
been thoroughly explored, because the 
going's worse than Hades and there's 
nothing to go after. Anyway, that's neither 
here nor there. The main thing is, / went 
there! I went there to walk off a grouch!" 

"Ah? Well, now cut out the landscape 
dissertation and get around " 

"Dry up!" said Mr. Race. "I went 
there because I wanted to find a locality 
big enough and tough enough to stand what 
I had to say out loud. I climbed straight 
up that first rise; then I meandered over 
rocks, boulders, snakes, tree-stumps and 
so on till I began to climb the second high 
spot — the big, almost perpendicular rise 
that goes up to the high level beyond. Then 
I sat down, because I'd walked about four 
miles to get one mile away from town and I 
was sort of tired." 



CURRENT FROM— WHERE? 



289 



"Go on." said the doctor. * 

"I did not get up. I just sat there, and 
it was mighty still. It was so still that after 
a minute or two I began to imagine that I 
heard a roaring sound, somewhere in the 
distance. Then it got to be so strong an 
impression that I tried to get up — and " 

Mr. Race sat up and his face shone with 
the memory. 

"Tom," he said, "I'll bet there wasn't a 
worse scared man in the whole United 
States." 

"Why?" 

Because instead of getting up, my two 
feet went straight through the ground and 
I dropped into a cold, wet, pitch-black hole 
— and that roaring, all of a sudden, sounded 
like a train going full speed! Well, it was 
about two minutes before I was steady 
enough to light a match." 

"Going down all the time?" queried the 
doctor. . 

" I ceased going down after dropping about 
nine feet, and I landed on the soles of my 
shoes at that." responded Mr. Race- "I 
got the match lit and there was nothing in 
the immediate foreground but empty, wet, 
rocky blackness — and that infernal roaring 
was off in the blackness, too. 

"Well, I haven't any more spunk than 
I need, but that roar didn't scare me a little 
bit. Instead, it began to tingle through me. 
I had the little flash-lamp we use in tinker- 
ing the machine, and I lit that up — and there 
was still more blackness ahead, so I walked 
on." 

"Is your head hot?" asked Morton, not 
altogether in jest. 

"And I kept on walking ahead for close 
to three hundred feet, and the old cave grew 
higher and wider and wetter and more slimy 
at every step, until at last I came to a little 
corner and turned it. And there it was! J'' 

"What?" 

"A grand old foaming, roaring waterfall, 
fifty feet high if it was an inch, and pouring 
about a billion gallons a second down into 
the Bottomless Pit — which I'd missed step- 
ping into by about one yard! It may possi- 
bly have been slightly less than a billion," 
conceded Mr. Race. 

"Water- power!" gasped Morton. 

"Great and astute physician, you have 
grasped it!" grinned the electrical man. 
"Well, I started to climb up the rocks be- 
side the fall and I made the top at last. 
There's an underground pond in the middle 



of that hill, so beautifully big that, without 
a boat, we haven't yet explored the other 
end — and you can't hear the water coming 
in. That's all." 

Mr. Race rose. 

"But " 

"Why, that's all there is to it. I don't 
know much about using water falls, but I 
wasn't taking any chances. I wanted to get 
the afternoon train so as to make Chicago next 
day. Therefore, I merely grabbed the plans 
of the whole works, hit the trail for the East 
and left without a soul knowing where I'd 
been or what I'd seen. I thought that what 
had been undiscovered so long might as 
well stay undiscovered a little longer. 

" I've been wandering as far as New York," 
pursued, Mr. Race, as he arose and found a 
collar. "I've been tripping it around Penn- 
sylvania, too, and freshened up my memory 
of Chicago and a few other places. I just 
headed straight for the best maker of water 
turbines I could find — laid the whole propo- 
sition before them — and had what I wanted 
hustled into shape. I got a new armature 
in place of the one we smashed. I bought 
in everything everybody could suggest as 
being necessary. Brought labor and every- 
thing else along and marched the whole col- 
lection into our supposed central station — 
and nobody's seen 'em since!" 

"I know that! How " 

"You see, about the handiest way of 
starting uphill was directly behind the shan- 
ty — and if you'll observe closely, you will 
note that you can't see the rear of that place 
without getting pretty close; Nobody got 
pretty close. And the merciful undergrowth 
did the rest — bushes and saplings are thicker 
than blazes on that hill." 

He began jerking his tie into shape. 

"Not that it hasn't been the devil's own 
job," he murmured. "We've had every 
man-jack going as many hours out of the 
twenty-four as he could stand, and they're 
mostly all closer to the grave than I am now. 
But it's done!" he yelled joyfully, as he 
turned on the doctor with the last jerk. 
"They've got a turbine outfit up there that 
actually isn't on the market yet. They've 
got a lot of the cavern cut away on top and 
electricity lighting the rest of it at this minuter 

"But why all the mystery?" 

Mr. Race sat down. 

"For one thing, we were sick of unfore- 
seen accidents happening to everything we 
owned. For another, I believe, the State 



290 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



control of water-power rights is still all up 
in the air. You see, as nearly as we can 
figure it, all this blessing comes from Lake 
Barton, thirty miles up in the hills — she's 
fed by springs, she's never low nor high and 
nobody has ever found her outlet, or wanted 
to, I guess. Anyway, the water we're 
using is on Carey's property — and it un- 
doubtedly ends up down Thornton way, 
where the subterranean stream has been 
pouring into the big river since the memory of 
man hereabouts began . . . And now 
Bill and his uncle are up in the new central 
station and our working force, with a few 
additions we have made by accidents, and 
I'm down here to watch the effect." 

"Well, you'll have darned small chance 
to watch the effect," said the doctor, as he 
noted the rather unsteady gait of his pa- 
tient. "You'll be back in bed by quarter 
past twelve, if I have to stun you and haul 
you back." 

Mr. Race had donned his coat and hat and, 
with some lingering professional doubts, 
Morton accompanied him to the street, 
silently giving him credit for remarkable 
self-control of the excitement which must be 
within him. Mr. Race, who had reached a 
point of weariness where an earthquake 
could hardly rouse his enthusiasm, led the 
way slowly down toward the Square. 

People stared at him as he approached 
and chattered when he had passed. Some 
tried to speak to him; Mr. Race passed on. 
He chanced to be looking for someone — and 
surely enough, with one arm in a sling, Mr. 
Bowers was standing in the dark doorway 
of his little office building. 

With Morton, Race slipped gently out 
of the crowd and gained his side with a 
polite: 

"Good evening." 

"What the heU do you " 

"Now, my dear sir," smiled the president 
of the electric company, "don't be impolite, 
be " 

"You " 



"Because you're not in a position to be 
impolite," Race went on, his voice fairly 
vibrating with glee. "I hope your arm is 
setting nicely? You know, I supposed, 
with everyone else, that you'd broken it 
when your automobile back-fired — until my 
man Ryan reported that he had smashed 
it with a club when you drew a pistol on him 
in your efforts to wander around Mr. Carey's 
property that night, two weeks ago, or so?" 



A stifled roar escaped Bowers. 

"You came to look for the half dozen 
friends you'd sent up our hill before — the 
ones that never came back, eh? I'll tell 
you where they are. We caught each one 
and put him to work, without pay. They 
won't make any trouble for us; in fact, 
they've been good enough to sign affidavits, 
regarding the reason for their visit to us. 
In the name of the company, I thank you for 
their help." 

Mr. Race bowed. Bowers took a step 
forward, growling wildly: 

"I — don't know — I — your damned char- 
ter calls for a plant run by steam on the 
spot where " 

"Well, now, I don't believe there's going 
to be one bit of trouble about that," Race 
purred on, genially. "You see, I've had a 
couple of really capable detectives working 
around here lately — probably Bronton's 
first. And they have done excellent work. 
Why, Wilkes, down at the Junction, was 
arrested about supper time — they took Mr. 
Baker into custody an hour or so ago — 
they've got sworn statements from about 
two dozen other people, as to your dealings 
with them — and none of them are likely to 
run away from the witness chair now, 
anyway. You know, it's bad policy to 
bribe people, Bowers. The kind of people 
you can bribe are the kind that'll turn on 
you when they're caught." 

Mr. Bowers, incapable of speech, was 
breathing hard. 

"And that applies to the esteemed Mayor 
and his Board of Aldermen, too." sighed 
Race. "You haven't seen Schwartz lately, 
have you? That's because we scared a 
confession out of him — and he's been in his 
sub-cellar ever since, I think. Why, we even 
got up enough energy to convince the 
Mayor's clerk that his only right course 
would be to get at the new charter you 
actually had down in writing, mulcting the 
whole town for their current, make a copy 
of it and swear to it!" 

Bowers was leaning limply against the 
wall; shot and shell were coming in a tor- 
rent that staggered him. 

"I wouldn't leave town if I were you," 
Race smiled. "There's a man watching 
you now " 

"Race, for the love o' God, what'll ye 
take in money to keep it quiet?" wheezed 
from the dazed man. "Take everything 
I've " 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



291 



"It can't be kept quiet now," said Race, 
gravely. "Electricity makes big changes 
in a town. This town needed an airing. 
Tomorrow morning's Herald, Mr. Bowers, 
will contain the whole story, from our 
broken armature to your broken arm — and 
you can't get into the office, because there's 
a policeman at each door." He caught 
Bowers, as he tottered, and straightened 
him up. "You didn't know it, but you've 
done a good job," he said. "Crooked 
politics and corruption in this town have 
been electrocuted." 

And he stepped to the sidewalk, with 
Morton fairly gasping for breath. 

"Is it — true?" he managed to say. 

"As true as gospel — and every word in 
the Herald will be supported by affidavits," 
Race said grimly. 

"But what in Heaven's name " 

Morton's words were cut short. 

From the buzzing, humming crowds a 
sudden, frenzied shouting went up. Hats 



were hurled into the air — men roared cheers — 
— windows went up — and Bronton had sud- 
denly gone mad. 

For the whole Square was blazing with 
arc -lamps. Houses were illuminated as if 
by magic fire. Shop window after shop 
window flared out into brilliancy. Dusky, 
shaded, half-lit streets glowed with streaming 
white light, bringing out in a single second the 
whole dancing, cheering throng. In the 
center of the Square, with a circle of arc- 
lamps above them, the quietly imported 
brass band, blared out with "Hail The Con- 
quering Hero Comes!" 

But the conquering hero did not come. 
Instead, as the big clock boomed out its 
first stroke, Race leaned rather weakly on 
Dr. Morton and drew him into the shadow. 

"It's twelve o'clock, Tom," he said, with 
a weary unconcern that was far from affec- 
tation. "Take me home to bed. We can 
see this any time — now." 
(The End.) 



FOR THE ABSTRACTED ELEVATOR PASSENGER 



In a certain 12-story office building in 
Chicago equipped with seven passenger el- 
evators each car makes an average of 250 
round-trips per day and 16 stops per trip or 
an average of 
4000 stops in 
a day. A re- 
cord shows 
that these sev- 
en elevators 
carry 33,000 
passengers in 
this time or 
4700 passen- 
gers per car. 
During this 
time the op- 
erator finds 
many persons 
so absorbed 
in thought or 
conversation 
that his "step 
up, please" 

or "down, please" goes unheeded. To stop 
his car just at the floor level every time is not 
possible and for a mis-step or fall he is often 
blamed. 

An estimated average of two elevator ac- 
cidents occur every day in the year with 




nine out of ten due to careless passengers. 
To make the passenger "see" where he is 
stepping and also to aid the operator in 
stopping at the floor level the device shown 

in the illus- 
tration is said 
to be most 
satisfactory. 
It consists of 
a cast metal 
plate on the 
floor of the 
car at the en- 
trance, into 
the holes of 
which are fit- 
ted glass len- 
ses. Under 
this in the 
floor are 
placed two 
tubular 
lamps. Lights 
so arranged 
attract the passenger's attention when enter- 
ing the elevator and also warn him not to 
stand too close to the door when inside. 
To change the lamps when burned out a 
small section of the floor is made removable 
to give access to them. 



Elementary Electricity 

By PROF. EDWIN J. HOUSTON, PH. D. (Princeton) 



CHAPTER XXVIII. — TANTALUM, TUNGSTEN AND OSMIUM INCANDESCENT ELECTRIC LAMPS 



The efficiency of the ordinary carbon fila- 
ment incandescent electric lamp, or the ratio 
of the luminous energy emitted by the lamp 
to the energy absorbed by it, can be taken as 
3.5 watts per candle-power. This is the 
efficiency when the lamp is operated at a 
pressure no greater than that which will 
permit it to have a useful life for a period 
of about 800 hours. 

Many efforts have been made to increase 
the efficiency of the incandescent electric 
lamp by the employment of materials for 
filaments that can be safely raised to a 
higher temperature than has heretofore been 
employed. 

One of the first improvements in the above 
direction consisted in the production of an 
incandescent electric lamp with a form of 
filament known as a metallized filament. 
This filament consists of an ordinary carbon 
filament that has been made to possess a 
greater refractory power by intense heating 
in an electric furnace. This lamp is gen- 
erally known in the art as a "Gem lamp," 
or a "metallized filament lamp." Its in- 
creased candle-power is due to the fact that 
its temperature can be safely raised to a 
higher point than usual without a marked 
decrease in its length of life. 

The next marked improvement in incan- 
descent electric lamps consisted in the use 
of a substance other than carbon for the 
incandescing £ lament. One of the first suc- 
cessful materials employed for this purpose 
was metallic tantalum. 

Tantalum is an element that occurs in 
tantalite, a mineral containing tantalum, 
niobium, tin, iron and manganese, and many 
other minerals. The name tantalum wa^ 
given to this metal because, when surrounded 
by various acids, such as nitric, sulphuric, 
hydrochloric or aqua regia, it is, like Tan- 
talus of old, unable to drink in or saturate 
itself with them. 

Tantalum is a highly refractory metal and 
can therefore be raised to a much higher 
temperature than can the carbon filament. 
By its use it is possible greatly to increase the 
efficiency of the lamp without decreasing 
its life. Indeed, the life of the tantalum 



filament lamp is greater than that of the 
carbon filament lamp. The efficiency of 
the tantalum filament being as high as two 
watts per candle. 

But besides the advantages of an increased 
efficiency, and a somewhat increased length 
of life, there is a marked improvement in 
the character of the light produced. The 
higher temperature at which the tantalum 
filament is employed results in a character 
of light more closely resembling the light 
of the sun in its color values than does the 
old carbon filament. 

Careful measurements show that the ener- 
gy expended on a 35-watt carbon lamp pro- 
ducing 10 candle-power, when expended on 
a 25-watt tantalum lamp produces 12^ 
candle-power. Here, as will be observed, 
the tantalum lamp consumes 20 per cent 
less current but gives 25 per cent more 
light. Besides this, the tantalum lamp 
possesses the great advantage of producing 
light that is more nearly equal in its color 
values to that of sunlight. 

Since the resistivity of tantalum, or its 
electric resistance per unit of length is small 
as compared with that 
of carbon, it is neces- 
sary to employ fairly 
long threads or wires 
of the metal, and this, 
even though such 
threads can be made 
of very small diameter. 
Consequently, the in- 
candescing tantalum 
filament has a length 
so 'great that it re- 
quires a number of 
separate supports. 
This can be seen in 
Fig. 176, which repre- 
sents a 20-candle- 
power tantalum lamp 
of the General Elec- 
tric Company's manu- 
facture, requiring an 
expenditure of 40 watts and therefore 
possessing an efficiency of two watts per 
candle. 




FIG. 



176. TANTALUM 
LAMP 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



293 



The many separate supports that are 
necessary to hold the long filament can easily 
be seen from an inspection of the figure. 

The higher efficiency of the tantalum lamp 
as compared with the ordinary carbon lamp, 
made it possible when this lamp was first 
introduced to employ it satisfactorily in such 
places as apartment houses, hotels, and office 
buildings, desiring an increased lighting 
capacity, but in which the owners, by reason 
of the expense, were unwilling to make the 
necessary additions to the generating plant. 
The use of the tantalum lamp renders an 
increased yield of light possible without any 





Imu. 2 
LAMPS WITH HOLOPLANE 
GLOBES 

addition whatever to the generating plant; 
for, the tantalum lamp can give 20 candles 
instead of 16 by a consumption of 40 watts 
in place of 50 or 56 watts. 

It is interesting to note in connection with 
the above that the Metropolitan Life In- 
surance Building, in New York City, one 
of the highest buildings in the world, its 
tower rising 700 feet above the level cf the 
street, is lighted with 10,000 40-watt, 20- 
candle-power tantalum lamps. 



80' 








70- 


vVv/K/C/S?^!-! 


L-Nk 




60- 


\X y\^/^Zr~-f-4 


Li-J 


\^!^\ Jo\/ V ^A. 




\ V^/N. /C ^S^+-J 


§ 4- 






\\x. v/ ">cl/ S 


i> \ 









FIG. I78. DISTRIBUTION OF LIGHT 

When supplied, as is usually the case, 
with a frosted globe and holophane shades, 
tantalum lamps are especially suited for 
isolated plants, producing as they do an 



excellent distribution of the light. In the 
two forms of lamps and holophanes shown 
in Fig. 177, the candle-power distribution 
for the No. 1 and No. 2 lamp units, 
requiring, respectively, 40 and 80 watts, 
is shown in Fig. 178. 

The tantalum lamp represented in Fig. 179 
is especially suited for the lighting of rail- 
road trains. This figure represents a 12- 
candlepower tantalum lamp requiring for its 
maintenance a pressure of 32 volts. 

The current required for train lighting is 
generally produced by a special generating 
plant placed on the train. The generating 
outfit consists of a small horizontal steam 
turbine generator set operated by steam 
from the locomotive and located in a part 
of the baggage car or on top of the locomo- 
tive boiler. 

A still greater improvement in the effi- 
ciency of the incandescent electric lamp, 
as well as in the character of the light it 




FIG. 179. 



TANTALUM LAMP 
LIGHTING 



FOR TRAIN 



produces, is obtained by the use of another 
metallic filament; i. e., tungsten. While 
possessing a length of life of 800 hours, this 
lamp possesses a higher efficiency than any 
incandescent lamp yet described, this effi- 



294 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



ciency being from i to 1.25 watts per candle. 

Tungsten, or, as it is sometimes called, 
wolframium, occurs principally in Nature in 
the minerals heavy stone or tungstate of 
calcium and in tungstate of lead. When 
heated in air it burns, producing an oxide 
of tungsten. The filament must, therefore, 
be placed in a lamp chamber in which a 
high vacuum is maintained. Pure, metallic 
tungsten has a bright gray color and a 
metallic lustre. 

The increased efficiency of the tungsten 
lamp is due to the high temperature to which 




FIG. l80. TUNGSTEN LAMP 

it is possible to raise the filament, for metallic 
tungsten is very refractory and does not fuse 
or melt until a temperature of 3050 C. 
(5522 F.) has been reached. 



In the manufacture of the tungsten fila- 
ment a paste formed of powdered metallic 
tungsten mixed with a suitable binding ma- 
terial is forced or squirted through diamond 
dies. The threads so formed are dried, 
when the separate particles of tungsten are 
electrically welded together and so formed 
into a continuous wire or filament. 

Tungsten filaments possess so low a 
resistance that lamps intended for use 
on a 1 20- volt circuit require very long fila- 
ments. This filament is generally made up 
of four or five hair-pin loops connected in 
series in the manner shown in Fig. 180, 
which is that of a lamp that produces 80 
candle-power (mean horizontal) by the 
consumption of 100 watts when subjected 
to a pressure of 100 to 125 volts. 

Like many other metals, tungsten pos- 
sesses a positive temperature co-efficient. In 
other words, its resistance increases with 
an increase of temperature. Consequently, 
a change of pressure in the lamp circuit is 
not, as in the case of the carbon filament, pro- 
portional to the change in voltage. In other 
words, the tungsten lamp undergoes smaller 
changes in candle-power efficiency and life, 
with changes in the line voltage. It will 
be understood that this gives the tungsten 
lamp valuable advantages. 

Tungsten lamps are now especially manu- 
factured for use on mains the voltage of which 
is either from 100 to 120 or from 200 to 250. 
Those for mains of 100 to 120 volts are made 
in the following sizes and candle-powers, i. e. : 

18 watts 16 candle-power 

25 " 20 

40 " 3 2 

5° " 40 

60 " 50 

115 " 100 

45° " 4oo 

For use on mams, the voltage of which 
varies from 200 to 250 they are made as 
follows — : 

40 watts 32 candle-power 

65 " 5o 

115 " 100 

250 " 200 

In Fig. 181 is shown the lamp economy of 
the ordinary carbon incandescing filament, 
the metallized carbon filament; that is, the 
Gem lamp, the tantalum filament and the 
tungsten filament. When an amount of 
energy capable of producing 32 candle- 
power in the ordinary carbon lamp filament, 
is passed through a metallized filament, or 
a Gem lamp, there will be produced 40 
candle-power; when expended in a tantalum 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



295 



LAMP 
ECONOMY 

TUNGSTEN 
ao C.P. 



TANTALUM 
SOC.R, 



GEM 
4QC.P. 



CARBON 
32 
OR 



filament, 50 candle- 
power, and in a tung- 
sten filament 80 can- 
dle-power. 

The great gain in 
efficiency of the tung- 
sten lamp accompa- 
nied as it is by the 
advantages already 
pointed out cannot, it 
would seem, but re- 
sult in carbon incan- 
descing lamp filaments 
soon becoming things 
of the past. Indeed, it 
would seem that the 
following results must 
attend the invention 
of this very high effi- 
ciency lamp. 

1. Electricity can 
now compete with gas 
and other illuminants 
on an equal basis of 
cost. This will neces- 
sarily result in the 
opening of a great field 
that has not yet been 
occupied. 

2. A more liberal 
use of light both as 
regards larger units 
and longer hours of 
service is now possi- 
ble without an exces- 
sive cost. 

3. Much of this in- 
crease can be had 
without necessitating 
an increase in the 

generating power of the central station or its 
distributing system. 

For the lighting of small rooms single 
tungsten lamps are employed, but for larger 
areas it is preferable to 
place a number of sep- 
arate lamps inside a 
frosted glass globepro- 
vided with five or six 
lobes and placed below 
a diffuser. This de- 
vice is known as the 

tungsten economy diffuser and is especially 
suitable for the lighting of stores and other 
large areas. 

The lamps employed in tungsten diffusers 
are of course provided with clear bulbs. 



QUANTITY OF LIGHT 
GIVEN BY DIFFERENT 
KINDS OF FILAMENT'S 
USING SAME POWER 
A STRIKING 
, COMPARISON j 



The frosted globe in which they are en- 
closed is made with either five or six lobes 
as desired. 

As shown in Fig. 182, means are provided 
for the ventilation of the group of lamps in 
the economy diffuser. The curved arrows 
show the direction of the ventilating currents 
through the system. 

But the tungsten lamp is not only suitable 
for the lighting of interior, but can also be 
employed economically when connected in 
series for the illumination of such exteriors 
as streets, railroad yards, etc. For this 
purpose the tungsten lamps are made with a 
large area of cross-section. Consequently, 
the filaments have a greater mechanical 
strength than the filaments of the lamps em- 
ployed for interior lighting. Moreover, an 
average life of from 1200 to 1500 hours is 
possible. 

Since the tungsten lamps produce a light 
whose color values are more nearly that of 
sunlight, streets and roads are now fre- 
quently illuminated by them after the manner 
shown in Fig. 183. 

Either the direct or the alternating current 
can be employed on the tungsten lamp. 
The efficiency operation of the constant 
current transformer has led to its use for 
ensuring automatic current regulation 
whenever alternating currents are em- 
ployed. 

Series-connected incandescent tungsten 
lamps are especially suited for street lighting 
by reason of their great length of life; for 
they can be operated at a great length 
of life without a great decrease in the strength 
of illumination. From careful tests made 




FIG 



ECONOMY DIFFUSER 



it has been found that in one installation of 
172 series-connected tungsten lamps for 
street lighting, there was an average 
length of life of each lamp of 1350 hours. 
In a test on 18 lamps, 12 continued 



296 



POPULAR ELECTRICITY 



running over 2000 hours without breakage 
or perceptible decrease in efficiency. 

Tungsten incandescent lamps are also 
especially suited for the lighting of signs. 
Generally speaking, the lamps employed for 
electric signs are of small candle-power. 
Tungsten lamps are now constructed giving 
four candle-power with five watts. In the 
case of the tungsten filament a small candle- 




FIG. 183. TUNGSTEN LAMP AS USED FOR 
STREET LIGHTING 

power lamp is only possible with a low volt- 
age. 

O